Spalangia longepetiolata Bou, 1963

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159 : 102-105

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Spalangia longepetiolata Bou


18. Spalangia longepetiolata Bou View in CoL č ek, 1963

(Figs 272–181)

Spalangia longepetiolata Bouček, 1963: 487–488 View in CoL ; holotype ♁ ( HNHM, not examined); allotype ♀ and paratype ♁ ( BMNH, examined). Type data: [ Ethiopia] Abyssinia, Lake Dembel , I.1912, Kovács coll.

Description. Female. Length = 2.7–3.1 mm. Legs dark except basal 3 tarsal segments yellow or tarsal segments increasingly darker apically. Head in anterior view (Fig. 272) about 1.2x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.7x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 273) with malar space about 0.7–0.9x eye height and about 0.9–1.3x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 272–274) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to elongate-triangular scrobal depression (Fig. 272), otherwise at least upper face with distinct circular punctures mostly separated by about 1–2 puncture diameters, the punctures on parascrobal region often smaller and sparser and sometimes pinprick-like ventrally; scrobal depression with scrobes transversely strigose ventrally to strigose-coriaceous dorsally, the strigose

Figs 272–281. Spalangia longepetiolata Bouček (UCRC culture, Kenya). 272–274, head: 272, anterior view ♀, 273, lateral view ♀, 274, lateral view ♁; 275, ♀ pronotum, dorsolateral view; 276, ♁ thorax, dorsal view; 277, ♁ mesopleuron; 278, ♁ frenum–petiole, dorsal view; 279, ♀ antenna; 280 & 281, ♀ scape: 280, inner view, 281, outer view.

sculpture often extending laterally onto inclined surface of depression at least ventrally above torulus (Fig. 272), but inclined surface otherwise with circular punctures similar to parascrobal region, and interantennal region smooth and shiny; gena rugose-punctate near oral margin and with linear malar sulcus, but otherwise quite smooth with punctures similar to parascrobal region; temple with distinct punctures similar to upper face. Antenna (Fig. 279) with scape about 7.6–9.1x as long as greatest width, the inner (Fig. 280) and outer (Fig. 281) surfaces uniformly setose, but outer surface mostly punctate-rugose and inner surface mostly longitudinally strigose except apically; pedicel about 2.4–2.5x apical width and about 1.4–1.6x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 1.6–1.9x as long as wide and subsequent segments oblong basally to quadrate or slightly transverse apically, with fu 4 –fu 7 at most about 1.3x as wide as long; clava about 2.4–3.0x as long as wide.

Pronotal collar in lateral view convexly arched behind neck and anterolaterally with vertical carinate ridge interrupting crenulate circumpronotal furrow, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck (Fig. 275); with distinct punctate-reticulate cross-line posteriorly and otherwise extensively reticulate-rugose, the sculpture variably distinctly aligned into irregular transverse rows or ridges anteriorly and smoother posteromedially, but without any indication of mediolongitudinal furrow. Mesoscutal median lobe with anterior convex region largely smooth and shiny except finely coriaceous posteriorly; internotaular region punctate-rugose (Fig. 276) except usually with very slender, often linear, median smooth band. Axillae (Fig. 276) smooth and shiny except for pinprick-like setiferous punctures. Scutellum (Fig. 276) smooth and shiny except for a few setiferous punctures laterally; frenum (Figs 276, 278) differentiated by complete crenulate frenal line. Mesopleuron (Fig. 277) smooth and shiny except as follows: pectal region crenulate along anterior margin and bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron longitudinally carinate with carinae extending posteriorly onto alar shelf; subalar scrobe often with posterior margin angled posteroventrally or not distinctly differentiated from upper mesepisternum such that sculpture extends obviously along transepisternal line; episternal scrobe an anteriorly tapered or lunate crenulate furrow connected to episternal scrobe by punctate-crenulate line and to precoxal scrobe by much finer punctate line; upper mesepimeron sometimes with fine striae dorsally extending from acropleuron and lower mesepimeron variably extensively, obliquely striate dorsal to precoxal scrobe; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated by punctate-crenulate transepisternal line and adjacent line of setae. Fore wing hyaline; bare behind submarginal vein. Propodeum (Fig. 278) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus completely punctate-rugose; plical region with abruptly widened, usually more or less Y- shaped paramedian carinate furrows delineating median carina, but at least anterior-most cell much larger than more posterior cells; supracoxal bands contiguous with paramedian crenulate furrows; propodeal panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole about 2x as long as medial width; transversely carinate to reticulate between longitudinal carinae; bare or with 1 short, inconspicuous seta laterally near middle. Gaster smooth and shiny.

