Liriomyza cf. taraxaci Hering,

Eiseman, Charles S. & Lonsdale, Owen, 2019, New State and Host Records for Agromyzidae (Diptera) in the United States, with the Description of Ten New Species, Zootaxa 4661 (1), pp. 1-39: 15-16

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Liriomyza cf. taraxaci Hering


Liriomyza cf. taraxaci Hering 

( Fig. 49View FIGURES 46–56)

Material examined. MASSACHUSETTS: Franklin Co., Northfield, Old Wendell Rd. (42.654294, -72.428336), 12.vii.2017, em. by 31.vii.2017, C.S. Eiseman, ex Lactuca biennis  , #CSE4039, CNC 939691 (1³); NORTH CAR- OLINA: Durham Co., Durham, Pelham  Road, 28.iv.2017, em. 21–23.v.2017, T.S. Feldman, ex Lactuca canadensis  , #CSE3701, CNC 939814–939819 (3³ 3♀);, em. 26–, T.S. Feldman, ex Lactuca canadensis  , #CSE3861, CNC 939785–939797 (4³ 9♀).

Hosts. Asteraceae  : Lactuca  * biennis (Moench) Fernald, L.  * canadensis L.  , L. sativa  L., Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg.  ( Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018; see Comments below). In Washington, E. Stansbury (in litt.) has photographed mines on L. serriola  L. consistent with the other Lactuca  mines discussed below. Spencer (1969) reported Cichorium intybus  L. as a host for Liriomyza taraxaci  based on empty leaf mines.

Leaf mine. ( Fig. 49View FIGURES 46–56) Upper surface; on Taraxacum  , a rapidly widening serpentine mine, centrally suffused with brown, expanding into a whitish blotch, with frass in sparsely scattered black grains. The mine of an unconfirmed female specimen on this host had conspicuous feeding lines in the blotch but was otherwise identical ( Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018). The mine on Lactuca  sp. illustrated by Scheffer & Lonsdale (2018) is a blotch with no evident serpentine portion. Our North Carolina specimens were reared from large blotch mines on L. canadensis  containing multiple larvae. We have found similar communal mines on L. biennis  in Massachusetts, with six or more larvae feeding together, although our single specimen may have been reared from a solitary larva (photographs from the collection date show one mine containing a single larva and one containing three). The frass is mostly in small grains, with some larger lumps and strips. The mines on L. biennis  and L. canadensis  exhibit secondary feeding lines as with that of the female from Taraxacum  . In one photograph of aggregate mines on L. biennis  , numerous initial serpentine portions are evident; it is possible that all mines on Lactuca  begin with this feature but it is obliterated by the later blotch.

Puparium. Yellow to yellow-orange; formed outside the mine.

Distribution. USA: AK, IL, MA, * NC, NY, WA, WI (leaf mines only); Canada: AB, BC, MB, NB, ON, QC, SK, YT; Europe ( Eiseman & Lonsdale 2018).

Comments. The specimens listed here belong to what Lonsdale (2017) diagnosed as Liriomyza taraxaci  , noting that this species is likely a complex of Asteraceae-feeders that require further study. There are slight differences in the genitalia compared to the “typical” Taraxacum  feeders and other specimens reared from Lactuca  that do not allow for confident association. Lonsdale (2017) tentatively assigned to L. taraxaci  specimens reared from Lactuca sativa  in Washington. These had been identified as Liriomyza endiviae Hering  by Spencer & Steyskal (1986), whose only other basis for reporting that species from North America was empty leaf mines found on Lactuca  in Maryland; those mines may likewise have been made by L. taraxaci  s.l. Scheffer & Lonsdale (2018) reported a fly reared from a blotch mine on Lactuca  sp. in New York as L. taraxaci  without qualification.

The tendency for larvae to form aggregate  /communal mines on Lactuca  spp. may be attributable simply to females responding to the much larger leaves on these hosts by laying multiple eggs per leaf, rather than being indicative of distinct species with different habits.


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