Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry, 1999

Ruiz-C, Raquel I., Román-Valencia, César, Taphorn, Donald C., Buckup, Paulo A. & Ortega, Hernán, 2018, Revision of the Astyanax orthodus species-group (Teleostei: Characidae) with descriptions of three new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 402, pp. 1-45: 24-30

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2018.402

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A3CE68AA-C5C6-40B7-B57C-6EF6D949149B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/2C0787E7-FFD2-D421-FDF5-F899FF87FD87

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry, 1999
status

comb. nov.

Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry, 1999 

Figs 4View Fig. 4, 11View Fig. 11, Table 2

Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry, 1999: 200  , figs 1–2. Original description, type locality: Rio Pacal , Rio Pachitea Basin, Departamento Ucayali, Peru.

Diagnosis

Astyanax villwocki  is a member of the orthodus  species-group of Astyanax  differing from the other members of the group by the absence of a distinct caudal-peduncle spot (vs present) and having instead a dark stripe, continuing anteriorly to the humeral region (vs absent).

Etymology

Named after Prof. Wolfgang Villwock, Hamburg, who collected some of the first specimens of the type material, including the holotype, and made them available for study.

Material examined

Holotype

PERU: 98.1 mm SL, Ucayali, Peruvian Amazon Basin, Pachitea River drainage, Pacal River ( MTD F 22400View Materials). 

Other material

PERUAbout PERU: 1 ♀, 118.8 mm SL, Ucayali department, Coronel Portillo province, Instituto Veterinario de Investigaciones Tropicales y de Altura ( IVITA) Ivita Piscigranja, Pucallpa, Ucayali ( MUSM 148)  ; 1 ♀, 43.6 mm SL, Madre de Dios department, Manu Province, Manu National Park Manu River, Pakitza Lavandería Creek ( MUSM 2285)  ; 4 ♀♀, 43.4–54.4 mm SL, Madre de Dios, Manu, Manu National Park, Picaflor Creek ( MUSM 2499)  ; 8 ♀♀, 33.2–42.6 mm SL, Madre de Dios, Manu, PNMAbout PNM, Picaflor Creek ( MUSM 4288)  ; 2 ♀♀, 50.4–101.6 mm SL, Cusco, La Convención, Echarate, Urubamba River , quebrada Hayanamato ( MUSM 14461)  ; 16 ♀♀, 55.1–95.5 mm SL, Loreto, Ucayali, Rashaya,Víbora Creek, Pisqui River Basin ( MUSM 15881)  ; 1 ♀, 69.3 mm SL, Loreto, Corrientes River , Andoas ( MUSM 28664)  ; 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, 95.0– 110.2 mm SL, Ucayali, department, Coronel Portillo province, Yucamia River, Ucayali River Basin ( MUSM 33560)  ; 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀, 98.2–112.5 mm SL, Ucayali, Coronel Portillo, Pucallpa Pichaya River ( MUSM 33609)  ; 1 ♂, 122.3 mm SL, Loreto, Maynas, Pucacuro River , 175 m a.s.l. ( MUSM 34168)  ; 1 ♀, 75.5 mm SL, Ucayali department, Coronel Portillo ( MUSM 34977)  ; 2 ♂♂, 114.6–115.8 mm SL, Ucayali, Coronel Portillo, Blanca stream, Ucayali River Basin ( MUSM 34994)  .

COLOMBIA: 1 ♀, 87.9 mm SL, Caquetá, Yurayaco, Amazon River Basin, Inchiyaco River, on the road from Villa Garzón to San José de Fragua ( IUQ 121View Materials)  ; 1 ♀, 84.3 mm SL, Caquetá, Yurayaco River , on the road from Yurayaco to Villa Garzón ( IUQ 180View Materials)  ; 1 ♀ C&S, 60.4 mm SL, Caquetá, Creek tributary Yurayaco River , road Villa Garzón ( IUQ 1218View Materials)  ; 1 ♂, 96.5 mm SL, Putumayo, Amazon River Basin, Orito Creek, south of the farm La Palma, ca 1 km from the Guamez River , vereda Calimonte, Orito ( IUQ 1871View Materials)  ; 1 ♂, 47.4 mm SL, Caquetá, Amazon River Basin, Yurayaco River, in the village Yurayaco ( IUQ 1893View Materials)  ; 1 ♂, 63.5 mm SL, Pazalosa Creek , village in Usmo, Caquetá River ( IUQ 1888View Materials)  ; 1 ♀, 77.7 mm SL, Caquetá ( IUQ 3593View Materials)  .

