Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159 : 35-40

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Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910


4. Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910 View in CoL

(Figs 62–79)

Spalangia cameroni, Perkins, 1910: 656 View in CoL ; syntype ♀ (BPBM; examined). Type data: Oahu, Hawaii, Molokai and no doubt all the islands.

Spalangia philippinensis Fullaway, 1917: 292–294 View in CoL ; lectotype ♁ (BPBM; examined) designated by Gibson (2006: 7). Type data: Honolulu, H.T., D.T. Fullaway collector, Insectary. Synonymy by Gibson (2006: 7); prior synonymy with S. endius Walker View in CoL by Bouček (1963: 458).

Spalangia muscidarum texensis Girault, 1920: 213 View in CoL ; lectotype ♁ (USNM; ♀ and ♁ paralectotype examined) designated by Burks (1969: 6). Type data: Hunter No. 2970, B.18, Dallas, TX [Texas], 24.XI.12, par. of Stomoxys calcitrans . Synonymy by Burks (1969: 6); prior synonymy with S. endius Walker View in CoL by Bouček (1963: 458).

Spalangia melanogastra Masi, 1940: 295–297 View in CoL ; holotype ♁ (MCSN, not examined) (single male incorrectly designated as lectotype by Viggiani 1967: 3). Type data: [ Somalia] Villaggio Duca degli Abruzzi, leg. G. Russo. Tentative synonymy by Bouček (1963: 454) confirmed by Viggiani (1967: 3).

Spalangia atherigonae Risbec, 1951: 361–363 View in CoL ; lectotype ♀ (MNHN, not examined) designated by Bouček (1963: 454). Type data: Senegal, M̕Bambey, ex Atherigona quadripunctata, J. Risbec. Synonymy by Bouček (1963: 454).

Description. Female. Length = 1.7–3 mm. Legs dark except at least basal 3 tarsal segments yellow. Head in anterior view (Fig. 62) about 1.2–1.3x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.6–1.8x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 65) with malar space about 1.1–1.3x eye height and about 1.6–1.7x eye width. Head capsule (Figs 62–66) smooth and shiny except for distinct setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to elongate-triangular scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region variably densely punctate, the punctures sometimes widely separated by flat interstices but even when closely crowded more or less circular rather than multisided (Figs 62, 63); scrobal depression with punctate-crenulate scrobes, smooth and shiny interantennal region, and inclined surface of scrobal depression with circular punctures separated by flat interstices (Figs 62, 63); gena without malar sulcus, variably densely punctate but often with crowded circular punctures (Fig. 65) and rarely reticulate-rugose; temple variably densely punctate but with distinct circular punctures. Antenna (Fig. 73) with scape about 8.0–8.6x as long as greatest width, the inner (Fig. 74) and outer (Fig. 75) surfaces uniformly setose and strongly punctate-strigose; pedicel about 2.0– 2.5x as long as apical width and about 1.5–2.1x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 1.1–1.7x as long as wide, subsequent segments variably oblong to sometimes only slightly longer than wide basally and slightly transverse apically, but at least fu 4 –fu 7 less than 1.4x as wide as long and often almost quadrate; clava about 2.4– 3.1x as long as wide.

