Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) litoralis ( Haliday, 1833 )

Triapitsyn, Serguei V., Huber, John T., Logarzo, Guillermo A., Berezovskiy, Vladimir V. & Aquino, Daniel A., 2010, Review of Gonatocerus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) in the Neotropical region, with description of eleven new species, Zootaxa 2456, pp. 1-243: 48-53

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.894928

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/2B1987A2-0440-FFC9-FF62-B522FCE5FA8A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) litoralis ( Haliday, 1833 )
status

 

Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) litoralis ( Haliday, 1833) 

( Figs 77–83View FIGURES 77 – 80View FIGURES 81 – 83)

Ooctonus litoralis Haliday 1833: 344  . Lectotype female [ OUMNH], designated by Graham 1982: 223 (not examined). Type locality:?near Holywood, Co. North Down, Northern Ireland, UK.

Lymaenon litoralis (Haliday)  : Walker 1846: 51; Debauche 1948: 89 –91; Mathot 1969: 2, 11 (key).

Rachistus litoralis (Haliday)  : Foerster 1847: 204.

Gonatocerus litoralis (Haliday)  : Dalla Torre 1898: 429; Soyka 1946: 37 –38; Graham 1973: 47 (mentioned); Hellén 1974: 12 –13; Graham 1982: 223 –224; Sahad & Hirashima 1984: 15 –17; Matthews 1986: 223 (diagnosis, measurements, distribution); Baquero & Jordana 2003: 5 –7 (diagnosis, redescription, illustrations); Donev 2005: 382 –383 (diagnosis, distribution).

Gonatocerus radiculatus Ahlberg 1925: 85  –86. 3? syntype females [ Matthews (1986) mentioned a holotype without seeing the original type material, supposedly deposited in NHRSAbout NHRS] (not examined). Type locality: near Spånga, Sweden. Synonymized under G. litoralis  by Matthews 1986: 223.

Lymaenon effusi Bakkendorf 1934: 23  –29. Holotype female [according to Matthews (1986), who could have effectively designated a lectotype if this specimen was one of the original syntypes: Bakkendorf (1934) did not designate any type material] [ ZMUCAbout ZMUC] (not examined). Type locality: Dyrehaven (Jaegersborg Dyrehave), Denmark. Synonymized under G. litoralis  by Matthews 1986: 223.

Lymaenon paludis Debauche 1948: 91  –93 + plate (planche) X (illustrations). Holotype female [ISNB] (not examined). Type locality: Abbaye du Parc, Héverlé (Heverlee), Leuven, Flemish Brabant, Belgium. Synonymized under G. litoralis  by Matthews 1986: 223.

Lymaenon effusi Bakkendorf  : Debauche 1948: 95 –97; Mathot 1969: 11 (key).

Lymaenon rhacodes Debauche 1948: 97  –99 + plate (planche) XI (illustrations). Holotype female [ISNB] (not examined). Type locality: Parc d’Arenberg, Héverlé (Heverlee), Leuven, Flemish Brabant, Belgium. Synonymized under G. litoralis  by Matthews 1986: 223.

Lymaenon littoralis  [sic] (Haliday): Debauche 1949: 27.

Lymaenon arduennae Mathot 1969: 2  , 5–6, 12 (key). Holotype female [ISNB] (not examined). Type locality: Ry de Grahais, Nafraiture, Vresse-sur-Semois, Namur, Belgium. Synonymized under G. litoralis  by Matthews 1986: 223.

Lymaenon cunctator Mathot 1969: 2  , 7–8, 11 (key). Holotype female [ISNB] (not examined). Type locality: Etang du Merisier, Tervuren, Flemish Brabant, Belgium. Synonymized under G. litoralis  by Matthews 1986: 223.

Lymaenon rhacodes Debauche  : Mathot 1969: 11 (key).

Lymaenon paludis Debauche  : Mathot 1969: 11 (key).

Gonatocerus paludis (Debauche)  : Graham 1973: 47; Donev 1990: 68.

Gonatocerus pulchellus Hellén 1974: 11  . Holotype female [FMNH] (not examined). Type locality: Hauho, Finland. Synonymized under G. litoralis  by Matthews 1986: 223.

Gonatocerus litoraris  [sic] (Haliday): Donev 1990: 68.

