Spalangia endius Walker, 1839

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159 : 56-61

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Spalangia endius Walker, 1839


8. Spalangia endius Walker, 1839 View in CoL

(Figs 130–146)

Spalangia endius Walker, 1839: 96 View in CoL ; holotype ♁ (BMNH, examined). Type data: [ Chile], James ̕s Isle.

Spalangia muscidarum var. stomoxysiae Girault, 1916: 57–58 View in CoL ; 2 syntype ♀ (USNM, examined). Type data: Hunter No. 2970, B.18, Dallas TX [Texas], 24.XI.12, par. of Stomoxys calcitrans . Synonymy by Bouček (1963: 458).

Spalangia orientalis Graham, 1932: 21 View in CoL : holotype ♀ (BMNH, examined). Type data: Western Australia, Wyndham, 24 th June, 1930, T.G. Campbell. Synonymy by Bouček (1963: 458).

Description. Female. Length = 1.5–2.9 mm. Legs dark except basal 3 or 4 tarsal segments yellow. Head in anterior view (Fig. 130) about 1.1–1.2x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.7–1.8x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 131) with malar space about 0.8–0.9x eye height and about 1.2–1.3x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 130–133) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to elongate-triangular scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region with distinct circular punctures often separated by at least own diameter medially but more crowded laterally along inner orbit (Fig. 130); scrobal channel with distinctly coriaceous scrobes on either side of smooth and shiny interantennal region, and with inclined surface of depression smooth except for seta originating from small or pinprick like punctures (Figs 130, 132); gena with linear malar sulcus and scattered punctures (Fig.

Figs 130–137. Spalangia endius Walker. 130 & 131, ♀ head: 130, anterior view, 131, lateral view; 132 & 133, ♁ head: 132, anterior view, 133, lateral view; 134, ♀ thorax, dorsal view; 135, ♁ thorax, dorsolateral view; 136 & 137, scutellum–petiole, posterodorsal view: 136, ♀, 137, ♁.

131), the punctures often shallower than on face; temple punctate similar to face. Antenna (Fig. 140) with scape about 6.1–7.7x as long as wide, the inner (Fig. 142) and outer (Fig. 143) surfaces uniformly setose and rugulose-strigose or inner surface variably distinctly smoother and less setose mediolongitudinally over about basal half; pedicel about 2.3–2.6x as long as apical width and about 1.8–2.2x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 slightly transverse to about 1.6x as long as wide and subsequent segments usually slightly longer than wide basally and quadrate to transverse apically, but rarely all segments distinctly transverse with fu 4 –fu 7 rarely up to about 1.5x as wide as long; clava about 2.0–2.4x as long as wide.

Figs 138–145. Spalangia endius Walker. 138 & 139, mesopleuron: 138, ♀, 139, ♁; 140, ♀ antenna; 141, ♁ antenna; 142 & 143, ♀ scape: 142: inner view, 143, outer view; 144 & 145, ♁ scape: 144, inner view, 145, outer view.

Pronotal collar in lateral view convexly arched behind neck and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; with distinctly differentiated crenulate cross-line posteriorly and usually with broad, smooth and shiny mediolongitudinal band anterior to cross-line, but elsewhere with distinct circular setiferous, the punctures mostly separated by shiny interstices at least about equal to own diameter medially and circular even if more densely crowded anteriorly and laterally (Figs 134, 135). Mesoscutal median lobe (Figs 134, 135) with anterior convex region smooth and shiny or only very narrowly coriaceous posteriorly; internotaular region usually without distinct median smooth line, punctate-rugose medially with punctures of different sizes and shapes, and variably distinctly smooth and shiny laterally posterior to transverse anterior line of sculpture. Axillae (Figs 134, 135) shiny with scattered setiferous punctures. Scutellum (Figs 134–136) variably distinctly punctate, smooth and shiny with only a few pinprick-like setiferous punctures laterally or more extensively but sparsely punctate behind axillae; frenum (Figs 134–137) differentiated by complete crenulate frenal line. Mesopleuron (Fig. 138) smooth and shiny except as follows: pectal region punctate-crenulate along anterior margin and bare except for 1 posteroventral setae; acropleuron longitudinally carinate, the carinae extending posteriorly onto alar shelf; subalar scrobe variably distinctly rugose with at least with some cross ridges if primarily obliquely carinate and usually the sculpture finer posteroventrally and extending variably extensively along transepisternal line; episternal scrobe usually a large circular to oval depression but sometimes not distinctly differentiated from punctate episternal line connecting episternal and subalar scrobes; precoxal scrobe usually connected to episternal scrobe by fine, sometimes almost effaced punctate line; upper and lower mesepimeron variably distinctly sculptured, usually at least very finely coriaceous and often extensively, obliquely coriaceous-alutaceous to coriaceous-strigose; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated by punctate-crenulate transepisternal line and adjacent line of setae, the upper mesepisternum variably extensively sculptured but usually more or less obliquely strigose anteriorly and more finely coriaceous to smooth posteriorly. Fore wing hyaline; often bare behind submarginal vein but sometimes mediocubital fold with 1–3 setae. Propodeum (Figs 136, 137) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus reticulate-rugose; plical region with variably distinctly widened paramedian furrows delineating median carina, the carina in lateral view flat or only slightly convex, and with anterior-most cell sometimes longer but not abruptly wider than more posterior cells; supracoxal bands contiguous with paramedian crenulate furrows; propodeal panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole (Fig. 136) about 1.6–1.9x as long as medial width; transversely carinate to reticulate between longitudinal carinae; bare or with 1 or 2 short setae laterally within anterior half. Gaster smooth and shiny or Gt 2 and/or subsequent tergites very finely and obscurely coriaceous.