Pronotal collar in lateral view convexly arched behind neck (Fig. 87) and anterolaterally with vertical carinate ridge interrupting circumpronotal furrow, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck (Fig. 67); with distinct crenulate cross-line posteriorly and variably extensively reticulate-rugose with setae originating from irregular multisided cells anteriorly and dorsolaterally, but with variably large smoother region anterior to cross-line often having a few circular setiferous punctures and/or a shallow mediolongitudinal furrow (Figs 67, 68: arrow). Mesoscutal median lobe (Fig. 68) with anterior convex region largely smooth and shiny, but sometimes finely coriaceous posteriorly; internotaular region variably extensively, irregularly punctate-rugose except often smooth laterally or posterolaterally and almost always with distinct median smooth band extending posteriorly from anterior convex region (Fig. 68). Axillae (Fig. 68) smooth and shiny except for a few pinprick-like setiferous punctures. Scutellum (Fig. 68) smooth and shiny except for a few pinprick-like setiferous punctures laterally; frenum (Fig. 68) differentiated by complete crenulate frenal line. Mesopleuron (Fig. 72) smooth and shiny except as follows: pectal region crenulate along anterior margin and bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron longitudinally carinate to punctate-reticulate but with carinae extending posteriorly onto alar shelf, the alar shelf also usually variably extensively and conspicuously punctate-reticulate at least dorsally; subalar scrobe higher than wide and crenulate or punctate-rugose with posteroventral margin angled anteriorly so as to form acute angled with transepisternal line; episternal scrobe, precoxal scrobe and precoxal line forming anteriorly directed V- like groove, the oblique episternal scrobe usually consisting of larger punctures than precoxal line but not extending completely to subalar scrobe; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated by punctate-crenulate transepisternal line and adjacent line of setae (Fig. 72). Fore wing hyaline; bare behind submarginal vein. Propodeum (Fig. 70) with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus with elongate smooth and shiny region along at least basal half of postspiracular sulcus, but punctate- or reticulaterugose laterally and posteriorly; plical region with abruptly widened, usually more or less Y- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows delineating median carina, and with anterior-most cell much larger than more posterior cells and either subcircular or tapered posteriorly (sometimes less obvious if the cell divided by finer transverse carina); supracoxal bands contiguous with paramedian crenulate furrows; propodeal panels smooth and shiny.

Figs 62–71. Spalangia cameroni Perkins. 62 & 63, ♀ head: 62, anterior view, 63, frontolateral view; 64, ♁ head, anterior view; 65 & 66, head, lateral view: 65, ♀, 66, ♁; 67, ♀ pronotum, dorsolateral view; 68, ♀ thorax, dorsal view; 69, ♁ pronotum and mesoscutum, dorsolateral view; 70, ♀ frenum–propodeum, dorsal view; 71, ♁ frenum–petiole, dorsal view. Arrow points to median furrow of pronotum in Figs 67, 68.

Figs 72–78. Spalangia cameroni Perkins. 72, ♀ mesopleuron; 73, ♀ antenna; 74 & 75, ♀ scape: 74, inner view, 75, outer view; 76, ♁ antenna; 77 & 78, ♁ scape: 77, inner view, 78, outer view.

Petiole about 1.7–2x as long as medial width; transversely carinate to reticulate between longitudinal carinae; bare. Gaster smooth and shiny.

Male. Length = 1.3–3.1 mm. Antenna (Fig. 76) with scape about 6.3–8.6x as long as wide with inner (Fig. 77) and outer (Fig. 78) surfaces comparatively smooth and shiny, only partly and very finely longitudinally strigose apically, and inner surface sometimes with more distinct mediolongitudinal bare region; pedicel subglobular, at most about 1.3x as long as wide; flagellum with setae much shorter than width of respective segment; funicle with fu 1 about 1.4–2.3x as long as wide and about 1.4–2x as long as pedicel, and subsequent funicular segments sometimes quadrate in smaller specimens but usually oblong, the apical segments up to about 1.5x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Tarsi with basal segment yellow, but one or more subsequent segments sometimes brownish-yellow. Head in anterior view (Fig. 64) about 1.0– 1.1x as wide as high; in lateral view (Fig. 66) with malar space about 0.7–0.9x eye height and about 1.0–1.2x eye width. Head capsule sometimes more sparsely punctate than female and with extremely shallow punctures, the punctures evident only as circle around seta originating from tiny bump; gena without linear malar sulcus but sometimes with fine longitudinal striae in region of presumptive sulcus. Pronotal collar always with distinct cross-line but sometimes rugose-roughened only anteriorly or completely smooth and shiny anterior to cross-line except for setae originating from tiny bumps (Fig. 69). Mesopleuron with alar shelf usually more distinctly longitudinally carinate than carinate-reticulate. Propodeum (Fig. 71) with callus lacking smooth and shiny region adjacent to postspiracular sulcus. Petiole (Fig. 71) about 2.2–2.7x as long as medial width.