Male. Length = 2.6–3.1 mm. Antenna (Fig. 282) with scape about 4.6–6.7x as long as wide, the inner (Fig. 283) and outer (Fig. 284) surfaces similar to female except outer surface sometimes more reticulaterugose or longitudinally strigose and inner surface with more distinct mediolongitudinal bare region and finer sculpture, sometimes almost smooth in bare region; pedicel about 1.3–1.6x as long as wide; flagellum with setae much shorter than width of respective segment; funicle with fu 1 about 2.4–2.7x as long as wide and about 2.0x as long as pedicel, and subsequent segments distinctly oblong, about 1.5–1.7x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view only about as high as wide; in lateral view (Fig. 274) with malar space about 0.5–0.6x eye height and about 0.8–0.9x eye width. Mesoscutal median lobe internotaular region without (Fig. 276) or with less distinct median carina. Mesopleuron with lower mesepimeron sometimes only very inconspicuously obliquely striate to coriaceous ventrally (Fig. 277). Fore wing setation variable, sometimes bare behind submarginal vein except for a few setae distally in basal cell or also with 1 or a few sparse, white, inconspicuous setae on mediocubital fold and/or basal cell, but sometimes mediocubital fold and basal cell with quite dense and conspicuous brown setae. Petiole (Fig. 278) about 3.3– 4.0x as long as medial width and with 1 or 2 short setae on either side medially.

Material examined. None from region. The above description is based on UCRC specimens that were collected originally in Kenya and subsequently cultured at UCRC, plus four females from South Africa ( CNC, UCRC, USNM) , one USNM female from Uganda and one CUIC male labelled Belgian Congo [ Democratic Republic of Congo] .

Distribution. In addition to the Afrotropical countries listed for S. longepetiolata by Noyes (2003), the species was collected in Kenya and Uganda to establish a laboratory colony for subsequent release in California in 1967 and 1968 ( Legner 1978). Legner (1978) originally stated that the species was established in California, but later stated that “although thousands were released and breeding was observed at the release sites none have become prominent in the California parasitoid complex” ( Legner 1995: 74). Live material was also sent to Virginia ( Legner 1978) and the species was recorded from the Lesser Antilles (West Indies) by De Santis (1979) and from Trinidad and Chile by De Santis (1983). The record of De Santis (1979) likely is based on Greathead (1971: 118), who stated that the species was to be released in the West Indies, whereas the records of De Santis (1983) likely are based on Legner (1978: 350), who stated the species was introduced to Trinidad in 1967 and to Chile in 1967 and 1968. More recently, Hernández et al. (2004) reported they reared S. longepetiolata from cattle manure in Aguascalientes, Mexico. I have not seen voucher specimens to confirm their identification or any S. longepetiolata collected in the New World and therefore cannot confirm presence of the species in the region.

Biology. A parasitoid of the house fly and stable fly ( Legner 1978).

Recognition. I include S. longepetiolata as one of three species in the cameroni species group as discussed under S. cameroni . Among the three species, both sexes of S. longepetiolata uniquely have a linear malar sulcus (Figs 273, 274) and the subalar and episternal scrobes connected by a distinct punctate-crenulate line (Fig. 277), though individuals are similar to S. gemina in having sculpture extending posteroventrally along the transepisternal line from the subalar scrobe (cf. Figs 203, 277). Females are also differentiated from S. cameroni and S. gemina by their completely punctate-reticulate callus (cf. Fig. 278 with Figs 70, 202), and males by having at least some setae in the basal cell toward the parastigma. The parascrobal region and inclined surface of the scrobal depression of both sexes is also much less coarsely sculptured (Fig. 272) than in S. cameroni (Fig. 62) or S. gemina (Fig. 196) and the species differ in relative head and antennal dimensions. Observed females uniquely have the lower mesepimeron obliquely striate adjacent to the precoxal scrobe, but this not obvious in all males (Fig. 277) and I have seen too few specimens to be certain that it is diagnostic for all females.

One of the males from South Africa is similar to the described holotype in having a conspicuously elongate-slender petiole (about 4x as long as wide), the fore wings with quite dense and conspicuous brown setae behind the submarginal vein, and a somewhat longer malar space relative to the eye compared to other males, which have a shorter petiole, usually only whitish setae distally in the basal cell, and larger eyes relative to the malar space. This variation is similar to that noted by Bouček (1963) except that it does not appear to be correlated directly with size.

Figs 282–284. Spalangia longepetiolata Bouček ♁ (UCRC culture, Kenya). 282, antenna; 283 & 284, scape: 283, inner view; 284, outer view.


Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


University of California, Riverside


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Spalangia longepetiolata Bou

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009

Spalangia longepetiolata Bouček, 1963: 487–488

Boucek, Z. 1963: 488
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