Spalangia dozieri Burks, 1969

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159 : 46-50

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Spalangia dozieri Burks, 1969


6. Spalangia dozieri Burks, 1969 View in CoL

(Figs 38, 98–113)

Spalangia dozieri Burks, 1969: 3 View in CoL ; holotype ♀ (USNM, examined). Type data: Mayaguez, P.R. [ Puerto Rico], Aug. 26, 1936, H.L. Dozier; [from pupa of] Sarcodexia sternodontis View in CoL .

Description. Female ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 2). Length = 1.2–2.4 mm. Legs dark except basal 4 tarsal segments yellow and knees sometimes yellowish. Head in anterior view (Fig. 98) about 0.9–1.0x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.5–1.9x as wide as long ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 7); in lateral view (Fig. 100) with malar space about 0.9–1.0x as long as eye height and about 1.1–1.2x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 98, 100) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to equilateral or elongate-triangular scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region with distinct punctures always separated by at least own diameter (Fig. 98) but larger specimens more densely punctate than smaller specimens; scrobal depression with variably finely coriaceous scrobes, the sculpture sometimes extending laterally over inclined surface of depression and then transversely coriaceous-alutaceous, but with smooth, shiny, bare interantennal region (Fig. 98); gena without malar sulcus but with distinct punctures (Fig. 100); temple with similar sculpture as gena and upper face. Antenna (Fig. 108) with scape about 5.0–5.6x as long as wide, the outer surface alutaceous to alutaceous-rugulose but inner surface usually more finely alutaceous; pedicel about 1.6–2.0x as long as apical width and about 2.3–3.7x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 1.0–2.0x as wide as long and subsequent segments distinctly transverse with fu 7 about 1.8– 2.5x as wide as long; clava about 1.7–2.2x as long as wide. Mandible bidentate ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 11).

Pronotal collar in lateral view only low convex behind neck (Fig. 100) and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck; with median sulcus over at least anterior two-thirds and distinct, well separated circular setiferous punctures dorsally, but without differentiated cross-line posteriorly (Fig. 102). Mesoscutal median lobe (Fig. 102) with anterior convex region coriaceous to coriaceous-granular; internotaular region only extremely obscurely coriaceous or smooth and shiny except for scattered setiferous punctures bordering anterior convex region and laterally near notauli (Fig. 102). Axillae (Fig. 102) smooth and shiny except for sparse setae originating from at most pinprick-like punctures. Scutellum (Fig. 102) low convex and shiny except for sparse setae laterally originating from at most pinprick-like punctures; frenum (Figs 102, 104) differentiated by at least extensive crenulate frenal line, the line often tapered and shallowed toward midline but only sometimes narrowly separated medially. Mesopleuron (Fig. 106) mostly with distinct sculpture as follows: pectal region smooth and shiny or only very obscurely coriaceous and bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron longitudinally carinate-strigose, but alar shelf and most of upper mesepimeron reticulate-rugulose or more finely strigose-reticulate in smaller specimens, and lower mesepimeron obliquely alutaceous to strigose-alutaceous; subalar scrobe a vertical, strigose- to reticulate-rugose depression connected to variably distinct, reticulate-rugose episternal scrobe by a shallow, linear furrow; upper mesepisternum reticulate-rugose anteriorly to smooth and shiny posteriorly, and often differentiated from lower mesepisternum by fine transepisternal ridge anteriorly but with only 2 ventral setae, one near ventral margin of subalar scrobe and one below precoxal scrobe (Fig. 106). Legs normal, including elongate, slen- der, and comparatively inconspicuously setose femora and tibiae ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 2); tarsi slender, at least 0.75x as long as respective tibia with basal tarsal segment about as long as combined length of subsequent 3 or 4 segments ( Burks 1969, fig. 1; Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 23), and with long, curved tarsal claws ( Burks 1969, fig. 2; Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 20). Fore wing hyaline; mediocubital fold bare but basal cell at least with several setae and usually extensively setose in distal half. Propodeum (Fig. 104) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus reticulate-rugose; plical region with Y- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows delineating broadly lanceolate, reticulate-rugose median region, though furrows only inconspicuously