ECUADOR: 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, 71.3–80.4 mm SL, Napo, Sunka flooded area (“estero”) at 20 minutos or 0.5 Km from Sunka Well ( MEPN 2723)  ; 3 ♀♀, 72.3 mm SL, Napo, Sunka flooded area (“estero”) at 20 minutos or 0.5 Km from Sunka Well ( MEPN 2769)  ; 1 ♀, 13.4 mm SL, Pastaza, Santi flooded area (“estero”) at 2 Km from Manalí Well at la Trucha No. 3 ( MEPN 6176)  ; 2 ♀♀, 116.0– 118.9 mm SL, 1 ♀ C&S, 111.5 mm SL, Pastaza, Danta River 500 m from the exploration platform ( MEPN 6180)  ; 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 81.5–91.7 mm SL, 1 ♂ C&S, 72.3 mm SL, Amazon River Basin, Sovelca flooded area (“estero”), tributary Napo River ( MEPN 6186)  ; 1 ♀, 88.52 mm SL, Sucumbios, 300 m, Bocapore River to 2 km, at 50 m de la valvula del pozo Capiron, 00°31′18″ S, 76°29′28″ W ( MEPN 8422)GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♀♀, 116.3–119.3 mm SL, Yeye River , 200 m from head of Ginta Well, Sucumbios ( MEPN 9560)  .

Description

Body compressed, greatest body depth at or anterior to dorsal-fin origin. Mouth terminal. Dorsal profile straight between snout tip and posterior tip of supraoccipital spine, straight between supraoccipital spine and dorsal-fin origin, convex between head and at base of dorsal fin, convex between last dorsal-fin ray and adipose-fin origin. Caudal peduncle arched, with dorsal profile concave, ventral profile convex. Ventral profile convex from tip of snout to pelvic-fin insertion.

Premaxillary teeth in two series; outer series with four tricuspid teeth covering three most medial teeth of inner series; inner row with five pentacuspid teeth. Maxilla long, of same width along entire length, with 3–5 tricuspid teeth set in anterior most part of ventral margin. Dentary with anterior four teeth pentacuspid, followed by 7–9 teeth smaller, progressively inclined posteromedially, varying from tri- to unicuspid; proportion of tri- vs unicuspid teeth quite variable.

Pored scales of lateral line 39(4), 40(4), 41(6), 42(3), 44(1) (n = 18); transverse scales between lateral line and origin of dorsal fin 7(18), 8(1) (n = 19); scales between lateral line and origin of anal fin 6(3), 7(15) (n = 18); scales between lateral line and insertion of pelvic fin 6(13), 7(5) (n = 18). Predorsal midline covered with bilobed medial scales for more than ¾ of its length, naked anteriorly. Rays of dorsal fin iii 9 (n = 18); first simple ray small, easily visible only in C&S specimens, detectable with dissecting needle in non-C&S specimens; second simple ray about half length of third simple ray. Distal margin of dorsal fin slightly convex. Origin of adipose fin anterior to vertical line through insertion of last anal-fin ray. Rays of pectoral fin i 12 (8), i 13 (10) (n = 18). Rays of anal fin iii 25 (10), iii 26 (7), iii 27 (2); first simple rays only visible in C&S material. Origin of anal fin posterior to vertical line through insertion of last ray of dorsal fin. Caudal fin with 9(1), 10(2) principal rays in dorsal lobe and 10(1), 11(2) in ventral lobe, dorsal lobe with 10(3) procurrent rays, ventral with 8(2), 9(1). Principal rays of dorsal lobe associated with four dorsal hypurals, those of ventral lobe associated with three ventral hypurals.

Total vertebrae 36(1), 37(2), including those of the Weberian apparatus: precaudal centra 17(1), 18(2); last two vertebrae modified with elongate transverse process not in contact with dorsal tip of its rib; caudal centra 19(3). Epipleurals 21(1), 22(2). Epineurals 30(1), 32(2), posterior-most epineural occasionally reaching anterior surface of urostyle. Hypurals 7(3); first dorsal hypural with anterior margin swollen, without projections that articulate the urostyle; second and third hypural dorsal with anterior margin swollen that contacting urostyle.

Pigmentation in alcohol

Sides of body yellowish, without reticulated pattern over the lateral surface of the body. Dark lateral stripe from humeral region to caudal-peduncle base, overlain by series of chevron-shaped marks formed by dark lines along myosepta between myotomes extending from anterior third of anal fin; only distal tips of chevrons located to midlateral stripe visible, chevron-shaped marks less evident in adults (≥ 3 cm SL). Pigmented muscle septae that form series of chevrons not coinciding with horizontal rows of scales, not aligned with scale edges. Chevrons present in juveniles, immature specimens and adults, without distal extensions.

