Graphium (Pazala) confucius Hu, Duan & Cotton

Hu, Shao-Ji, Cotton, Adam M., Condamine, Fabien L., Duan, Kuang, Wang, Rong-Jiang, Hsu, Yu-Feng, Zhang, Xin & Cao, Jun, 2018, Revision of Pazala Moore, 1888: The Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) Group, with Treatments of Known Taxa and Descriptions of New Species and New Subspecies (Lepidoptera: Papilion, Zootaxa 4441 (3), pp. 401-446: 426-431

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Graphium (Pazala) confucius Hu, Duan & Cotton

sp. nov.

Graphium (Pazala) confucius Hu, Duan & Cotton  sp. nov.

( Figure 22 View Figure )

Description: Male: Forewing length: 35.0–46.0 mm (mean = 39.4 ± 2.2 mm, n = 79). Forewing triangulate, apex produced, termen almost smooth or slightly wavy at the end of veins, concave between apex and tornus. Forewing upperside: whitish, the upper and outer 1/3 (mostly the discocellular, the subterminal, and the terminal areas) hyaline; 10 black bands between the base and the termen, of which the 1st to the 6th almost run parallel; the 1 st and  the 2nd bands reach the tornal margin, the 3rd to the 5th bands extend beyond the discal cell along veins Cu2, Cu1, and M3, the 6th band at the end of cell is often connected with the 5th band by a transverse black fine line, the 7th band joins the 8th band just at vein M2, extends to the tornus and joins the 9th band at vein Cu2 or just below it in space cu2, the 9th band curved inward in space r4, interrupted by vein M2 and the remaining section below displaced inwardly, the 10th band independent, extending along the margin from the apex to vein Cu2 or just below it in space cu2, the area between the 8th and 9th bands can be irrigated with blackish scales in some individuals; veins R4+5 to Cu1 are black after meeting the 6th and 7th bands and then divide the whitish-hyaline areas between the 6th to 10th bands into spots. Forewing underside: colour and markings as upperside, but the hyaline areas are glossy. Hindwing triangulate in general, vein M3 extends into a sword-like tail, termen slightly dented at the end of veins, the ends of spaces m1 to cu1 expand like petals. Hindwing upperside: whitish with long white hair covering the inner 1/3; tornal margin blackish, with a small brown androconial patch near the base, a thick black band extends from the costa towards the tornus and joins the tornal blackish area just above two obliquely neighbouring yellow spots; the discal bands incomplete but well developed; the submarginal black band coupled and interrupted by veins Rs and M1, reaching space rs or sc+r1; the terminal band single, also interrupted by veins Rs and M1, reaching space rs or sc+r1; despite being interrupted by veins, the ends of each short band in each space touch or directly connect each other; all black bands mentioned above join in the black area at the end of spaces m2 to cu1, with a greyish-blue lunule in each space; tail black with white tip. Hindwing underside: colour and markings similar to upperside but with a creamy yellow hue, all black bands and markings well defined, especially the discal band, two black lines twist into an almost “8”-shaped pattern, with a short connection between the rings, the outer half of the upper ring of the “8” yellow and the inner half white, the edge of the lower ring extends along veins M1 to Cu1; a square creamy white spot above each greyish-blue lunule in the tornal area, the yellow spots at the tornus somewhat reduced and crowned by fine white lines.

Female: Forewing length: 38.0–45.0 mm (mean = 40.5 ± 1.8 mm, n = 30). General appearance similar to male but evidently larger and paler, the underside of forewing less glossy, the 4th black band on the forewing often reduced or even absent in some individuals.

Male genitalia ( Figures 23 View Figure ): In total male genitalia of 12 specimens were dissected. Moderately sclerotised. Ring wavy in the upper half; saccus small; distance between the base of socii 0.50–0.64 mm (mean = 0.56 ± 0.05, n = 12). Valve round shaped, the dorsal terminal harpe with curved edge and acute tip (less pointed than daiyuanae  sp. nov.); the dorsal subterminal harpe mostly isolated; the medial harpe mostly straight, the dorsal projection bayonet-shaped (some with blunt or serrate tip) (as in daiyuanae  sp. nov.); a variable number of small teeth (0–1) occur in the middle of the medial harpe.

Female genitalia ( Figure 24 View Figure ): In total female genitalia of 13 specimens were dissected, the general characters are consistent, with slight variation as mentioned below. Lamella postvaginalis round petal-shaped; lamella antevaginalis broad horizontally, lined with moderately sclerotised longitudinal striae; ostial lobe heavily sclerotised, forming a triangular lobe with sharp end in lateral view, while the posterior margin concave in the middle, separating it into a “W” shape in ventral view, a short or blunt spur may be present at the end of each triangular part in some specimens, making the end more acute.

