Spalangia imitator, Gibson, 2009

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159 : 85-91

publication ID

1175­5334

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/2C2C87BE-9E29-A03A-FF67-D1160E25F39B

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Spalangia imitator
status

n. sp.

14. Spalangia imitator   n. sp.

(Figs 221–237)

Type material. HOLOTYPE (♀, CNC no. 23885). “ VENEZUELA: MERIDA, Tabay Mucuy , 1900m, Send. Lag. Suero, 18.VI-2.VIII.1989, S. & J. Peck ”. Condition: point-mounted, entire.  

PARATYPES (242♀, 97♂). Nearctic (97♀, 36♂)   . USA: California, Imperial Co., NW Salton Sea Beach, 26.IX.77, V.B. Roth (1♂)   . San Luis Obispo Co., 8 mi. ESE Simmier, San Diego Cr. , T30S R28E sect. 8, 22-30.VI.87, D.B. Wahl (1♀)   . Florida, Alachua Co., Gainesville — 6.V.75, 22.VI.75, 6.VII.75, 20.VII.75, 27.VII.75, 16.VIII.75, 17.VIII.75, 31.VIII.75, 7.IX.75, 14.IX.75, 26.X.75, 16.XI.75, 30.XI.75, R.L. Escher, Haematobia irritans   (43♀, 15♁ FSCA)   ; 4.VII.79, S. Dyby, ex flowers of fennel (1♀ FSCA)   ; AEI, 20.VIII- 14.IX.87, D.B. Wahl (1♀). Columbia Co., 6.8 mi. NE Fort White , 7.VII.83. J.T. Vaugan, Stomoxys calcitrans   pupa (1♀ FSCA)   . Highlands Co., Archbold Biol. Station , 1-18.IX.98, D.B. Wahl (1♀)   . Manatee Co., Bradenton , 19-26.X.85, C. Yoshimoto (4♀)   . Monroe Co., Big Pine Key , 15.XII.86, Klimaszewski & Peck, horse manure (5♀)   . Maryland, Chesapeake Beach , 16.IX.21, Barber & Schwarz (1♁ USNM)   . Mississippi, Starkville , 22.VI.72, K.J. Watts, horn fly (1♁ USNM)   . Missouri, Boone Co., 7, 11.IX.71, C. Wingo (2♀ UMRM)   . Boone Co., Columbia, D.E. Figg — 12.X.81, Anthomyiidae   (1♀ UMRM)   ; 23.IX.81, Saltella sp.   (3♀ UMRM)   ; 24.VI.81, 28.IX.81, 12.X.81, Sepsis biflexuosa   (2♀, 1♁ UMRM)   ; 24.VI.81, 6.VII.81, 8, 9, 28.IX.81, 9.X.81, Sepsis sp.   (7♀, 2♁ UMRM)   . Taney Co., Protem, 12.VII.75, S. Peck (1♁). Wayne Co. , Williamsville, VIII.87 (1♁), X.87 (1♀)   , 1.XI-10.XII.87 (1♀), J.T. Becker. Oklahoma, Latimer Co., VI.94 (1♀)   , X.01 (1♀), K. Steffan. Texas, VI.40, L.F. Hitchcock, on dung (2♀ USNM)   . Brazos Co., College Station , R.L. Blume — 3.V.85, Ravinia derelicta   in cow manure (7♀, 7♁ USNM)   ; 6-9.V.85, Hylemia (Paregle) cinerella   (8♀, 5♁ USNM)   . Brewster Co., Big Bend Nat. Pk., Maple Canyon, 6200', 30.VI-8.VII.82, G. Gibson (1♀)   . Cameron Co., Rancho Viejo / Olmito , 3-9.III.96, D.F. Gumz (1♁). Culberson Co. , 3.6 mi, S Pine Springs, Old Guadalupe Pass Rd nr Guadalupe Springs, 5200', 20-22.VII.82, sweeping flowering Acacia constricta, G. Gibson   (1♀)   . Jeff Davis Co., 12 km. NNE Ft. Davis, 15.VIII.96, L.A. Baptiste (1♀ UCDC)   . Ward Co., Monahans St. Pk. , 6 mi. NE Monahans, 3000', 21-22.VI.82, G. Gibson (1♀)   .

