Graphium (Pazala) daiyuanae Hu, Zhang & Cotton

Hu, Shao-Ji, Cotton, Adam M., Condamine, Fabien L., Duan, Kuang, Wang, Rong-Jiang, Hsu, Yu-Feng, Zhang, Xin & Cao, Jun, 2018, Revision of Pazala Moore, 1888: The Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) Group, with Treatments of Known Taxa and Descriptions of New Species and New Subspecies (Lepidoptera: Papilion, Zootaxa 4441 (3), pp. 401-446: 420-426

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4441.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:16AB230A-AFCD-484B-ABAD-7CEEDD1532B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/290C2D1A-FFEC-6D4B-0D95-FA12F73B4EAA

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Graphium (Pazala) daiyuanae Hu, Zhang & Cotton
status

sp. nov.

Graphium (Pazala) daiyuanae Hu, Zhang & Cotton  sp. nov.

( Figure 19 View Figure )

Description: Male: Forewing length: 32.0– 35.5 mm (mean = 34.0 ± 1.1 mm, n = 16). Forewing triangulate, broad, apex not produced, termen wavy or slightly dented at the end of veins, oblique outwards from apex to tornus. Forewing upperside: whitish, the upper and outer 1/3 (mostly the discocellular, the subterminal, and the terminal areas) hyaline; 10 black bands lined from the humeral to the termen, among which the 1st to the 6th almost run parallel; the 1 st and  the 2nd bands reach the tornal margin, the 3rd to the 5th bands extend beyond the discal cell along veins Cu2, Cu1, and M3, the 6th band at the end of cell, often connected with the 5th band by a transverse black fine line, the 7th band joins the 8th band just at vein M2, extends to the tornus and joins the 9th band at vein Cu2 or just below it in space cu2, the 9th band curved inward in space r4, the 10th band independent, extending from the apex to vein Cu2 or just below it in space cu2; the veins R4+5 to Cu1 are black after meeting the 6th and 7th bands and then divide the whitish-hyaline areas between the 6th to 10th bands into spots. Forewing underside: colour and markings as upperside, but the hyaline areas are glossy. Hindwing triangulate in general, vein M3 extends into a sword-like tail, termen slightly dented at the end of veins, the end of spaces m1 to cu1 expand like petals. Hindwing upperside: whitish with long white hair covering the inner 1/3; tornal margin blackish, with a small brown androconial patch near the humeral, a thick black band extends from the costal towards the tornus and joins the tornal blackish area just above two obliquely neighbouring yellow spots; the discal bands usually absent but can be seen through the underside; the submarginal black band coupled and interrupted by veins Rs and M1, reaching space rs or sc+r1; the terminal band single, also interrupted by veins Rs and M1, reaching space rs or sc+r1; all black bands mentioned above are rather discontinuous, breaking into several short bands in each space, and the ends of each short band seldom touch each other; all black bands join in the black area at the end of spaces m2 to cu1, with a greyish-blue lunule in each space; tail black with white tip. Hindwing underside: colour and markings similar to upperside but with a creamy yellow hue, all black bands and markings well defined, especially the discal band, two black lines twisting into an “8”-shaped pattern, the outer half of the upper of ring “8” yellow and the inner half white, the edge of the lower ring extends along veins M1 to Cu1; a square creamy white spot above each greyish-blue lunule in the tornal area, the yellow spots at the tornus somewhat reduced and crowned by fine white lines.

Female: Forewing length 33.5–38.5 mm (mean = 36.4 ± 1.7 mm, n = 14). General appearance similar to male but larger. the forewing termen oblique outwards from the apex to the tornus, the underside of forewing almost as glossy as that in male, the 4th black band on the forewing may be reduced or absent in some individuals, the hindwing androconial patch absent, discal band faintly defined or absent.