Material examined. Nearctic and Neotropical (2,023 specimens in AMNH, BMNH, CASC, CNC, CSCA, CUAC, CUIC, DENH, FSCA, INBIO, INHS, LACM, MCZH, MLPA, NCSU, OSAC, ROME, TAMU, UATV, UCRC, USNM). Complete collection records are not provided; those with host data: Nearctic. CANADA: New Brunswick, 4.IX.65, Legner, lab. reared in Riverside, IX.65, M. domestica (UCRC) . Ontario, Fitzroy Harbour, Weir farm, 45º29.349'N 76º11.938'W, 11.IX.01, G. Gibson & L. Bartels,? Physiphora demandata . Ottawa vicinity, various localities and dates 2000 and 2001, G. Gibson & L. Bartels, M. domestica and S. calcitrans (see Gibson and Floate 2004). Prince Edward Island, various records 2003, ex M. domestica and S. calcitrans (see Noronha et al. 2007). USA: California, Los Angeles Co., Chatsworth, 24.VII.51, S. calcitrans (LACM) . Sonoma Co., 24.X.63, 13.XII.63, M. domestica (USNM) . Florida, S. Florida, 1907, M.H. Muma, Anastrepha suspensa (USNM) . Alachua Co., — Gainesville, VII.74, 8.III.75, 6.V.75, 19, 20, 22, 26.VI.75, 20, 31.VII.75, 12.VIII.75, R.L. Escher, H. irritans (FSCA) ; High Springs, 19.XII.74, M. domestica (FSCA) . Colombia Co., 6.8 mi. NE Fort White, 8, 14, 21, 27.IV.83, 6, 12, 16, 18, 25.V.83, 16, 24.VI.83, 1, 7, 15.VII.83, J.T. Vaughan, S. calcitrans (FSCA) . Union Co., Lake Butler, V.73, C. Morgan, M. domestica (FSCA, LACM) . Indiana, Carroll Co., Pyrmont, 27.VII.82, M. Merchant, M. domestica (INHS) . Mississippi, Starkville, 26.VII.72, K.L. Watts, H. irritans (USNM) . State College, 30.X.68, J. Roberson, Phaenicia sp. ( USNM). New York, Kings Ferry, 18.VIII.87, C. Henderson, M. domestica (CUIC) . Sullivan Co., 6.VIII.87, C. Henderson, M. domestica (CUIC) . North Carolina, Wake Co., Raleigh, 10.VIII.81, 10.X.83, M. domestica (NCSU) . Wilkes Co., N. Wilkesboro, 14.IX.77, M. domestica (NCSU) . D.A. Rutz, M. domestica (NCSU) — Duplin Co., 19.X.76; Granville Co., Oak Hill, 26X.76, T.D. Edwards, M. domestica (CUIC) — Alamance Co., Mandale, 28.IX.77; Lenoir Co., Deep Run, 21.IX.77; Orange Co., Hillsborough, 28.IX.77; Wake Co., Raleigh, 29.VIII.77. South Carolina, Clemson, 17.VII.68, lab. reared Riverside, IX.68 ( UCRC). Oconee Co., South Union, 12.VI.73, J.R. Ables, M. domestica . Texas, Brazos Co., College Station, 26- 29.III.85, R.R. Blume, Orthellia caesarion (TAMU) . Cuero, V.40, L.F. Hitchcock, H. irritans (USNM) . Dallas, 1, 24.XI.12, 8.XII.12, H. Pinkus, S. calcitrans (USNM) . Gainesville, 29.III.13, S. calcitrans (USNM) .

Neotropical. PERU: Lima, 25.I.78, W. Dale, Musca (UCRC) . PUERTO RICO: Añasco, 25.VIII.80, B. Hawkins, M. domestica (UCRD) . Cabo Rojo, 7.II.50,? Musca domestica (USNM) . Cayey, 26.VIII.80, B. Hawkins, M. domestica (UCRC) . Hormigüeros, 28.II.50, H.K. Plank, M. domestica (USNM) . Mayaguez, H. irritans — 9.V.36, H.L. Dozier ( USNM); 20.V.40, K.A. Bartlett ( USNM) . TRINIDAD: Curepe , 7.VIII.63, E.F. Legner, M. domestica (USNM) .