Figs 98–105. Spalangia dozieri Burks. 98 & 99, head, anterior view: 98, ♀, 99, ♁; 100 & 101, head, lateral view: 100, ♀, 101, ♁; 102 & 103, head and mesosoma, dorsolateral view: 102, ♀, 103, ♁; 104, ♀ frenum–petiole, dorsolateral view; 105, ♁ mesosoma, dorsal view. Arrow points to lateral margin of torulus in Figs 99, 101.

differentiated from remaining sculpture; supracoxal bands continuous with or only narrowly separated from paramedian crenulate furrows; panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole (Fig. 104) about 1.5–1.7x as long as medial width; reticulate-rugose; with at least 3 and usually several lateral setae. Gaster shiny but at least Gt 3 and subsequent tergites finely coriaceous.

Figs 106–113. Spalangia dozieri Burks. 106, ♀ mesosoma, lateral view; 107, ♀ petiole, dorsolateral view; 108, ♀ antenna; 109, ♁ antenna (insert: pedicel–fu 3); 110, ♁ foreleg, outer view; 111, ♁ middle leg, inner view; 112 & 113, ♁ mesotibia and tarsus: 112, outer view, 113, inner view.

Male ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, figs 3, 4). Length = 1.1–1.9 mm. Antenna (Fig. 109) with scape short, about 1.7–2.0x as long as wide, ovate in lateral view and thick, the outer and inner surfaces smooth and shiny except for setae; pedicel about 1.1–1.5x as long as wide; flagellum with distinct, semierect, curved setae; funicle with fu 1 slightly transverse to slightly longer than wide but at most about as long as pedicel, widened distally and ventrally with distally curved setae (Fig. 109, insert) longer than on other segments, and subsequent funicular segments slightly transverse to quadrate, more or less moniliform. Also dissimilar to female in many other respects as follows. Legs uniformly brown to yellowish-brown but lighter in color than body. Head in anterior view (Fig. 99) obviously transverse, about 1.3x wider than high; in dorsal view much more strongly transverse than for female, about 2.6–2.9x as wide as long ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 8); in lateral view (Fig. 101) with malar space about 0.8–0.9x as long as eye height and about 1.1–1.2x eye width. Head capsule with only very fine and inconspicuous median sulcus and face, including scrobal depression, uniformly densely setose with setae originating from minute punctures or tiny bumps; scrobal depression shallow but extending broadly between toruli and with lateral margin of torulus raised into short lobe projecting slightly beyond level of ventral margin of torulus (Figs 99, 101: arrow); gena and temple similarly densely setose as face. Mandible unidentate, tapered to apex ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 12).

Pronotal collar in lateral view flatter than in female (cf. Figs 102, 103), with median sulcus but much more densely setose and with setae originating from smaller and usually less distinct punctures. Mesoscutum and scutellar-axillar complex (Fig. 105) similar to female except more densely and uniformly setose. Mesopleuron similar to female except more finely sculptured and shinier; alar shelf and upper mesepimeron anteriorly longitudinally strigose to punctate-strigose, lower mesepimeron smooth to finely alutaceous posteriorly, and upper mesepisternum finely coriaceous to smooth. Legs conspicuously modified ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, figs 3, 4): femora, particularly pro- (Fig. 110) and metafemur (Fig. 111), bulbously enlarged, the metafemur with ventral margin concave; pro- (Fig. 110) and metatibia (Fig. 111) robust-tubular and strongly setose, the metatibia with ventral margin concave; mesotibia strongly compressed with anterior surface (Fig. 113) concave and mostly bare except for short, sparse setae, but posterior surface (Fig. 112) convex and conspicuously setose with long, dense setae dorsally, and with row of very long, distally curved setae along ventral margin and apical lobe; tarsi short and robust, less than half as long as respective tibia with basal tarsal segment much shorter than combined length of subsequent 3, distinctly transverse segments (Figs 110–113; Gibson and Reigada 2009, figs 22, 24), and with short, lobular tarsal claws ( Gibson and Reigada 2009, fig. 21). Fore wing with cubital area bare but otherwise setose behind submarginal vein, including line of setae on vannal fold. Propodeum (Fig. 105) with posteriorly tapered median band usually smaller and less distinctly sculptured than for female; callus with about anterior half smooth and shiny. Petiole (Fig. 107) similar to female except with finer longitudinal striae.