Neotropical (144♀, 61♁). ARGENTINA: Misiones, Santa Ana, 14.III.90, Cordo, Sarcophagidae   (2♀ MLPA)   . Tucumán — Horco Molle , 16.I.96, M. Sharkey (4♁)   ; Tucumán, 15.I.96, M. Sharkey (1♀)   . BAHA- MAS: Nassau (on plane, Miami Point of Entry ), 28.XII.66, Stegmaier (1♀ USNM)   . BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, 5 km. SSE Buena Vista , 17º29.925'S 63º39.128'W, 440 m., 6-15.XII.03 (2♀), 24-31.XII.03 (1♀), S. & J. Peck GoogleMaps   . BRAZIL: Nova Teutonia, F. Plaumann — 9.VI.41 (1♀, 5♁, BMNH)   , 10.XI.52 (3♀, BMNH)   ; 27º11'S 52º23'W, 300- 500 m., I.73 (1♀). COSTA RICA   : Alaju. Prov., Caño Negro, R.N.V.S. Caño Negro, 20 m., 6- 29.III.93, K. Flores (1♀ INBIO)   . Alajuela, Chiles de Aguas , Zarcas, Café, 300 m., XII.89, R. Céspedes (1♀ MZCR)   . Limón, 4 km. NE Bribri, 50 m., IX-XI.89, P. Hanson (1♁ MZCR)   . Puntarenas, Pen. Osa, 5 km. N Pto. Jiménez, 10 m., Hanson & Godoy (1♀ MZCR)   ; Puntarenas Prov., Res. Biol. Carara, 50 m. — Esta. Quebrada Bonita, III.93, R. Guzmán (1♀ INBIO)   ; Estac. Quebrada Donita, VIII-IX.89, P. Hanson (1♀ MZCR)   . San Jose, San Antonio de Escazu , 1300 m., VI.88, W. Eberhard (1♀ MZCR)   . Santo Domingo, INBIO, 6- 7.III.96, L. Masner (1♁). Turrialba, 24.III.65, original R-65-40-A, E.F. Legner (1♀ UCRC; 1♀ USNM)   . DOMINICA: Glasham , 25.VIII.65, D.L. Jackson (1♁ USNM)   . DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Barahona — 4 km. N Paraiso, 150 m., 22.III.91, L. Masner (3♀, 3♁)   ; 7 km. NW Paraiso, 200 m., 27.XI.91, L. Masner & S. Peck (2♀, 1♁). Duarte, 20 km. NE San Francisco de Macoris, Loma Quita Espuela, 300 m., 18.III.91 (1♀, 1♁)   . Pedernales, Cabo Rojo — 10 m., 28.XI-2.XII.91, L. Masner & S. Peck, (1♀)   ; 13.5 km. N, 140 m., 21.VIII-10.IX.88, M.A. Ivie (1♀); 20 km. N, Las Mercedes turnoff, 21.VIII.88, for. litter, M.R. Iviee, T.K. Philips & K.A. Johnson (1♀, 3♁); 26 km. N, 730 m., L. Masner (1♀). Pedernales — 4 km. W Oviedo, 10 m., Parque Nat. Jaragua, 28.XI-4.XII.81, L. Masner & S. Peck (4♀)   ; Sierra Bahoruco, Alcoa Rd, km. 23-26, 530- 750 m., 14.VII.90, L. Masner (1♀)   . 12 km. W Sanchez Samana, 9.VIII.78, R.O. Schuster (1♁ UCDC)   . San Cristobal, 20 km. NW San Cristobal Manomatuey, 500 m., 23.III.91, L. Masner (1♀)   . ECUADOR: Napo. Prov. — Baeza, Tena Rd, 12 km. S Jondachi, 18.II.86, Thormin & Wocjicki (2♀)   ; Tena , 18.II.86, A. Finnamore (1♁)   . Tinalandia nr Sta. Domingo, II.83, Masner & Sharkey (2♀). GUATEMALA: Zacapa, San Lorenzo — 17.VII.86, L. LeSage (1♁)   ; 750 m., IX.86 (3♀), 800 m., 10.VII.86 (1♁), M. Sharkey   . GUYANA: Region 8, Iwokrama For. Res. , 4º40'19"S 58º41'04"W, 100- 200 m., V-VI.01, R. Brooks & Z. Falin (2♁) GoogleMaps   . MEXICO: ( Brownsville Point of Entry ), 7.XII.51 (1♀ USNM)   . Baja Cal. Sur, Las Barracas, 16, 17.V.85, P. DeBach (2♀ UCRC)   . Colima, Manzanillo, 8.VIII.84, G. Gordh (1♀ UCRC)   . Jalisco, IX.65, N.L. Krauss (2♀ USNM)   . Michoacán, La Posta, Tarimbaro, 2.X.87, S. Diaz F. (1♀ UNAL)   . Morelos — Amatlan, 14 km. N Yautepec, 29.X.82, A. Gonzales (1♀ UCRC)   ; Cuernavaca, V.45, ex pupa, fly no.295 (1♀ USNM)   , IX.65 (1♀ USNM)   , N.L. Krauss. Nuevo León — Mun Escobedo, Hda., El Canada, 12.VII.83, G. Gordh (1♀ UCRC)   ; San Juan, Río San Juan , 14.VII.83, A. Gonzales (2♀ UCRC)   . San Luis Potosí, Del Maiz , 3000', 23.VIII.54, J.G. Chillcott (1♁)   . Tamaulipas — Reynosa, 10.V.05 (2♀), 3, 10, 17, 24.V.05 (24♀, 13m), 17, 24.IV.06 (2♀, 1♁), 5, 27, 29.VI.06 (4♀, 3♁), VI-VIII.06 (4♀, 4♁), 6, 27.VI.06 (5♀, 3♁), 3, 10, 17.VIII.06 (7♀, 6♁), J.F. Luna Salas ( CNC, UATV)   ; Cañón Del Novillo , Victoria, 22.V.87, A. González (1♀ UNAL)   ; 3 mi. S Ciudad Victoria on Hwy 85, 1.XI.82, J. Huber & A. González (1♀ UCRC)   ; Valle del Libramiento , Cd. Victoria, 20.XII.87, C. Hernandez (1♀ UNAL)   . NICARAGUA: 5.5 mi. NE Nandaime , 24.VIII.72, G.F. & S. Hevel (1♁ USNM)   . PUERTO RICO: Mayagüez, 11.VIII.35 (Bishopp no. 23540) (1♀ USNM)   , 13.XII.35 (Bishopp no. 23661 USNM) (1♀)   , H.L. Dozier. ST. VINCENT: H.H. Smith (2♀ BMNH, 1♁ USNM)   ; St. Andrew , Maloney, 12.VII.76, J.S. Noyes ( BMNH, 1♀)   ; St. George , Belmont, 6.VII.76 ( BMNH, 1♀)   . TRINIDAD: 8 km. N Arima, Simia Research Station, 240 m., 6-10.VI.93 (2♀), 260 m., 14-24.VI.93 (3♀), S. & J. Peck. Tunapuna Mt., St. Benedict , 500 m., 5-21.VI.93, S. & J. Peck (1♀)   . VENEZUELA: Aragua, H. Pittier Nat. Pk., Portachuelo Pass , 10º21'N 67º41'W, 14.V.88, 1100 m., S. Ashe & R. Brooks (1♀) GoogleMaps   . Merida — Santa Rosa, 1800 m., 15.VIII.81, A. Bricino (1♀)   ; 2000 m., 1.V.81, L. Masner (1♀). Merida — Tabay Mucuy, Send. Lag. Suero, 1900 m., 18.VI-2.VIII.89, S. & J. Peck (11♀, 1♁)   ; Tabay LaMucuy, 1900 m., 18.VI-2.VIII.89, S. & J. Peck (8♀, 1♁). Miranda, 28 km. N Altagracia, Guatopo NP, El Lucero, 700 m., 14.VI-5.VIII.87, S. & J. Peck (1♀)   . Portuguesa, 10 km. N Biscucuy, 9.IV.81, sweeping Baccharis, E.E. Grissell   (1♀ USNM)   . Zulia — Hwy 6 at Rio Lora , 79 km. S Machiques, 12.IV. 81, Grissell (1♀ USNM)   ; 20 km. SE Maracaibo, 30.V.82, Eleodoro E. & E. Rubio E. (1♀ USNM)   . VIRGIN ISLANDS: St. Croix , Longford, VI, IX.38, H.A. Beatty (1♀ USNM)   .