Dorsal region of head and body chestnut brown. Sides of cranium and ventral surface of body light brown, not silvery. Melanophores of humeral region forming two spots. Anterior spot formed by two layers of pigment: brown melanophores distributed in thin superficial layer of the epithelium (Layer 1, Fig. 1View Fig.1), deeper layer of dark melanophores (Layer 2, Fig. 1View Fig.1). Layer 2 forms a polygon-shaped spot consisting of two groups of melanophores that do not precisely overlap, typically forming four-sided spot. Second humeral spot located one scale posterior to anterior humeral spot, arc- or sigmoid-shaped, inconspicuous, covering two to three scales above lateral line. Spot on caudal peduncle absent. Pectoral fins mostly hyaline; melanophores present on distal tips of pelvic-fin rays and interradial membranes of dorsal, caudal and anal fins.

Sexual dimorphism

Distribution of hooks on fins varying from 12–16 in the pelvic fin, 15–17 in the anal fin; males with longer unbranched rays in dorsal, pectoral and pelvic fins; distal tips of latter two fins extend posteriorly to pelvic-fin origin and anal-fin insertion, respectively.

Distribution

Amazon River drainages of Peru, Ecuador and Colombia ( Fig. 4View Fig. 4).

Comments on type specimens of Astyanax villwocki 

Astyanax villwocki  was described by Zarske & Géry (1999) based on specimens from the drainages of the Pachitea River in Peru, the Beni River in Bolivia and the Madeira River. However, examination of the type specimens revealed differences among specimens included in the original description. Specimens from the Madeira River ( MTDF 2214- 22115; ZFMKAbout ZFMK 20781) do not have the diagnostic characters of A. villwocki; they lack the lateral stripe (vs dark lateral stripe present) and have a series of chevrons extending along the entire lateral stripe (vs chevron series not surpassing anterior third of anal fin). We therefore re-identify the specimens from the Madeira River as Astyanax boliviensis  sp. nov.

Astyanax yariguies ( Torres-Mejía, Hernández & Senechal, 2012)  comb. nov.

Figs 4View Fig. 4, 12View Fig. 12, Table 1

Astyanacinus yariguies Torres-Mejía, Hernández & Senechal, 2012: 501  –506, figs 1–2. Original description, type locality: Rio Cascajales, Colombia.

Diagnosis

Astyanax yariguies  is a member of the orthodus  species-group of Astyanax  , differing from the other members of the group, except for A. orthodus  , in having a short polygonal caudal-peduncle spot (vs a cane-shaped mark that extends anteriorly to a vertical through the posterior anal-fin tip in A. superbus  , an elongate mark that extends anteriorly to the humeral region in A. villwocki, and a short nail-shaped spot in A. bopiensis  nom. nov. and A. boliviensis  sp. nov.; spot on caudal peduncle inconspicuous in A. gandhiae  sp. nov., and spot on caudal peduncle pentagonal, but extended towards dorsal and ventral margins of peduncle in A. embera  sp. nov.). It differs from A. orthodus  by the greater number of maxillary teeth (6 vs 2–3). It differs from most species of the orthodus  -group in having 9–10 series of scales between the dorsal-fin origin and the lateral line (vs 7–8, except for A. bopiensis  nom. nov. with 7–10). It is distinguished from A. moorii  comb. nov. by orbital diameter greater than 31% HL (vs less than 31% HL), interorbital distance more 32% HL (vs less than 32% HL) and upper jaw length less than 35% HL (vs more than 45% HL).

Etymology

The species name refers to the Yariguíes, the indigenous group that inhabited an area that includes the watershed of the Cascajales River. They fiercely defended their pristine territory for more than 400 years, which likely contributed to the preservation of the species described here. The Yariguíes finally succumbed to invasion and extermination in the mid-20th century. The species name is treated as a noun in apposition ( Torres-Mejía et al. 2012).

Type material

Holotype (not examined)

COLOMBIA: 61.9 mm SL, Santander, El Carmen, Magdalena River system (Atlantic coast), Cascajales River drainage, Sucio River, under bridge on the road from El Carmen to Vereda Island ( UIST 1752)  .

Material examined

Paratypes

COLOMBIA: 1 ♂, 6 ♀♀, 41.9–72.2 mm SL, Santander, Islandia locality, Magdalena River Basin, La Concordia Creek , 6°35′22.3″ N, 73°34′58.1″ W ( ICNMNH 17642View Materials)GoogleMaps  .

Description

Body compressed, greatest body depth at or anterior to origin of dorsal fin. Mouth terminal. Dorsal profile sigmoid between snout tip and posterior margin of supraoccipital spine (anterior part convex, posterior part concave), convex between head and dorsal fin, convex between head and at dorsal-fin base, convex between last ray of dorsal fin and origin of adipose fin. Caudal peduncle with straight dorsal and ventral profiles. Ventral profile convex between snout tip and insertion of pelvic fin.

