Hu, Shao-Ji, Cotton, Adam M., Condamine, Fabien L., Duan, Kuang, Wang, Rong-Jiang, Hsu, Yu-Feng, Zhang, Xin & Cao, Jun, 2018, Revision of Pazala Moore, 1888: The Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus (Oberthür, 1879) Group, with Treatments of Known Taxa and Descriptions of New Species and New Subspecies (Lepidoptera: Papilion, Zootaxa 4441 (3), pp. 401-446: 409-410

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Nomenclature of Pazala  genitalia

Examination of Pazala  male genitalia showed that extra names are needed ( Figure 5 View Figure ) for the various structures of the valve, since they are probably not homologous with those used for the Afrotropical Graphium species of Smith & Vane-Wright (2001), whereas nomenclature of female genitalia follows that publication ( Figure 6 View Figure ). General descriptions of male and female genitalia are given below while only distinguishing characters are listed under each species.

General description of male genitalia. Moderately to highly sclerotised. Ring moderate in width, straight in the lower half and wavy in the upper half; saccus small to nearly reduced; socii small, ventrally curved with acutely pointed end, distance between the base of socii varies among taxa. Valve short, oval in general with five highly sclerotised harpes: the dorsal terminal harpe extends from apical 1/3 of the dorsal margin to the end of the valve, with curved, serrate edge and a tip of varying shape; the dorsal subterminal harpe, with serrate edge, of variable size located in the upper and outer 1/4 to 1/3 of the valve, opposite to the dorsal terminal harpe; the distal harpe large, the ventral margin with strongly serrate edge; the medial harpe long and curved, with a dorsal projection variable among taxa and a serrate sclerotised flange. Aedeagus long, curved ventrally, with a funnel-shaped base and pointed end. Juxta weakly sclerotised with hairy membrane on both sides.

Our study showed that the shape, size, and relative position of the dorsal terminal harpe, the dorsal subterminal harpe, and the shape of the dorsal projection are important diagnostic characters. Also, the uncus does not project noticeably from the tegumen, but contains a pair of socii with useful morphometric characters helpful in distinguishing species ( Koiwaya, 1993).

General description of female genitalia. Papillae anales short, margin smooth and round; posterior apophysis slender, reaching approximately half of the 9th abdominal section; ostium partially covered by lamella antevaginalis and ostial lobe; lamella postvaginalis paired, approximately petal-shaped; lamella antevaginalis broad horizontally, lined with moderately sclerotised longitudinal striae; ostial lobe heavily sclerotised, with the posterior margin concave in the middle, separating it into a pair of spurs variable between taxa; ductus bursae of medium length; signum well defined by sclerotised granules.

Our study showed that the ostial lobe (i.e., bifurcation of posterior margin, shape of spurs) varies among species, and probably can be used as a diagnostic character. The characters of the ostial lobe of each species and the differences from other species are listed in detail below.