Etymology. The Latin word imitator   , meaning “mimic”, in reference to the close morphological similarity with S. haematobiae   .

Description. Female. Length = 1.0– 2.3 mm. Legs dark except basal 1–3 tarsal segments usually yellow in distinct contrast to apical segments, though tarsi sometimes more or less uniformly yellowish-brown to dark. Head in anterior view about 1.1–1.3x as high as wide; in dorsal view 1.6–1.9x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 223) with malar space about 0.8–1.2x as long as eye height and about 1.2–1.5x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 221–223) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to elongate-triangular scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region usually with pinprick-like punctures or punctures at least small and widely spaced if distinct, with setae extending over smooth inclined surface of scrobal depression and often quite dense and originating from tiny bumps ventrally toward torulus; scrobal depression with finely coriaceous to coriaceous-granular scrobes and smooth and shiny interantennal region; gena (Figs 221, 222) rugulose-roughened near oral margin and with linear malar sulcus, but otherwise smooth except for setae originating from at most tiny bumps; temple smooth except for setae similar to gena. Antenna (Fig. 231) with scape about 7.0–8.2x as long as wide, the outer surface (Fig. 234) punctate-rugulose roughened but inner surface (Fig. 233) usually more finely sculptured, more or less alutaceous; pedicel about 2.1–2.4x as long as apical width and about 1.9–3.0x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 1.0–1.5x as long as wide, subsequent segments sometimes all distinctly transverse in small specimens but usually subquadrate to slightly longer than wide basally and quadrate to wider than long apically, with fu 7 about 1.1–1.6x as wide as long; clava about 1.7–2.5x as long as wide.

Pronotal collar in lateral view (Fig. 221) only very low convex behind neck and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; smooth and shiny to finely coriaceous posteriorly or medially, but without distinct cross-line posteriorly and uniformly setose except mediolongitudinally (Fig. 224), the setae sometimes originating from tiny bumps. Mesoscutal median lobe (Fig. 224) with anterior convex region smooth and shiny anteriorly and finely coriaceous to transversely alutaceous posteriorly; internotaular region usually smooth and shiny to distinctly coriaceous lateral to median punctate-rugose region (sometimes only obscurely punctate in very small specimens), the region usually extending virtually to transscutal articulation and usually divided by irregular median carina. Axillae (Fig. 224) smooth and shiny except for setae. Scutellum (Figs 224, 227) low convex, shiny and variably extensively but sparsely setose with setae originating from at most pinprick-like setiferous punctures; frenum (Figs 224, 227) with frenal line broadly interrupted, consisting of only 1–3 distinct punctures laterally. Mesopleuron (Fig. 225) comparatively shiny and finely sculptured as follows: pectal region sometimes finely coriaceous dorsally but bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron longitudinally striate-carinate, the ridges extending posteriorly onto alar shelf; subalar scrobe a vertical or lunate, crenulate-rugose furrow differentiated from upper mesepisternum (Figs 225, 226); episternal scrobe quite a distinct depression connected to subalar scrobe by a shallow, linear furrow; upper and lower mesepimeron variably finely coriaceous-alutaceous to almost smooth; upper and lower

Figs 221–228. Spalangia imitator Gibson.   221–223, head: 221, lateral view ♀, 222, frontolateral view ♀, 223, lateral view ♁; 224, ♀ mesosoma, dorsal view; 225 & 226, mesopleuron: 225, ♀, 226, ♁; 227 & 228, scutellum–petiole, posterodorsal view: 227, ♀, 228, ♁.

Figs 229–236. Spalangia imitator Gibson.   229 & 230, gaster: 229, ♀, 230, ♁, 231 & 232, antenna: 229, ♀, 230, ♁; 233 & 234, ♀ scape: 233, inner view, 234, outer view; 235 & 236, ♁ scape: 235, inner view, 236, outer view.

mesepisternum differentiated by line of variably widely spaced setae and often a fine sulcus ventral to the line of setae, with upper mesepisternum smooth and shiny similar to pectal region. Fore wing hyaline or sometimes very slightly embrowned; bare behind submarginal vein except for 1 or more setae distally near parastigma or, in some Neotropical specimens, mediocubital fold with 1 or 2 setae and rarely line of 1–3 setae in basal cell. Propodeum (Figs 224, 227) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus smooth and shiny at least posterior to level of spiracle beside postspiracular sulcus, and almost completely smooth except along extreme anterior margin in Nearctic specimens; plical region with narrowly V- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows delineating median carina, the carina in lateral view usually distinctly convex except is small specimens; supracoxal bands usually continuous with paramedian crenulate furrow; panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole (Fig. 227) about 1.8–2.2x as long as medial width; punctate-reticulate between longitudinal carinae; with 1 seta laterally. Gaster (Fig. 229) shiny with fine coriaceous sculpture on at least Gt 2 and Gt 3.