Male. Length = 1.3–2.6 mm. Antenna (Fig. 141) with scape about 5.0–5.9x as long as wide, the inner (Fig. 144) and outer (Fig. 145) surfaces usually more finely sculptured than female, with outer surface often rugose-granular and inner surface smooth and shiny mediolongitudinally within at least basal half, and with ventral and dorsal setae of similar length; pedicel about 1.5–1.6x as long as wide; flagellum with setae much shorter than width of respective segment; funicle with fu 1 about 1.9–2.9x as long as wide and about 1.3–2.1x as long as pedicel, and subsequent funicular segments subquadrate to slightly longer than wide, with fu 7 about 0.9–1.3x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view (Fig. 132) about 0.9–1.0x as high as wide; in lateral view (Fig. 133) with malar space about 0.6–0.8x eye height and about 0.8–0.9x eye width. Pronotal collar always with distinct crenulate cross-line, but small males sometimes with only very sparse and shallow, indistinct setiferous punctures anterior to cross-line. Mesoscutal median lobe internotaular region usually with wider smooth and shiny region adjacent to notauli (Fig. 135). Fore wing often with variably distinct brownish tinge; often extensively setose behind submarginal vein but at least mediocubital fold with line of several setae over at least distal half and basal cell with a few setae distally. Petiole (Fig. 137) about 2.3–2.5x as long as medial width.

Material examined. Nearctic and Neotropical (929 specimens in CASC, CNC, CSCA, CUAC, CUIC, DEBU, EMEC, FSCA, LACM, MZCR, NCSU, ROME, TAMU, UATV, UCDC, UCRC, UNAL, USNM). Complete collection records are not provided; those with host data: Nearctic. CANADA: Ontario, Guelph, Delia antiqua (DEBU) . Ottawa, Central Exptl. Farm, 20.IX.01, M. domestica . Ottawa vicinity, various localities and dates 2000 and 2001, G. Gibson & L. Bartels, M. domestica and S. calcitrans (see Gibson and Floate 2004). USA: California, Los Angeles Co., Chatsworth, 24.VII.54, S. calcitrans (LACM) . Riverside, M. domestica — 15.VII.38, R.H. DeBach ( USNM); 31.XII.63, S.V. Rao ( UCRC). Sonoma Co., Schulz Ranch, coll. 30.X.63, em. 24.XI.63, J.R. Anderson, M. domestica (EMEC) . Florida, Alachua Co., Gainesville — VII.73, P.B. Morgan, M. domestica (USNM) ; 19.VI.75, R.L. Escher, H. irritans (FSCA) ; 16.IV.79, J. Hogsette, Ophyra aenescens lab. culture ( FSCA). Columbia Co., 6.8 mi. NE Fort White, 27.IV.83, 6, 12, 18.V.83, 7, 15.VII.83, J.T. Vaughan, S. calcitrans (FSCA) . Dade Co., Homestead, 10.VI.68, R.W. Swanson, Anastrepha suspensa Loew (FSCA) . S. Florida, 1967, M.H. Muma, Anastrepha suspensa (USNM) . Union Co., Lake Butler, V.73, C. Morgan, Fannia canicularis (L.) and M. domestica (FSCA, UCRC) . Maryland, Beltsville, 18.VII.71, C.H. Schmidt, S. calcitrans (USNM) . Nebraska, Lincoln, G.M. Stokes — 8.V.62, calliphorid pupae ( USNM); 1.VII.62, S. calcitrans (USNM) . New Jersey, New Brunswick, 23.I.67, D. Shibles, M. domestica (USNM) . Woodfern, 5.VII.67, D. Shibles, M. domestica (USNM) . North Carolina, Craven Co., Spring Hope, host collected, 22.VIII.77, T.D. Edwards, M. domestica (CUIC) . Davie Co., Mocksville, 10.VII.81, T. D. Edwards, M. domestica (CUIC) . Duplin Co., 19.X.76, D.A. Rutz, M. domestica (NCSU) . Raleigh, 10.XI.83, L.M. Rueda, lab. reared, M. domestica (NCSU) . Wake Co., 16VIII.81, M. domestica (NCSU) . South Carolina, Oconee Co., 10.VI.73, C.R. Ables, M. domestica (CUAC, USNM) . Clemson, 17.VII.68, E. Legner, M. domestica (UCRC) . Texas, Brazos Co., College Station, 13.VIII.79, K.C. Stafford, M. domestica (TAMU) .