Distribution. A very common cosmopolitan species that Noyes (2003) records from all six biogeographic regions. Within the New World (Fig. 79) I saw specimens from North America ( Canada, USA, Mexico), Central America ( Belize, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Panama), West Indies ( Bermuda, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Trinidad) and South America ( Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela). Additional unconfirmed records based on Noyes (2003) and De Santis (1979) include Chile, Grenada, and St. Vincent & Grenadines.

Biology. Noyes (2003) lists S. cameroni as a primary parasitoid of at least 35 species in 9 families of Diptera and as a hyperparasitoid of Bombyx mori (L.) ( Lepidoptera : Bombycidae ). Almost all host records I saw from the New World were from the three principal filth-fly pests of livestock, the house fly, stable fly and horn fly. I also saw specimens labelled as reared from the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) (Tephritidae) , Neomyia cornicina (Fabricius) (= Orthellia caesarion ) ( Muscidae ) and Phaenicia sp. (Calliphoridae) . The tentative host identification of Physiphora demandata (Fabricius) (Otitidae) by Gibson and Floate (2004) was based on pupal remains correlated with flies emerged from similar puparia.

Recognition. I include S. cameroni , S. longepetiolata and S. gemina in the cameroni species group. Species of the cameroni -group, like nigra -group species, have a coarsely sculptured pronotal collar and a complete frenal line, but unlike nigra -group species have the petiole bare or with only one or two comparatively short and inconspicuous setae laterally. Individuals of S. cameroni are most similar to those of S. gemina . In addition to the differential features given in the key, the funicular segments are usually longer in both sexes of S. cameroni (Figs 73, 76) than in S. gemina (Figs 205, 206), which Bouček (1963) used as a key character to separate the species. A single USNM female labelled “San Juan, Puerto Rico, April 1967, in mite colony in lab., I. Fox” that I identify as S. cameroni has an unusually short flagellum. The first funicular segment is only 1.2x as long as wide, the subsequent segments are obviously transverse (about 1.5x as wide as long), and the clava is only about 1.7x as long as wide, which is more typical of S. gemina . The subalar scrobe is also widened ventrally so that its posterior margin forms an almost right angle with the transepisternal line, though it is not extended posteriorly along the transepisternal line. The sculpture pattern is therefore intermediate between that typical of S. cameroni (Fig. 72) and S. gemina (Fig. 203). The female lacks a mediolongitudinal furrow from the pronotal collar, but a furrow is not evident in all S. cameroni females, and it is typical in other sculptural and structural features for S. cameroni , including relative malar space-eye dimensions, mostly smooth upper mesepimeron, and having the parascrobal region, inclined surface of the scrobal depression, and temple punctate. Further collections from Puerto Rico are necessary to better evaluate the significance of this specimen, but it was not excluded from the description of S. cameroni .

Fig. 79. Distribution of Spalangia cameroni Perkins.


American Museum of Natural History


University of California, Riverside


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Spalangia cameroni Perkins, 1910

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009

Spalangia atherigonae

Boucek, Z. 1963: 454
Boucek, Z. 1963: 454
Risbec, J. 1951: 363

Spalangia melanogastra

Viggiani, G. 1967: 3
Viggiani, G. 1967: 3
Boucek, Z. 1963: 454
Masi, L. 1940: 297

Spalangia muscidarum texensis

Burks, B. D. 1969: 6
Burks, B. D. 1969: 6
Boucek, Z. 1963: 458
Girault, A. A. 1920: 213

Spalangia philippinensis

Boucek, Z. 1963: 458
Fullaway, D. T. 1917: 294

Spalangia cameroni, Perkins, 1910: 656

Perkins, R. C. L. 1910: 656
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