Differential Diagnosis: The new species closely resembles G. (P.) mandarinus  and G. (P.) daiyuanae  sp. n., but can be generally distinguished by the following characters: 1) obviously larger size and distinctly produced forewing apex; 2) the black discal band on the upperside of hindwing well developed; 3) the tornal spots on the underside of hindwing are usually bright yellow. In male genitalia, dorsal subterminal harpe large, almost reaching dorsal terminal harpe and forming a heart-shape, dorsal projection bayonet-shaped ( Figures 23 View Figure ), distance between the base of socii 0.50–0.62 mm. The ostial lobe forming a triangular lobe in lateral view, while the middle part of posterior margin concave in a “W” shape in ventral view with a very short or blunt spur at each tip ( Figure 24 View Figure ).

Type Material: Holotype: CHINA: ♂, Xi Chong (2,000 m), Kunming, C. Yunnan, 2015–V–31, S. J. Hu leg [ KIZAbout KIZ, 0100010]. 

Paratypes: CHINA: 1♂, Zhujiang Yuan (the headwater of Pearl River), Zhanyi, N.E. Yunnan, 2016–III–19, Z. Chang leg. [SJH]; 1♂, Qingjiang Er Qiao (near G318 highway) (1,500 m), Lianglu, Tianquan, W. Sichuan, 2015– VII–27, Z. B. Chen leg. [ZBC]; 3♂, Huanghu Ping (1,350–1,450 m), Ziyun, Baoxing, W. Sichuan, 2015–VII–15, Z. B. Chen leg. [ZBC]; 1♂, Kouy-Tchéou Abbe Largeteau [leg.], Ex Oberthür Coll., Brit. Mus. 1927—3, Paralecto-type [round pale blue edged label], PARALECTOTYPE [in blue] Papilo [sic] glycerion  var. Mandarinus Oberthür  C.R. Smith det. 2003, BMNH(E) #146242 [BMNH]; 1♂, Kouy-Tchéou Abbe Largeteau [leg.], China Kouytcheou [hand written], Pap. glycerion  , var. Mandarinus  , Oberthür Etud. d’ Entomol. IV e livraison - appendice variété géographique chinoise [hand written], Levick Bequest B.M. 1941-83, Type [round red edged label], Paralecto-type [round pale blue edged label], PARALECTOTYPE [in blue] Papilo [sic] glycerion  var. Mandarinus Oberthür  C.R. Smith det. 2003, BMNH(E) #149385 [BMNH]; 1♂, Siao-Lou, 1893, Chasseurs indigènes, Rothschild Bequest, BMNH(E) # 220118 [BMNH]; 1♂, Siao-Lou, 1901, Chasseurs indigènes du P. Déjean, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 146048 [BMNH]; 1♂, Siao-Lou, 1893, Chasseurs indigènes, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 146063 [BMNH]; 1♂, Siao-Lou, 1893, Chasseurs indigènes, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 146065 [BMNH]; 1♂, Siao-Lou, 1900, Chasseurs indigènes, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 146110 [BMNH]; 1♂, Siao- Lou, 1900, Chasseurs indigènes, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 146101 [BMNH]; 1♂, Siao-Lou, 1900, Chasseurs indigènes, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 146106 [BMNH]; 1♂, Chasseurs indigènes de Ta-tsien-lou. Récolte de 1910, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 145814 [BMNH]; 1♂, Chasseurs indigènes de Ta-tsien-lou. Récolte de 1910, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 145820 [BMNH]; 1♂, Chasseurs indigènes de Ta-tsien-lou. Récolte de 1910, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 145821 [BMNH]; 1♂, Chasseurs indigènes de Ta-tsien-lou. Récolte de 1910, Ex Oberthür Coll., BMNH(E) # 145822 [BMNH]; 1♀, Ichang, Rothschild Bequest, BMNH(E) # 220120 [BMNH]; 1♂, Jinfushan, Exp. Stotzner leg. [ZFMK]; 1♂, Siao-Lou, 1893, Chasseurs indigènes [ZFMK]; 1♂, Rou Bi Gou, Baoxing, Sichuan, 2006–VII–10, Ming Yue leg. [AMC]; 2♂, 1♀, Ya’an, Sichuan, 2006–VII, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 22♂, Wu Shi He, Hanyuan County, Sichuan, 2005–VII–5-20, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 1♂, 1♀, Daba Shan, E Sichuan, 2006–VII, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 1♂, Gioncheng, Guangxi, 1996–VI–17, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 4♂, 1♀, Luzhou, Sichuan, 2007–V, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 2♂, Kangding, Sichuan, 2006–VII, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 1♂, Qingshuilang Shan, Yunlong, W. Yunnan, 1998–VII-VIII, Qin et al leg., ex Coll. Jan Moonen [NBC]; 1♂, Jinxiu, Dayao Shan, Guangxi, 1998–VII-VIII, Liang et al leg., ex Coll. Jan Moonen [NBC]; 2♂, Xi Chong (2,000 m), Kunming, C. Yunnan, 2015–V–19, S. J. Hu leg. [KIZ]; 1♀, ditto, 2015–V–31, S. J. Hu leg. [KIZ, 0100011]; 1♂, Xiao Moyu, Kunming, C. Yunnan, 2015–IV–18, S. J. Hu leg. [SJH]; 2♂, Forest Park (1,570 m), Dongchuan, N.E. Yunnan, 2014–V–17, local catcher leg. [KIZ, 0100012–0100013]; 1♂, the same collecting data, [SJH]; 16♂, 1♀, Luzhou, Sichuan, 2013–VII, local catcher leg. [SJH]; 2♀, Xiaoche He Park, Guiyang, Guizhou, 2013–VI–11, S. J. Hu leg. [SJH]; 1♂, 1♀, Zuogong, E. Tibet, 2013–VI, local catcher leg. [SJH]; 2♂, 3♀, Jigong Shan (1,940 m), Shimian, W. Sichuan, 2013–VI–13, Q. Zeng leg. [SFU]; 3♂, Ziyun Xiang, Baoxing, W. Sichuan, 2012–VIII, local catcher leg. [SJH]; 1♂, Panzhihua, W. Sichuan, 2001–VIII–5, E. T. Ye leg. [SJH]; 1♂, Huize, N.E. Yunnan, 1998–IV, local catcher leg. [SFU]; 1♂, Zhongdian, N.W. Yunnan, 1992–VI–20, D. Z. Dong leg. [KIZ]; 1♂, Qianjiang (1,780), Sichuan, 1989–VII–14, S. Lin leg. [KIZ]; 4♂, Lichuan (800 m), Hubei, 1988–VIII–3, X. C. Liang, D. Z. Dong, and S. Lin leg. [KIZ]; 1♀, Leigong Shan, Guizhou, 1988–VIII–15, S. Lin leg. [KIZ]; 3♂, Emei Shan (1,400 m), W. Sichuan, 1984–IV–13, local catcher leg. [DB]; 1♂, ditto, 1982–IV–13, local catcher leg. [DB]; 1♂, Xi Shan, Kunming, C. Yunnan, 1979–VIII–9, J. Xiong leg. [KIZ]; 1♂, Jinghong, Xishuangbanna, S. Yunnan, 1979–VII–28, D. Z. Dong leg. [KIZ]. VIETNAM: 8♂, 10♀, Sapa (1,500 m), Lao Cai, 2015–V, L. T. Le leg. [SJH], 2♂, Ha Giang, 2008–VII, local catcher leg. [SJH]; 6♂, 8♀, Ha Giang, 2006–V, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 2♂, Ha Giang, 2007–VII, local catcher leg. [AMC]; 1♂, Ha Giang, 2008–VII, local catcher leg. [AMC].