Material examined. ARGENTINA. BUENOS AIRES: Castelar, 34°36’20’’S 58°40’33’’W, G.A. Logarzo: 6.xi –6.xii.2006 [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]GoogleMaps  ; 6.xii.2006 – 5.i.2007 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 5.i –6.ii.2007 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 5–9.ii.2007 [1 ♀, UCRC]. Luján, Universidad Nacional de Luján , 34°35'07"S 59°04'45"W, 32 m, C. Coviella: 20.x.2006 [3 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]GoogleMaps  ; 1.xii.2006 [3 ♀, UCRC]; 9.ii.2007 [1 ♀, UCRC]. Moreno, 34°08’57’’S 58°46’57’’W, C. Coviella: 31.i.2005 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 9.iii.2005 [2 ♀, UCRC]; 23.iii.2005 [3 ♀, UCRC]; 9.iv.2005 [2 ♀, UCRC]; 8.v.2005 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 3.vii.2005 [1 ♀, UCRC]; 22.vii.2005 [1 ♀, UCRC]. Tigre , 34°23’50’’S 58°34’32’’W, 5 m, 2– 11.ii.2006, GGoogleMaps  . A. Logarzo [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. CÓRDOBA, Villa de Soto , 30°50’53’’S 65°10’18’’W, 540 m, 17.i.2003, SGoogleMaps  . V. Triapitsyn [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. FORMOSA, S of Formosa, 26.27°S 58.27°W, 60 m, 26.iii.2003, JGoogleMaps  . Munro [1 ♀, UCRC]. MENDOZA, La Consulta, 33°42’30’’S 69°04’21’’W, INTA – Estación Experimental Agropecuaria La Consulta , 15–19.i.2007, SGoogleMaps  . Lanati [4 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. NEUQUÉN: Near Cerrito Piñon (40 km SE of La Rinconada ), 40°17’S 70°38’W, 24.ii.1999, SGoogleMaps  . L. Heydon [1 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. Parque Nacional Lanín: Lago Hermoso shore, 40°21’36’’S 71°28’19’’W, 1025 m, 26.ii.2007, SGoogleMaps  . V. Triapitsyn [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. Lago Huechulafquen shore, 39°44’27’’S 71°22’00’’W, 1095 m, 25.ii.2007, SGoogleMaps  . V. Triapitsyn [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. Near Lago Paimun, NW of Puerto Canoa , at Arroyo Raculeafu, 25.ii.2007, S  . V. Triapitsyn, G.A. Logarzo, E.G. Virla [2 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. 2 km NW of Nonthué , 40°08’S 71°38’W, 20–24.ii.1999, SGoogleMaps  . L. Heydon, J. Ledford [15 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. Pucará (at Lago Lácar ), 40°09’59.3’’S 71°37’50.4’’W, 664 m: 24.ii.2007, SGoogleMaps  .V. Triapitsyn [21 ♀, UCRC]; 24.ii.2007, S.V. Triapitsyn, G.A. Logarzo, E.G. Virla [11 ♀, 1 ♂, UCRC]; 1.iii-5.iv.2007, J. Parra, G.A. Logarzo, S.V. Triapitsyn, E.G. Virla [59 ♀, 1 ♂, UCRCAbout UCRC]. 8 km N of San Martín de los Andes , 1000 m, 16– 22.xi.1997, C  . & M. Vardy [6 ♀, CNCI]. RÍO NEGRO, 18 km W of General Roca , INTA station, 6–8.xi.1997, C  . & M. Vardy [5 ♀, CNCI]. SALTA, San Ramón de la Nueva Orán: 23.11°S 64.52°W, 535 m, 23.iii.2003, JGoogleMaps  . Munro [1 ♀, UCRC]; 23.13°S 63.74°W, 278 m, 24.iii.2003, J. Munro [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. BAHAMAS. Berry Islands, Great Stirrup Cay , 25°49’34.4’’N 77°54’45.3’’W, 17.iv.2009, AGoogleMaps  .V. & P.A. Ossipov [1 ♀, UCRC]. BRAZIL. GOIÁS, Uruaçu, 14°17.0’S 48°54.8’W, Serra da Mesa Survey : 26.v.1996 [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]GoogleMaps  ; 29.v.1996 [1 ♀, UCRC]. MINAS GERAIS, Belo Horizonte, Pampulha  , Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 19°52’S 43°58’W, 3–7.xi.1996, D. Yanega [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]GoogleMaps  . CHILE. REGIÓN IV, Quebrada el Arrayán ( 33 km S of La Villa ), 30°11.7’S 70°56.0’W, 653 m, M.E. Irwin [2 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]GoogleMaps  . REGIÓN V, 11 km W of Llaillay (km 95 on Highway 5), 17.xi.1994, S  . L. Heydon, E. Arias [1 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. REGIÓN METROPOLITANA [DE SANTI- AGO]: Colina, El Portezuelo  , iii.1988, L  . E. Peña [14 ♀, CNCIAbout CNCI]. Talagante , 3.ii.1997, E  . Arias [1 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. REGIÓN VIII: 3 km W of Florida , 9.xii.1994, S  . L. Heydon, E. Arias [4 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. Near Penco , 6.ii.1978, T  . Cekalovic [2 ♀, CNCIAbout CNCI]. REGIÓN IX: Parque Nacional Nahuelbuta : 37°48'10''S 73°01'27''W, 1325 m, 8.ii.2005, JGoogleMaps  . M. Heraty et al. [2 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]; Centro de Informaciones, 37°49’S 73°00’W, 8.xii.1994, SGoogleMaps  .L. Heydon, E. Arias [5 ♀, UCDC]; 37°49'00''S 73°00'00''W, 1300 m, 8.ii.2005, J.M. Heraty et al. [31 ♀, UCRC]; 37°49'42''S 72°58'24''W, 1140 m, 8–24.ii.2005, J.M. Heraty et al. [10 ♀, UCRC]; 37°49'43''S 72°58'24''W, 1140 m, 8–9.ii.2005, L. Masner [13 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]. Puente Chada , 6.ii.1994, T  . Cekalovic [1 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. Puente Donguil , 14.i.1990, T  . Cekalovic [1 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. Río Pedregoso: Fundo “Nueva Pomerania ”, 18.ii.1994, T  . Cekalovic [1 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]; Río Pedregoso , 28.i.1995, T  . Cekalovic [4 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. Termas de Palquín , 39.359°S 71.734°W, 9–11.i.2000, DGoogleMaps  . W. Webb, D.K. Yeates [1 ♀, CNCIAbout CNCI]. Road to Volcán Villarrica at Río Seco , 39°20’S 71°58’W, xii.1994, SGoogleMaps  . L. Heydon, E. Arias [2 ♀, UCDCAbout UCDC]. REGIÓN X: Isla Grande de Chiloé, Río Dongo, 19.i.2000, T  . Cekalovic [7 ♀, 43 ♂, UCDCAbout UCDC, UCRCAbout UCRC]. Monumento Natural Alerce Costero , 40°10'55''S 73°26'24''W, 450 m, 16.ii.2005, JGoogleMaps  .M. Heraty et al. [9 ♀, UCRC].