Premaxillary teeth in two series; outer series with four tricuspid teeth covering three most medial teeth of inner series; inner row with five pentacuspid teeth. Maxilla long, of same width along entire length, with 2–3 tricuspid teeth set in anterior most part of ventral margin. Dentary with anterior four pentacuspid teeth, followed laterally by 8–10 teeth smaller, progressively inclined posteromedially, varying from tri- to unicuspid; proportion of tri- vs unicuspid teeth quite variable.

Pored lateral line scales 39(2), 40 (4); transverse scales from lateral line to dorsal-fin origin 9(1), 10 (5); scales from lateral line to anal-fin origin 7(1), 8(3), 9 (2); scales from lateral line to pelvic-fin insertion 6(1), 7(3), 8(2). Predorsal midline covered with bilobed medial scales for more than ¾ of its length, naked anteriorly. Dorsal-fin rays iii 9 (6), first simple ray small, easily visible only in C&S specimens, detectable with dissecting needle in non-C&S specimens; second simple ray about half length of third simple ray. Distal margin of dorsal fin slightly convex. Origin of adipose fin anterior to vertical through insertion of last ray of anal fin. Rays of pectoral fin i 10 (1), i 11 (1). Rays of pelvic fin i 7 (2). Rays of anal fin iii 28–30 (8), first simple rays only visible in cleared and stained material ( Table 1). Origin of anal fin posterior to vertical line through insertion of last dorsal-fin ray.

Total vertebrae 32(1), 35(1), including those of the Weberian apparatus: precaudal centra 16(1), 17(1); last three without pleural ribs; caudal centra 17(1)–19(1). Epipleurals 19–20. Epineurals 30–31, posterior-most epineural occasionally reaching anterior surface of urostyle. Hypurals 7 (2); first dorsal hypural with anterior margin swollen, without projections articulating with urostyle; second and third hypural with anterior margin swollen, contacting urostyle.

Pigmentation in alcohol

Sides of body yellowish, with reticulated pattern predominant over the lateral surface of the body. Silvery stripe between humeral region and caudal fin, overlain by series of chevron-shaped marks formed by dark lines along myosepta between myotomes extending from upper region of coelomic cavity to caudal peduncle; pigmented muscle septae forming chevrons not coinciding with scale rows. Chevrons without distal extensions both in juvenile and adult specimens.

Dorsal region of head and body chestnut brown. Sides of cranium and ventral surface of body light brown, not silvery. Melanophores of humeral region forming two spots. Anterior spot formed by two layers of pigment: brown melanophores distributed in a thin superficial layer of the epithelium (Layer 1, Fig. 1View Fig.1), deeper layer consisting of dark melanophores (Layer 2, Fig. 1View Fig.1). Layer 2 forms a polygon shaped spot, consisting of two groups of melanophores that do not precisely overlap, typically forming foursided spot extending from third to sixth or seventh scale of lateral series. Posterior humeral spot situated two or three scales posterior to the anterior humeral spot, arc- or sigmoid-shaped, inconspicuous, covering two to three scales above lateral-line. Caudal-peduncle spot short, elliptical in shape, not extending anteriorly to vertical through posterior margin of adipose fin. Pectoral, pelvic, dorsal and anal fins hyaline. Pigment present on interradial membranes of middle caudal-fin rays.

Sexual dimorphism

Males with small hooks on distal tips of rays of all fins: dorsal fin with hooks on third simple ray and on all branched rays; pelvic, anal and pectoral fins with hooks on branched rays; caudal fin with hooks on four middle rays.

Taxonomic comments

This species is transferred from Astyanacinus  to Astyanax  because it shares the anteriorly directed V-shaped chevrons along myomere junctions with members of the orthodus  species-group. The conspicuous polygon-shaped humeral spot is also similar ( Fig. 1View Fig.1), consisting of dark melanophores.

Distribution

Astyanax yariguies  is known from Colombia, the Magdalena River Basin and the Cascajales River drainage ( Fig. 4View Fig. 4).

PERU

Universit� di Perugia

PNM

Philippine National Museum

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Characiformes

Family

Characidae

Genus

Astyanax

Loc

Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry, 1999

Ruiz-C, Raquel I., Román-Valencia, César, Taphorn, Donald C., Buckup, Paulo A. & Ortega, Hernán 2018
2018
Loc

Astyanacinus yariguies Torres-Mejía, Hernández & Senechal, 2012 : 501

Torres-Mejia, Hernandez & Senechal 2012: 501
2012
Loc

Astyanax villwocki Zarske & Géry, 1999 : 200

Zarske & Gery 1999: 200
1999