Spalangia leiopleura, Gibson, 2009
treatment provided by
17. Spalangia leiopleura n. sp.
(Figs 252, 260–271)
Type material. HOLOTYPE (♀, CNC no. 23887). “ MEXICO: Tamaulipas, Reynosa , R-3, 6.vii.2006, -25, Juan F. Luna Salas ”. Condition: point-mounted, entire.
PARATYPES (21♀, 21♁). Nearctic (15♀, 11♁). USA: Arizona, Pima Co., Colossal Caves Co. Pk., 27.X.71, D.S. Chandler, sifting rotting Saguaro (2♀ UCDC) . California, Imperial Co., Imperial Valley, IV- V.91, J.D. Pinto , agric. fields (1♁). Inyo Co. , Independence Oak Cr. Camp , 38º50'31"N 118º15'37"W, 4770 ft, 7.V.03, E.F. Drake, riparian sweeping (1♁ UCRC) GoogleMaps . Riverside Co., 13 mi. NE Desert Center , 22.V.80, K.W. Cooper, ex pack rat nest (1♀ UCRC) ; Vail Lake , 18.XI.82, K.W. Cooper, ex pack rat nest (1♀ UCRC) ; Box Canyon, 10 mi. E Mecca, 5.VII.78, K.W. Cooper, ex berlese Neotoma nest at base of mesquite (1♀). San Bernardino Co. — Sheephole Summit, 19.V.83, K.W. Cooper, ex pack rat nest at base of Joshua tree (1♀); Twentynine Palms, 8.V.84, J. Huber (1♁). San Diego Co. , Borrego Vly., 9.IV.70, E.E. Grissell & R.F. Denno (1♁ UCDC) . Yolo Co., Fazio Wldlf. Area , 3km. E Davis, 11.VI.99, S.L. Heydon (1♀ UCDC) . Colorado, Nunn, 7.VII.72, grassland, R. Kumar (1♀ USNM) . Missouri, Boone Co., Columbia, D.E. Figg — 25.V.81, P.cinerella (1♀ UMRM) ; 24.VI.81, Ravinia spp. (1♀ UMRM) . North Carolina, Raleigh, 8.IV.67, A.L. Kyles, squirrel nest (3♀ ROMT; 1♀ USNM). Oklahoma, Latimer Co., 1 mi. E Panola , 3.VII.87, sift hay litter, D. Chandler & K. Stephan (1♀ DENH) . Texas, Uvalde, 26.V.33, 15.VIII.33, 30.VIII.33, 31.VIII.33 (Bishopp nos. 20033, 20060, 20061, 20063), A.W. Lindquist (6♁ USNM) . Wyoming, Chugwater Cr., 10.VIII.56, J. Pinto (1♁) .
Neotropical (6♀, 10♁). MEXICO: Z. Norte, Reynosa, R-Tomas, Villarreal, 10.V.05, 17.V.05, J.F. Luis Salas (2♀, 1♁ CNC; 1♀, 1♁ UATV). Tamaulipas — Gomez Farías , 23º02'51"N 99º09'20"W, 14.II.01, D. Yanega (1♁ UCRC); El Monte, Brownsville P.O.E. [point of entry], 23.IV.62, in truck with wood (1♁ USNM); similar data as holotype except collected 22.VI.06, 3.VIII.06, 17.VIII.06 (3♀, 6♁) GoogleMaps .
Etymology. A combination of the Greek words leios, meaning “smooth, bald” and pleura, meaning “side”, in reference to the more finely striate, comparatively smooth acropleuron that differentiates individuals from those of S. drosophilae and similar species.
Description. Female. Length = 1.2–1.6 mm. Legs dark except at least basal tarsal segment yellow, the more apical segments yellowish to brown. Head (Fig. 261) in anterior view about 1.2–1.4x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.6–1.7x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 260) with malar space about 1.0–1.4x as long as eye height and about 1.5–2.2x as eye width. Head capsule (Figs 260–262) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to level of lower orbit, usually within slightly elongate-triangular scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region usually with widely scattered, minute pinprick-like punctures, though sometimes punctures quite deep and distinct even though only slightly larger than base of seta, and with setae extending over smooth, inclined surface of scrobal depression; scrobal depression (Fig. 261) with slender, finely coriaceous to coriaceous-granular scrobes and smooth and shiny interantennal region; gena (Fig. 260) rugulose-roughened near oral margin and with linear malar sulcus, but otherwise smooth with setae originating from pinprick-like punctures; temple smooth with setae originating from pinprick-like punctures. Antenna (Fig. 269) with scape about 6.4–8.1x as long as wide, the inner (Fig. 270) and outer (Fig. 271) surfaces uniformly setose and coriaceous-alutaceous or outer surface sometimes more strongly sculptured, alutaceous-strigose; pedicel about 2.3–2.6x as long as apical width and about 2.0–2.8x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 1.0–1.9x as long as wide and subsequent segments usually subquadrate, slightly transverse to slightly elongate both basally and apically, but with fu 2 at most 1.3x as wide as long and fu 7 about 1.0–1.3x as long as wide; clava about 3.0–4.0x as long as wide.