Extralimital records. AUSTRIA. LOWER AUSTRIA, 1 km W of Hollern , 48°04’22’’N 16°52’37’’E, 150 m, 16.vi.2007, C. Thuróczy, S.V. Triapitsyn [18 ♀, 3 ♂, UCRCAbout UCRC]GoogleMaps  . BELGIUM. WALLOON BRABANT, Waterloo , 10–20.ix.1992, P. Dessart [1 ♂, UCRCAbout UCRC]  . BULGARIA. KARDZHALI (KURDZHALI), Rhodope Mts., Daskalovo Village , 41.79000°N 25.28676°E, 550 m, 4.ix.2006, P.S. Boyadzhiev [1 ♀, UCRCAbout UCRC]GoogleMaps  . MEX- ICO. CHIHUAHUA, Ciudad Juárez, 13.x.1942, R.O. Collier (on redishes, intercepted in El Paso , Texas, USA) [1 ♀, USNMAbout USNM] (identified by A.B. Gahan as G. anthonomi Girault  )  . UK. ENGLAND, Surrey Co., Richmond Park, 15.viii.1997, J.S. Noyes [1 ♀, CNCIAbout CNCI]  . WALES, Glamorgan Co., Kenfig Pool National Nature Reserve , 31.viii.1995, J.S. Noyes [1 ♀, CNCIAbout CNCI]  . USA. ILLINOIS, McLean Co., Hendrix , 18.v.1911, A.A. Girault (on window of cattle barn) [1 ♀, USNMAbout USNM] (identified by A.A. Girault as G. anthonomi  )  . KANSAS, Pottawatomie Co., Onaga, F.F. Crevecoeur [1 ♀, USNMAbout USNM] (identified by A.A. Girault as G. anthonomi  ). MARY- LAND, Prince George’s Co., Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, 20.vi.1984, M.E. Schauff [2 ♀, USNMAbout USNM]  . OREGON: Deschutes Co., Little Deschutes River (near La Pine ), 18.viii.1984, M.E. Schauff, E.E. Grissell [17 ♀, USNMAbout USNM]  . Lincoln Co., 2 mi. S of Newport, South Beach State Park , 23.viii.1984, M.E. Schauff, P. Hanson [9 ♀, USNMAbout USNM]  .