Neotropical. BOLIVIA: Chochabamba, 9.VI.69, F.A. Squire, M. domestica (USNM) . BRAZIL: São Paulo, Botucatu, Edgardia Farm, 22-29.VI.01, C. Reigada, Chrysomya putoria . MEXICO: Veracruz, Mpio, Xalapa, XI.88, M. Lopez O., Anastrepha ludens lab culture ( TAMU). NICARAGUA: Esteli, 28.V.02, M. domestica (MZCR) . PERU: reared VIII.29, New Orleans, LA, H.A. Jaynes, Paratheresia puparia ( USNM); reared 15.III. 78 in lab., Riverside, CA, M. domestica (UCRC) . PUERTO RICO: Cayey, 26.VIII.80, B. Hawkins, M. domestica (UCRC) . Rio Piedras, 11.IV.63, E.F. Legner, M. domestica (UCRC, USNM) . TRINI- DAD: 1.X.70, F.D. Bennett, M. domestica (UCRC) . URUGUAY: Montivideo So. Am. Par. Lab, B. Parker,? M. domestica (USNM) . U.S. VIRGIN ISLANDS: St. Croix, near Christiansted, 4.VIII.75, P. Morgan, M. domestica (FSCA) .

Distribution. A cosmopolitan species that Noyes (2003) records from all six biogeographic regions. Within the New World (Fig. 146) I saw specimens from North America ( Canada, USA, Mexico), Central America ( Belize, Guatemala, Nicaragua), West Indies ( Dominica, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad, U.S. Virgin Islands) and South America ( Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Galapagos Islands, Peru, Uruguay). Additional unconfirmed records based on Noyes (2003) include Argentina, British Virgin Islands, Costa Rica, Ecuador, and Venezuela.

Biology. Noyes (2003) lists S. endius as a primary parasitoid of at least 50 different host species in 9 families of Diptera and as a hyperparasitoid of Bombyx mori (L.) ( Lepidoptera : Bombycidae ) and Diatraea sp. ( Lepidoptera : Pyralidae ). Most records I saw from the New World were from the house fly, but also the stable fly and horn fly as well as the onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Anthomyiidae) , Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) (Calliphoridae) , the little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) ( Fanniidae ), the black dump fly, Hydrotaea (= Ophyra ) aenescens (Wiedemann) (Muscidae) , Paratheresia sp. (Tachinidae) , and the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) and Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Tephritidae) .

Recognition. I include S. endius along with S. nigripes in the endius species group. Both species are characterized by a pronotal collar with isolated circular punctures separated by shiny interstices. The two species are most easily differentiated by the presence in S. endius (Figs 134, 135) and absence in S. nigripes (Figs 332, 334) of a punctate-crenulate cross-line on the pronotal collar, plus other features given in the key. Sculpture of the internotaular region also differs slightly between the two species. The internotaular region is mostly smooth and shiny lateral to the median punctate-rugose region in S. endius (Figs 134, 135), whereas in S. nigripes there are distinct circular punctures lateral to the median punctate-rugose region (Figs 332, 334). Individuals of S. endius also have brighter yellow tarsi (excluding the apical segment), the median propodeal carina in lateral view is flat or low convex rather than angulate subbasally, and the subalar depression is more obviously rugose than in S. nigripes (cf. Figs 138, 139 with Fig. 335), although these differences are not always obvious.

The original description of S. orientalis stated that the types were deposited in ANIC, but the holotype is in the BMNH. Females in AEIC identified by De Santis from Nova Teutonia (Santa Catarina) as S. endius are a mixture of S. drosophilae , S. plaumanni , and S. bethyloides .

Fig. 146. Distribution of Spalangia endius Walker.


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


University of California, Riverside


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology














Spalangia endius Walker, 1839

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009

Spalangia orientalis

Boucek, Z. 1963: 458
Graham L. F. 1932: 21

Spalangia muscidarum var. stomoxysiae

Boucek, Z. 1963: 458
Girault, A. A. 1916: 58

Spalangia endius

Walker, F. 1839: 96
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