Liriomyza cf. taraxaci Hering,

Eiseman, Charles S. & Lonsdale, Owen, 2019, New State and Host Records for Agromyzidae (Diptera) in the United States, with the Description of Ten New Species, Zootaxa 4661 (1), pp. 1-39: 15-16

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4661.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8DF7EC6E-ECF2-4819-979E-0E26BDDC2B21

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/2A7A4D79-3523-FFA0-14C5-FD5FFD7AFF1F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Liriomyza cf. taraxaci Hering
status

 

Liriomyza cf. taraxaci Hering 

( Fig. 49View FIGURES 46–56)

Material examined. MASSACHUSETTS: Franklin Co., Northfield, Old Wendell Rd. (42.654294, -72.428336), 12.vii.2017, em. by 31.vii.2017, C.S. Eiseman, ex Lactuca biennis  , #CSE4039, CNC 939691 (1³); NORTH CAR- OLINA: Durham Co., Durham, Pelham  Road, 28.iv.2017, em. 21–23.v.2017, T.S. Feldman, ex Lactuca canadensis  , #CSE3701, CNC 939814–939819 (3³ 3♀); 10.vi.2017, em. 26–30.vi.2017, T.S. Feldman, ex Lactuca canadensis  , #CSE3861, CNC 939785–939797 (4³ 9♀).

Hosts. Asteraceae  : Lactuca  * biennis (Moench) Fernald, L.  * canadensis L.  , L. sativa  L., Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.  ( Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018; see Comments below). In Washington, E. Stansbury (in litt.) has photographed mines on L. serriola  L. consistent with the other Lactuca  mines discussed below. Spencer (1969) reported Cichorium intybus  L. as a host for Liriomyza taraxaci  based on empty leaf mines.

Leaf mine. ( Fig. 49View FIGURES 46–56) Upper surface; on Taraxacum  , a rapidly widening serpentine mine, centrally suffused with brown, expanding into a whitish blotch, with frass in sparsely scattered black grains. The mine of an unconfirmed female specimen on this host had conspicuous feeding lines in the blotch but was otherwise identical ( Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018). The mine on Lactuca  sp. illustrated by Scheffer & Lonsdale (2018) is a blotch with no evident serpentine portion. Our North Carolina specimens were reared from large blotch mines on L. canadensis  containing multiple larvae. We have found similar communal mines on L. biennis  in Massachusetts, with six or more larvae feeding together, although our single specimen may have been reared from a solitary larva (photographs from the collection date show one mine containing a single larva and one containing three). The frass is mostly in small grains, with some larger lumps and strips. The mines on L. biennis  and L. canadensis  exhibit secondary feeding lines as with that of the female from Taraxacum  . In one photograph of aggregate mines on L. biennis  , numerous initial serpentine portions are evident; it is possible that all mines on Lactuca  begin with this feature but it is obliterated by the later blotch.

Puparium. Yellow to yellow-orange; formed outside the mine.

Distribution. USA: AK, IL, MA, * NC, NY, WA, WI (leaf mines only); Canada: AB, BC, MB, NB, ON, QC, SK, YT; Europe ( Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018).

Comments. The specimens listed here belong to what Lonsdale (2017) diagnosed as Liriomyza taraxaci  , noting that this species is likely a complex of Asteraceae-feeders that require further study. There are slight differences in the genitalia compared to the “typical” Taraxacum  feeders and other specimens reared from Lactuca  that do not allow for confident association. Lonsdale (2017) tentatively assigned to L. taraxaci  specimens reared from Lactuca sativa  in Washington. These had been identified as Liriomyza endiviae Hering  by Spencer & Steyskal (1986), whose only other basis for reporting that species from North America was empty leaf mines found on Lactuca  in Maryland; those mines may likewise have been made by L. taraxaci  s.l. Scheffer & Lonsdale (2018) reported a fly reared from a blotch mine on Lactuca  sp. in New York as L. taraxaci  without qualification.

The tendency for larvae to form aggregate  /communal mines on Lactuca  spp. may be attributable simply to females responding to the much larger leaves on these hosts by laying multiple eggs per leaf, rather than being indicative of distinct species with different habits.

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

AK

Auckland War Memorial Museum

MA

Real Jardín Botánico

NY

William and Lynda Steere Herbarium of the New York Botanical Garden

WA

University of Warsaw

WI

Vilnius University

BC

Institut Botànic de Barcelona

MB

Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Bocage

ON

Natural History Museum

QC

National Museum of Natural History, Bulawayo

SK

Katedralskolan

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Agromyzidae

Genus

Liriomyza