Redescription. FEMALE (specimens from the Neotropical region). Body length 600–900 µm. Body generally brown to dark brown except gaster mostly light brown (particularly basally) to brown; appendages light brown to brown.

Antenna ( Fig. 77View FIGURES 77 – 80) with radicle 3.0–3.3x as long as wide, 0.31–0.33x total length of scape, rest of scape 3.2–3.4x as long as wide, faintly striate; pedicel longer than F1; F1–F4 subequal in length, shorter than following funicle segments; F5, F7, and F8 subequal in length, F6 a little shorter; F1–F4 without mps, typically mps on F5 (1), F7 (2), and F8 (2) but rarely F5 without mps in small specimens, F6 with 1 mps in large specimens, and occasionally F7 with just 1 mps; clava with 10 mps, 3.1–3.4x as long as wide, a little shorter than combined length of F6–F8.

Mesosoma ( Fig. 79View FIGURES 77 – 80). Mesoscutum, scutellum, and axillae with weak sculpture. Propodeum ( Fig. 78View FIGURES 77 – 80) with faint submedian lines, the distance between them shorter basally than distally. Forewing ( Fig. 80View FIGURES 77 – 80) about 3.1x as long as wide; longest marginal seta 0.28–0.31x maximum wing width. Forewing disc almost hyaline (with a slight, uniform brownish tinge), almost bare behind submarginal vein except for at most a few setae behind its apex, more or less setose behind marginal vein and densely setose elsewhere. Hind wing 20–22x as long as wide; disc unevenly setose and slightly infumate; longest marginal seta 2.8–3.0x maximum wing width.

Metasoma ( Fig. 79View FIGURES 77 – 80) a little longer than mesosoma. Petiole 1.6–2.1x as wide as long. Ovipositor 0.7–0.8x length of gaster, not exserted beyond its apex; ovipositor length: mesotibia length ratio about 1.1:1. External plate of ovipositor with 4 or 5 distal setae.

MALE (specimens from Chile). Body length 660–800 µm. Similar to female except for normal sexually dimorphic features and the following. Antenna ( Fig. 81View FIGURES 81 – 83) with scape plus radicle 2.6–2.7x as long as wide, notably striate. Forewing ( Fig. 82View FIGURES 81 – 83) 2.8–3.6x as long as wide. Genitalia as in Fig. 83View FIGURES 81 – 83.

Diagnosis. Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) litoralis  is a highly variable species recognizable by the female antenna ( Fig. 77View FIGURES 77 – 80) typically having 1 mps on F5 and 2 mps on F7 and F8 (sometimes, often in small specimens, without mps on F5 and/or just 1 mps on F7), and without mps on F6 (rarely, with 1 mps in large specimens), and 10 mps on the clava; a narrow to broad (2.8–5.2x as long as wide) forewing ( Figs 80View FIGURES 77 – 80, 82View FIGURES 81 – 83), a more or less short ovipositor (ovipositor length: mesotibia length ratio 0.9–1.5:1), not or barely exserted beyond gastral apex; and generally brown to dark brown body except for the gaster, which is mostly light brown (particularly basally) to brown.

Recognition of G. litoralis  in the Neotropical region, where there are few known species of G. ( Lymaenon  ), is relatively easy unlike in the Holarctic region, where it is often problematic to define the limits between it and other morphologically similar species.