Pronotal collar in lateral view only very low convex behind neck and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; usually smooth and shiny (Fig. 263), without distinct crossline but rarely with transverse band of very fine, obscure coriaceous sculpture posteriorly, and uniformly setose except mediolongitudinally. Mesoscutal median lobe (Fig. 263) with transverse band of coriaceous-alutaceous sculpture near midlength but otherwise smooth and shiny except for setae near notauli. Axillae (Fig. 263) shiny except for setae. Scutellum (Figs 263, 265) flat and shiny, variably extensively but sparsely setose with setae originating from at most pinprick-like setiferous punctures; frenum (Figs 263–265) with frenal line interrupted over at least medial third. Mesopleuron (Fig. 266) with distinct sculpture as follows: pectal region usually finely coriaceous but sometimes smooth, and bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron very finely, longitudinally striate, the striae all of similar strength and direction, almost indistinguishably merging with pectal region ventrally; subalar and episternal scrobes shallow depressions connected by a shallow, linear furrow; upper mesepimeron, at least anteriorly, finely, longitudinally striate similar to acropleuron, though sometimes strongly, obliquely alutaceous or coriaceous posteriorly and lower mesepimeron obliquely striate to coriaceous-alutaceous; upper and lower mesepisternum smoothly merged without transepisternal line and at most with line of ventral setae posteriorly near mesocoxa, the upper mesepisternum coriaceous to longitudinally coriaceous-alutaceous or coriaceous-reticulate at least dorsally. Fore wing hyaline; bare behind submarginal vein except for at most with 1–3 setae on basal fold near parastigma. Propodeum (Figs 263, 264) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus punctate-reticulate to rugulose though sometimes more coriaceous posteriorly adjacent to postspiracular sulcus; plical region with Y- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows delineating quite a broad and distinct median lanceolate band, the band sometimes smooth and shiny but often roughened to almost rugose, and furrows united into single crenulate line posteriorly; supracoxal bands well separated from paramedian crenulate furrow; panels smooth and shiny.
Petiole (Fig. 264) about 1.3–1.5x as long as medial width; punctate-reticulate; bare. Gaster smooth and shiny or some tergites with very fine and obscure coriaceous sculpture.
Male. Length = 1.0– 1.4mm. Antenna (Fig. 268) with scape about 5.3–6.3x as long as wide, but similarly sculptured as female; pedicel about 1.3–1.7x as long as wide; flagellum with conspicuous, semierect setae obviously shorter than or only about as long as width of segment; funicle with fu 1 about 4.2–7.5x as long as wide and about 2.3–3.3x as long as pedicel, and subsequent funicular segments all obviously longer than wide, with fu 7 about 1.5–2.6x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view about 1.0–1.1x as long as wide; in lateral view (Fig. 262) with malar space about 0.8–1.0x eye height and 1.1–1.3x eye width; scrobal depression sometimes with setae not or only partly extending over inclined lateral surface. Pronotum usually more sparsely setose. Petiole (Fig. 265) about 1.5–1.9x as long as wide.
Distribution. North America from about 40ºN in USA into northern Mexico (Fig. 252).
Figs 260–267. Spalangia leiopleura Gibson. 260–262, head: 260, lateral view ♀, 261, frontolateral view ♀, 262, lateral view ♁; 263, ♀ mesosoma, dorsal view; 264 & 265, scutellum–petiole, posterodorsal view: 264, ♀, 265, ♁; 266 & 267, mesopleuron: 266, ♀, 267, ♁.
Figs 268–271. Spalangia leiopleura Gibson. 268 & 269, antenna: 268, ♁, 269, ♀; 270 & 171, ♀ scape: 270, inner view, 271, outer view.
Biology. The six males with Bishopp numbers from Uvalde, Texas (May and August) are undoubtedly voucher specimens from Lindquist (1936) that were reared from H. irritans and misidentified as S. drosophilae . Three other specimens dated October are S. drosophilae (see under this species). Because of the mixed series it is unknown which or both of S. drosophilae and S. leiopleura can also act as hyperparasitoids of H. irritans through Gnathopleura ridibunda and Eucoila rufocincta as discussed under S. drosophilae . The two rearing records from Missouri are voucher specimens that were misidentified as S. haematobiae in Figg et al. (1983) and include Adia (= Paregle ) cinerella (Fallén) and either Oxysarcodexia ventricosa (Wulp) , Ravinia derelicta (Walker) or R. latisetosa Parker as hosts. Figg et al. (1983) stated that these three species of Sarcophagidae could not be distinguished based on the puparium and were all treated as Ravinia spp. Loera-Gallardo et al. (2008) also reared S. leiopleura from bovine manure in Mexico as Spalangia n. sp. 1, but did not determine actual hosts.
Recognition. I include S. leiopleura as one of seven species in the drosophilae species group as discussed under S. drosophilae . Individuals of S. leiopleura are very similar to those of S. drosophilae except for the comparatively subtle differences given in the key. All known individuals have an obvious, though often variably sculptured median lanceolate band on the propodeum, and the fore wings completely bare behind the submarginal vein.
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