Spalangia gemina Bou

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159 : 77-80

publication ID


persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Spalangia gemina Bou


12. Spalangia gemina Bou View in CoL č ek, 1963

(Figs 182, 195–207)

Spalangia gemina Bouček, 1963: 484–485 View in CoL ; holotype ♀ (BMNH, examined). Type data: Mauritius, no. 537, 14.II.1959, L.A. Moutia, ex tomato and citrus infested by Pardalaspis cyanescens View in CoL .

Description. Female. Length = 2.7–3.3 mm. Legs dark except at least basal 4 tarsal segments yellow. Head in anterior view only about as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.7–2.0x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 197) with malar space about 0.6–0.8x eye height and about 0.9–1.0x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 195–197) smooth and shiny except for distinct setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to elongate-triangular scrobal depression (Fig. 196), otherwise upper face with crowded but mostly circular punctures often separated by distance similar to own diameter medially but by narrower, often ridgelike interstices laterally and even more closely crowded ventrally on parascrobal region and inclined surface of scrobal depression where uniformly, coarsely punctate- or reticulate-rugose (Fig. 196); scrobal depression with punctate-crenulate scrobes on either side of smooth and shiny interantennal region; gena densely punctate without malar sulcus, the punctures separated by linear ridges and often multisided or more or less reticulate-rugose; temple irregularly reticulate-rugose without distinct circular punctures (Fig. 199). Antenna (Fig. 204) with scape about 6.8–7.1x as long as greatest width, the inner (Fig. 206) and outer (Fig. 207) surfaces

Figs 195–203. Spalangia gemina Bouček. 195–197, head: 195, lateral view ♀, 196, frontolateral view ♀, 197, lateral view ♁; 198, ♀ pronotum, dorsolateral view; 199, ♀ gena and temple; 200, ♁ thorax, dorsal view; 201, ♁ frenum–petiole, dorsal view; 202, ♀ frenum–propodeum, dorsal view; 203, ♀ mesopleuron.

uniformly setose and strongly, longitudinally punctate-strigose; pedicel about 1.9–2.4x as long as apical width and about 1.3–1.6x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 1.3–1.5x as long as wide and subsequent segments quadrate basally to distinctly transverse apically, with fu 7 usually about 1.6–1.7x but rarely only about 1.3x wider than long; clava about 1.9–2.2x as long as wide.

Pronotal collar in lateral view convexly arched behind neck and anterolaterally with vertical carinate ridge interrupting circumpronotal furrow, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; with distinct crenulate cross-line posteriorly and otherwise extensively reticulate-rugose except for smoother region posteromedially anterior to cross-line (Fig. 198), the rugose sculpture often partly aligned into short longitudinal rugae or wrinkles but without mediolongitudinal furrow. Mesoscutal median lobe (Fig. 200) with anterior convex region smooth and shiny or only very finely coriaceous posteriorly, but extending posteriorly as narrow median smooth band through punctate-reticulate or reticulate-rugose internotaular region. Axillae (Fig. 200) smooth and shiny except for a few pinprick-like setiferous punctures. Scutellum (Fig. 200) smooth and shiny except for a few pinprick-like setiferous punctures laterally; frenum (Figs 200–202) differentiated by complete crenulate frenal line. Mesopleuron (Fig. 203) smooth and shiny except as follows: pectal region crenulate along anterior margin and bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron longitudinally carinate with carinae extending posteriorly onto alar shelf and ventrally over upper mesepimeron to or almost to episternal scrobe; subalar scrobe a vertical to somewhat triangular reticulate-rugose depression, the posteroventral margin usually quite obviously angled posteriorly with sculpture extending along transepisternal line; episternal scrobe a deep and distinct, oblique to lunate crenulate depression either not connected to subalar scrobe or at most by a fine furrow or line of minute punctures; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated by punctate-crenulate transepisternal line and adjacent line of setae. Fore wing hyaline; bare behind submarginal vein. Propodeum (Figs 201, 202) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus with elongate smooth and shiny region along at least basal half of postspiracular sulcus, but punctate to reticulate-rugose laterally and posteriorly; plical region with abruptly widened, Y- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows delineating median carina, and with anterior-most cell(s) obviously transverse; supracoxal bands contiguous with crenulate furrows; propodeal panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole about 1.7–1.8x as long as medial width; almost smooth to finely, transversely carinate between longitudinal carinae; bare. Gaster smooth and shiny.

Figs 204–207. Spalangia gemina Bouček. 204 & 205, antenna: 204, ♀, 205, ♁; 206 & 207, ♀ scape: 206, inner view, 207, outer view.