Distribution. NEOTROPICAL*: Argentina *, Bahamas *, Brazil *, and Chile *. NEARCTIC*: Mexico *, and USA *. PALAEARCTIC: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria ( Hellén 1974; Donev 1987, 1990 [also as G. paludis (Debauche)  ], 2005), Czech Republic ( Noyes 2003), Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece ( Donev 1985 [as Lymaenon effusi Bakkendorf  and L. paludis Debauche  ], 1988c [also as G. arduennae (Mathot)  and G. effusi (Bakkendorf)  ], 2003, 2005), Ireland ( Graham 1973 [as G. paludis (Debauche)  ]; Matthews 1986), Japan ( Sahad & Hirashima 1984), Macedonia ( Donev 1988a, 2005), Netherlands ( Soyka 1946), Norway ( Mathot 1969; Hellén 1974), Poland ( Soyka 1946), Romania ( Radu & Boţoc 1960), Russia ( Hellén 1974); Serbia ( Donev 1988b); Slovakia ( Noyes 2003), Spain ( Baquero & Jordana 2003), Sweden, Turkey ( Donev 2001), UK ( England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Wales). Sahad & Hirashima (1984) listed G. litoralis  from Australia, but without references to any specimens or published records; Lin et al. (2007) did not include it in their list of the Australian species of Gonatocerus  .

This is arguably the most common and widespread Palaearctic species of Gonatocerus  . It is recorded here for the first time from the Neotropics. Bayoun et al. (2008) reported specimens tentatively identified as G. litoralis  from California, USA, and here we confirm its presence in the Nearctic region. It is likely that G. litoralis  was described under a different name (or names) in North America. Because the senior author could not find the type material of G. (Lymaenon) anthonomi Girault  in the USNM, its possible conspecificity with G. litoralis  remains unconfirmed.

Hosts. Aphrodes  sp. ( Bakkendorf 1934) [as Acocephalus  sp.] and Macrosteles sexnotatus (Fallén)  ( Ahlberg 1925) [as Cicadula sexnotata Fallén  ] ( Cicadellidae  ).

NHRS

Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

UCRC

University of California, Riverside

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

CNCI

Canadian National Collection Insects

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Mymaridae

Genus

Gonatocerus

Loc

Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) litoralis ( Haliday, 1833 )

Triapitsyn, Serguei V., Huber, John T., Logarzo, Guillermo A., Berezovskiy, Vladimir V. & Aquino, Daniel A. 2010
2010
Loc

Gonatocerus litoraris

Donev 1990: 68
1990
Loc

Gonatocerus radiculatus

Matthews 1986: 223
Ahlberg 1925: 85
1986
Loc

Lymaenon effusi

Matthews 1986: 223
Bakkendorf 1934: 23
1986
Loc

Lymaenon paludis

Matthews 1986: 223
Debauche 1948: 91
1986
Loc

Lymaenon rhacodes

Matthews 1986: 223
Debauche 1948: 97
1986
Loc

Lymaenon arduennae

Matthews 1986: 223
Mathot 1969: 2
1986
Loc

Lymaenon cunctator

Matthews 1986: 223
Mathot 1969: 2
1986
Loc

Gonatocerus pulchellus Hellén 1974 : 11

Matthews 1986: 223
Hellen 1974: 11
1986
Loc

Ooctonus litoralis

Graham 1982: 223
Haliday 1833: 344
1982
Loc

Gonatocerus paludis

Donev 1990: 68
Graham 1973: 47
1973
Loc

Lymaenon rhacodes

Mathot 1969: 11
1969
Loc

Lymaenon paludis

Mathot 1969: 11
1969
Loc

Lymaenon littoralis

Debauche 1949: 27
1949
Loc

Lymaenon effusi

Mathot 1969: 11
Debauche 1948: 95
1948
Loc

Gonatocerus litoralis

Donev 2005: 382
Baquero 2003: 5
Matthews 1986: 223
Sahad 1984: 15
Graham 1982: 223
Hellen 1974: 12
Graham 1973: 47
Soyka 1946: 37
Dalla 1898: 429
1898
Loc

Rachistus litoralis

Foerster 1847: 204
1847
Loc

Lymaenon litoralis

Mathot 1969: 2
Debauche 1948: 89
Walker 1846: 51
1846