Male genitalia ( Figure 20 View Figure ): In total 12 male genitalia were dissected, the general characters are consistent, with the teeth on the medial harpe variable. Moderately sclerotised. Ring wavy in the upper half; saccus small; distance between the base of socii 0.40–0.60 mm (mean = 0.49 ± 0.07, n = 12). Valve oval in general, the dorsal terminal harpe with mostly straight (only in 1 case curved) edge and acute tip; the edge of dorsal subterminal harpe almost touching the base of the tip of the dorsal terminal harpe; the medial harpe mostly straight, the dorsal projection bayonet-shaped (some with blunt or dented end); a variable number of small teeth (0–3) occur in the middle of the medial harpe.

Female genitalia ( Figure 21 View Figure ): In total 10 female genitalia were dissected, the general characters are consistent with slight variation as mentioned below in particular. Lamella postvaginalis round petal-shaped; lamella antevaginalis broad horizontally, lined with moderately sclerotised longitudinal striae; ostial lobe heavily sclerotised, forming a straight sharp spur in lateral view, while the posterior margin straight or slightly concave with a pair of acute spurs in ventral view, the length of these spurs can vary, but never absent in examined specimens.

Differential Diagnosis: The new species closely resembles G. (P.) mandarinus  , but can be distinguished by careful examination of the following characters: 1) smaller than nominate mandarinus  and the subsequent new taxon G. (P.) confucius Hu, Duan & Cotton  sp. nov.; 2) forewing apex as G. (P.) mandarinus  , termen oblique outwardly from apex to tornus; 3) upperside hindwing very pale, the discal band usually absent, especially in male; 4) the yellow tornal spots on the underside of hindwing obviously paler than G. (P.) mandarinus  and the following species; 5) the submarginal and terminal bands on the underside of hindwing more interrupted and discontinuous than G. (P.) mandarinus  and the following species. In male genitalia, the tip of dorsal terminal harpe acute but not elongated (as in mandarinus  ), dorsal subterminal harpe large, joining dorsal terminal harpe and forming a triangle, dorsal projection bayonet-shaped ( Figure 20 View Figure ), distance between the base of socii 0.40–0.60 mm. The ostial lobe forming a straight sharp spur in lateral view, the posterior margin straight or slightly concave with a pair of acute spurs in ventral view ( Figure 21 View Figure ).

Type Material: Holotype: VIETNAM: ♂, Sapa (1,600 m), Lao Cai Province, 2015–VI, L. T. Le leg [ KIZAbout KIZ, 0100000]. 

Paratypes: VIETNAM: 3♂, 2♀, same collecting data as holotype (1,600–1,700 m) [ KIZAbout KIZ, 0100001–0100005]  ; 8♂, 8♀, same collecting data as holotype (1,600–1,700 m) [SJH]; 1♂, 4♀, the same locality, 2006–IV, local catcher leg. [ AMCAbout AMC]  ; 2♂, the same locality, 2007–V, local catcher leg. [ AMCAbout AMC]  ; 1♂, the same locality, 2007–VI, local catcher leg. [ AMCAbout AMC]  . 2♂, Mucangchai (1,700 m), Yen Bai Province, 2017– V, L. T. Le leg. [ KIZAbout KIZ, 0100006– 0100007]  ; 3♂, 1♀, same collecting data, [SJH].

The holotype and seven paratypes were deposited in Kunming Institute of Zoology ( KIZAbout KIZ), Chinese Academy of Sciences ( Li et al. 2015).

Distribution: Currently known from the mountains in N. Vietnam (Sapa, Lao Cai; Mucangchai, Yen Bai), but very likely extends to the bordering area of S. Yunnan, China (Honghe Prefecture).

Phenology: Probably univoltine, but further survey on the biological and ecological aspects of the new taxon is required in future.

Host plant: Unknown, presumably a plant species belonging to family Lauraceae  .

Derivatio nominis: The specific name of this new taxon was dedicated to the first author’s beloved wife, Ms. Yuan Dai, with the order of surname and first name as per Chinese tradition. The species name is to be treated as a noun in apposition.

KIZ

Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

AMC

Department of Biologics Research