Male. Length = 2.1–3.1 mm. Antenna (Fig. 205) with scape about 6.5–7.6x as long as wide, the inner and outer surfaces finely, longitudinally strigose and shiny, and inner surface smoother than outer surface; pedicel about 1.3–1.8x as long as wide; flagellum with setae much shorter than width of respective segments; funicle with fu 1 about 1.7–2.31x as long as wide and about 1.5–2.2x as long as pedicel, and subsequent funicular segments at least slightly oblong basally to quadrate or slightly longer than wide apically, with fu 7 at most about 1.2x longer than wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view about 1.1x wider than high; in lateral view (Fig. 197) with malar space about 0.5–0.6x eye height and about 0.7–0.8x eye width. Pronotal collar sculpture similar to female but sometimes with obscure mediolongitudinal furrow. Mesopleuron always with large subalar scrobe, but sometimes sculpture less distinctly extended posteriorly along transepisternal line. Propodeal callus completely reticulate-rugose or with only small smooth region lateral to spiracle (Fig. 201). Petiole (Fig. 201) about 1.9–2.2x as long as medial width.

Material examined. Nearctic (4♀, 1♁). CANADA: Alberta, nr Raymond, feedlot Hwy 52, 26.V-2.VI.00, K. Floate, sentinel house fly pupa (1♀) . USA: Florida, Dade. Co., Homestead, Subtropical Exptl. Sta., 10.XII.68, R.W. Swanson, Anastrepha suspensa pupa (3♀, 1♁ FSCA) .

Neotropical (38♀, 35♁). BRAZIL: Sao Paulo — Piracicaba, Biol. Control Lab., XII.86, E. Berti-Filho, Musca domestica (17♀, 17♁ USNM; 2♀ BMNH; 5♀, 4♁ FSCA); Bastos, V. 89, lab. reared Musca domestica (4♀, 3♁ USNM) . MEXICO: Veracruz, Mpio. Xalap, XI.98, M. Lopez O., lab culture on Anastrepha ludens (1♀, 4♁ TAMU) . PANAMA: El Cermeno, em. VII-VIII.41, J. Zetek, ex fruit Labatia standleyana (1♀, USNM) . PUERTO RICO: Juana Diaz, 7.VII.37, K.A. Bartlett, Anastrepha acidusa on Jobo (1♀, 1♁ USNM) . VENEZUELA: ex Anastrepha, P. Guagliumi (1♀, 1♁ USNM) . Maracay — 450 mts., III.51, H.E. Box, Metagonistylum minense Towns. (1♀ paratype, 5♀, 3♁ USNM) ; 1963, P. Guagliumi, CIE 18886, Drosophila (2♁ BMNH) .

Distribution. Noyes (2003) lists S. gemina from the Afrotropical, Australasian, Oriental, and Neotropical region ( Brazil). The northern limit of S. gemina in the New World is uncertain. Morgan et al. (1991), Geden (1996) and Sivinski et al. (1998) reported that a culture of S. gemina that was established in Gainesville, Florida, from specimens collected in Brazil, was kept for about 36 generations over 5 years. The “lab. reared” specimens from Mexico listed above definitely originated from this culture ( Sivinski et al. 1998) and the same may be true for the Florida specimens. The record from Alberta (Fig. 182) is certainly anomalous, but the female was sent to me as part of a parasitoid survey.

Biology. Regional hosts indicated through label data for S. gemina include M. domestica , Drosophila sp. , Anastrepha acidusa (Walker) , A. ludens (Loew) and A. suspensa (Loew) (Tephritidae) , and Metagonistylum minense Townsend (Tachinidae) . Noyes (2003) also lists species of Micropezidae as well as Noctuidae and Tortricidae (Lepidoptera) as primary hosts and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata (Ashmead) ( Hymenoptera : Braconidae ) as a parasitoid host. The record of D. longicaudata is based on Sivinski et al. (1998), who stated that S. gemina did not discriminate between unparasitized A. suspensa and those parasitized by D. longicaudata , but it is possible that the S. gemina larva killed rather than developed in the D. longicaudata larva. Sivinski et al. (1998) were able to rear S. gemina from only A. suspensa and M. domestica but not another eight host Diptera offered, including A. ludens and a species of Drosophila , even though label data of observed specimens suggest that both species can be parasitized by S. gemina . The apparent rearing of S. gemina from M. minense also suggests that the two purported lepidopteran host records, Adisura atkinsoni Moore (Noctuidae) and Cryptophlebia pallifrimbriana Bradley (Tortricidae) result from hyperparasitism through primary tachinid parasitoids, as suggested by Bouček (1963).

Recognition. I include S. gemina as one of three species in the cameroni species group as discussed under S. cameroni . Among the three species, S. gemina uniquely has the parascrobal region, and particularly the inclined surface of the scrobal depression (Fig. 196) and the temple behind the outer orbit (Fig. 199) punctaterugose to reticulate-rugose rather than with separate circular punctures. Individuals of S. gemina also have the upper mesepimeron (Fig. 203) much more extensively carinate than those of S. cameroni (Fig. 72), though this is a relative feature. Other differential features are discussed under S. cameroni .


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Spalangia gemina Bou

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009

Spalangia gemina Bouček, 1963: 484–485

Boucek, Z. 1963: 485
Darwin Core Archive (for parent article) View in SIBiLS Plain XML RDF