Male. Length = 1.0– 1.7 mm. Antenna (Fig. 232) with scape about 5.0–6.0x as long as wide, the inner (Fig. 235) and outer (Fig. 236) surfaces similar to female except usually more finely sculptured; pedicel about 1.4–2.0x as long as wide; flagellum with setae much shorter than width of respective segment; funicle with fu 1 about 1.8–3.0x as long as wide and about 1.0–2.0x as long as pedicel, and subsequent funicular segments sometimes quadrate in smallest specimens but usually oblong, with fu 7 about 1.0–1.3x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view about 1.0–1.1x as high as wide; in lateral view (Fig. 223) with malar space about 0.6–1.0x eye height and about 0.8–1.4x eye width. Upper face and parascrobal region, pronotal collar, and scutellum (Fig. 228) very finely coriaceous. Mesopleuron (Fig. 226) with pectal region and upper mesepisternum similarly coriaceous, the upper and lower mesepimeron more obliquely alutaceous-coriaceous. Propodeum (Fig. 228) with propodeal panel sometimes smooth adjacent to postspiracular sulcus but otherwise variably conspicuously coriaceous. Fore wing sometimes distinctly embrowned; often extensively setose behind submarginal vein, including 1 or more lines of setae in basal cell, but rarely mediocubital fold with only 3 setae. Petiole (Fig. 228) about 2.1–3.0x as long as medial width.

Fig. 237. Distribution of Spalangia imitator Gibson.  

Distribution. Spalangia imitator   is a native New World species that extends south from about 40°N in North America through Mexico and Central America ( Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua), West Indies ( Bahamas, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad, Virgin Islands) and South America ( Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Guyana, Venezuela) (Fig. 237).

Biology. A parasitoid of the horn fly and stable fly as well as Adia cinerella   , Ravinia derelicta   , Sepsis biflexuosa   and Saltella sphondylii   , and possibly also of Gymnodia arcuata   , G. debilis   , G. quadristigma   , Coproica setulosa   , and Sepsis neocynipsea   (see Biology under S. haematobiae   ). Loera-Gallardo et al. (2008) reared S. imitator   as Spalangia   n. sp. 2 from bovine manure in Mexico, but did not determine actual hosts.

Recognition. I include S. imitator   as one of five species in the subpunctata   species group as discussed under S. subpunctata   . Spalangia imitator   was previously misidentified as S. haematobiae   when identified in collections. Both species have a frenal line that is widely separated medially (cf. Figs 214, 227) and are otherwise very similar except for sculpture of the mesopleuron. In both sexes of S. haematobiae   the posterior limit of the subalar scrobe is indistinct ventrally so that the subalar scrobe and upper mesepisternum form a single region that is more or less obliquely reticulate- or rugose-strigose anteriorly and obliquely alutaceous-coriaceous posteriorly (Figs 212, 213). Both sexes of S. imitator   have a more distinctly delineated, vertical to anteroventrally angled (lunate) subalar scrobe, and females have the upper mesepisternum smooth and shiny, mirror-like reflective (Fig. 225), whereas males have the upper mesepisternum finely coriaceous similar to the pectal region (Fig. 226). Furthermore, S. imitator   males have the head, scutellum, and propodeal panels (Fig. 228) at least in part finely coriaceous, whereas they are smooth and shiny in S. haematobiae   (Fig. 215) and other subpunctata   -group males. Most S. imitator   have partly yellow tarsi, though females from more northern localities can have more or less uniformly yellowish-brown to dark tarsi which is similar to most S. haematobiae   . Females of S. imitator   , particularly those from the Nearctic region, have the callus almost completely smooth, though Neotropical females often have the callus reticulate-rugose to about the level of the posterior margin of the propodeal spiracle similar to individuals of S. haematobiae   . Females of S. imitator   also sometimes have one or two seta on the mediocubital fold and males often have the mediocubital fold and basal cell quite conspicuously setose, more similar to S. subpunctata   than S. haematobiae   .

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

UMRM

W.R. Enns Entomology Museum

UCDC

R. M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

MZCR

Museo de Zoologia

UCRC

University of California, Riverside