Material examined. Neotropical (103♀, 8♁). BARBADOS: Turner Hall Woods , 21.II.79, S. Peck, dung trap (2♀) . BRAZIL: São Paulo, Botucatu, Edgardia Farm, C. Reigada , 16-23.II.06, Lucilia eximia (1♀, 2♁), 13-20.IV.06, Lucilia sericata (21♀, 2♁), 9-16.III.07, Chrysomya albiceps (5♀), 16-23.II.06, Chrysomya putoria (7♀) ( CNC, ZMUSP) . CUBA: Centrale Portugalata , II.28, C.R. Stahl (1♀ paratype, USNM) . DOMI- NICA: St. Mark Parish, Scott ̓s Headpoint, 2.XII.94, L. Masner, grassland (2♀) . PUERTO RICO: Mayaguez, 26.VIII.36, H.L. Dozier (holotype ♀, 15♀ paratypes and 3♁ and 7 broken ♀ with same data as holotype but not included in original type series, USNM) ; 1♀ paratype ( BMNH) . Punta Arenas , 12.III.63, E.F. Legner, bait trap (1♀ paratype, USNM) . ST. LUCIA: Praslin, 13º52.9'N 60º53.9'W, 50 m., 11-28.VII.07, lowland woodland ravine, intercept trap (38♀) GoogleMaps . ST. VINCENT: St. David, Richmond Beach, 10.VII.76, J.S. Noyes (1♁ BMNH) . TRINIDAD: Caroni Brasso , 17.VII.76, J.S. Noyes (1♀ BMNH) .

Distribution. West Indies ( Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Puerto Rico, St. Lucia, St. Vincent, Trinidad) and South America ( Brazil) (Fig. 38).

Biology. The type series was reared from Sarcodexia lambens (Wiedemann) (= Sarcodexia sternodontis Townsend ) ( Sarcophagidae ) and Gibson and Reigada (2009) reared S. dozieri as a gregarious puparial parasitoid from four blowfly species, Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) , Chrysomya putoria (Wiedemann) , Lucilia eximia (Wiedemann) and Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Calliphoridae) . Spalangia dozieri is the only member of the subfamily that is not normally a solitary parasitoid. Gibson and Reigada (2009) postulated that most of the unusual structural modifications of S. dozieri males are adaptations for grasping and holding, suggesting that males are phoretic on adults of their fly hosts or, possibly, that they exhibit aggressive or other atypical behavior with siblings correlated with being gregarious.

Recognition. Gibson and Reigada (2009) described and illustrated diagnostic features for females of S. dozieri when they newly described the male. Females are differentiated from all other New World Spalangia by their unique pronotal collar sculpture, which resembles that of S. nigripes (Fig. 334) except for the presence of a distinct median sulcus (Fig. 102). Two species described from Madagascar, S. sulcifera Bouček (1963 , fig. 71) and S. seyrigi Risbec (1952) , have a very similar pronotal sculpture pattern. I have not seen any specimens that I identify as S. seyrigi , but two CNC females labelled “ Reunion, IS: St. André, 29.XII.1971, Y. Gormy, sift rotten fruits” that I identify as S. sulcifera are differentiated from S. dozieri females by several features. The propodeum of the two females has a median carina rather than a reticulate-rugose median band, the longitudinal carinae of the acropleuron extend over the alar shelf rather than the alar shelf and at least the anterior half of the upper mesepimeron being more or less reticulate-rugose, and the petiole lacks setae. Individuals of S. dozieri are similar to nigra -group species in that the petiole is setose laterally (Figs 104, 107), but in most other features S. dozieri more closely resembles drosophilae -group species, including sculptural features of the scrobes, propodeum and mesopleuron. Males of S. dozieri are readily differentiated from other Spalangia by their unique leg structure and several other features, including unidentate mandibles, as discussed in detail by Gibson and Reigada (2009).


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Spalangia dozieri Burks, 1969

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009

Spalangia dozieri

Burks, B. D. 1969: 3
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