The holotype and three paratypes were deposited in Kunming Institute of Zoology ( KIZAbout KIZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences ( Li et al. 2015).

Distribution: This species is commonly found in China (E. Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang); it is also collected from Sapa and Ha Giang, N. Vietnam, which could be the southernmost point of its range.

The two Kouy-Tchéou paralectotypes of Papilio glycerion var. mandarinus Oberthür  actually belong to G. (P.) confucius Hu, Duan & Cotton  sp. nov., and are designated as paratypes of the new species above. The precise location of Kouy-Tchéou is unclear. Several alternatives have been included in publications, sometimes stating that the name is equivalent to the modern Guizhou Province, but this seems unusually vague for a locality cited by Oberthür. Racheli & Cotton (2009) stated that Kiunglai [= Qionglai], W. Sichuan is the modern equivalent of Kouy-Tchéou without citing a source, and Racheli (pers. comm.) is unable to recall the origin of this interpretation. Baker (1995) listed a male specimen of Euaspis basalis  from Kouy-Tchéou, stating the location to be “Kwangsi, Ku-i chou [= Guyi, N. Guangxi], 25°46'N 109°26'E ”. Since Donald Baker is deceased it was not possible to ascertain the reasoning behind this conclusion; but James Hogan, currently Collections Manager at Oxford University Museum of Natural History where Baker conducted his study, stated (pers. comm.) that probably this was based on Baker’s investigations of the location where Abbé Largeteau (the Catholic missionary cited in Oberthür’s original description of mandarinus  ) collected specimens. Hogan stated that Baker was particularly interested in the history of entomology and old collectors, so he may possibly have found evidence to pinpoint the identity of the location. The current authors refrain from choosing a location for Kouy-Tchéou due to lack of precise evidence in favour of any one possibility. All of the alternatives fall within the known range of the new taxon.

Phenology: This species is multivoltine (three generations) in its type locality, the 1 st generation  flies in late April to early May, the 2nd generation flies from early June to July, and the 3rd generation flies in August. The phenology in other localities requires further study.

Host plant: A female was observed ovipositing on Litsea rubescens  ( Lauraceae  ) at Xi Shan, Kunming, and the subsequent rearing experiment confirmed the identity of the butterfly. The species may use other plants of genus Litsea  in other localities across China.

Derivatio nominis: The specific name of this new taxon is dedicated to Confucius (Chinese name Qiu Kong, courtesy name Zhongni; 551–479 BC), a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period of Chinese history. The species name is treated as a noun in apposition.


Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences