Spalangia bethyloides Bou

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2009, 2259, Zootaxa 2259, pp. 1-159 : 30-35

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Spalangia bethyloides Bou


3. Spalangia bethyloides Bou View in CoL č ek, 1965

(Figs 48–61)

Spalangia bethyloides Bouček, 1965: 601–602 View in CoL ; holotype ♀ (BMNH, examined). Type data: Brazil, Nova Teutonia   GoogleMaps , 27º11' s. w. 52º23' w. l., 16.VII.1957, Fritz Plaumann.

Description. Female. Length = 1.0– 2.2 mm. Legs usually dark except at least basal 3 tarsal segments yellow and sometimes knees and apices of tibiae yellowish, but rarely legs completely yellow beyond coxae except for apical 1 or 2 tarsal segments. Head in anterior view about 1.1–1.2x as high as wide; in dorsal view about 1.9–2.1x as wide as long; in lateral view (Fig. 48) with malar space about 0.6–0.8x eye height and 1.0–1.2x

Figs 48–55. Spalangia bethyloides Bouček. 48, ♀ head, lateral view; 49, ♀ pronotum, posterodorsal view; 50, ♁ head, lateral view; 51, ♁ pronotum, dorsolateral view; 52, ♀ head, frontolateral view; 53, ♀ mesosoma, posterodorsal view. 54 & 55, mesopleuron: 54, ♀, 55, ♁.

eye width. Head capsule (Figs 48, 50, 52) smooth and shiny except for setiferous punctures as follows: with complete median sulcus extending ventrally to level of lower orbit, usually within equilateral-triangular or more transverse-oval scrobal depression, otherwise upper face and parascrobal region with pinprick-like punctures or more commonly with distinct, often flat-bottomed punctures usually separated by at least one and mostly by two or more puncture diameters (Fig. 52); scrobal depression differentiated primarily by absence of punctures, variably distinctly coriaceous above each torulus but otherwise smooth and shiny; gena punctate-reticulate to rugose near oral margin and with linear malar sulcus, but otherwise mostly smooth except for setae often originating from tiny bumps (Fig. 48); temple usually smooth, sometimes with sparse, shallow punctures. Antenna (Fig. 58) with scape about 4.8–5.7x as long as wide, the inner and outer surfaces usually punctate-reticulate to rugose, but inner surface sometimes with finer sculpture (Fig. 59); pedicel about 1.9–2.5x as long as apical width and about 2.3–3.7x as long as fu 1; funicle with fu 1 about 0.8–1.6x as wide as long, though usually quadrate to slightly longer than wide except in smallest specimens, and subsequent segments all obviously transverse with fu 7 about 1.3–1.8x as wide as long; clava about 1.7–2.1x as long as wide. Pronotal collar in lateral view only very low convex behind neck (Fig. 48) and with circumpronotal band anterolaterally, but anteriorly smoothly rounded to neck (Fig. 51); without distinct crenulate cross-line posteriorly but often with at least very shallow furrow and/or partly to completely coriaceous or longitudinally strigosecoriaceous in transverse band posteriorly, otherwise smooth, shiny, and uniformly conspicuously setose except mediolongitudinally, the setae often originating from small bumps (Fig. 49). Mesoscutal median lobe (Figs 49, 53) with anterior convex region smooth and shiny or very finely coriaceous to transversely alutaceous posteriorly; internotaular region mostly smooth and shiny but with setae often originating from small bumps lateral to variably distinctly roughened-rugulose mediolongitudinal depression, the depression sometimes divided by a median carina. Axillae (Fig. 53) shiny with setae originating from at most minute pinpricklike punctures. Scutellum (Fig. 53) flat and shiny but variably extensively setose laterally, the setae originating from at most pinprick-like punctures; frenum (Figs 53, 56, 57) with crenulate frenal line interrupted over at least medial third. Mesopleuron (Fig. 54) mostly with distinct sculpture as follows: pectal region sometimes extensively coriaceous though usually at least dorsal half comparatively smooth and shiny, and bare except for 1 posteroventral seta; acropleuron longitudinally striate-strigose and differentiated from pectal region by obliquely angled or curved carina directed toward base of tegula; subalar and episternal scrobes shallow depressions connected by a shallow, linear furrow; upper mesepimeron quite strongly coriaceous-granular or more commonly strongly, obliquely alutaceous, the sculpture becoming more coriaceous-alutaceous ventrally on lower mesepimeron; upper and lower mesepisternum differentiated by finely carinate transepisternal line and adjacent line of setae, the upper mesepisternum striate-strigose with striae obliquely angled anteriorly but more longitudinal posteriorly (Fig. 54). Fore wing hyaline or, especially disc, variably distinctly embrowned; mediocubital fold with line of at least 6 setae and basal cell with additional line of setae. Propodeum with distinct postspiracular sulcus; callus punctate-reticulate to rugulose; plical region with narrowly V- or Y- shaped paramedian crenulate furrows sometimes delineating median carina, but usually delineating at least very slen- der, flat, smooth or slightly roughened, lanceolate median band (Figs 53, 56), and furrows united into single crenulate line over at least posterior half; supracoxal bands contiguous with paramedian crenulate furrow; panels smooth and shiny.

Petiole (Fig. 56) about 1.7–2.0x as long as medial width; punctate-reticulate to reticulate-rugulose between variably distinct longitudinal carinae; bare. Gaster shiny and with Gt 1 smooth, but at least Gt 2 and Gt 3 in part very finely coriaceous.

Male. Length = 1.4–2.0 mm. Antenna (Fig. 60) with scape about 4.4–5.2x as long as wide; pedicel about 1.2–1.8x as long as wide; flagellum with conspicuous decumbent setae about as long as width of respective segment; funicle with fu 1 (Fig. 60, insert) about 3.0–5.0x as long as wide and about 1.6–3.9x as long as pedicel, and subsequent segments all obviously longer than wide, with fu 7 about 1.4–2.3x as long as wide. Otherwise similar to female except as follows. Head in anterior view about 1.0–1.1x as wide as high; in lateral view (Fig. 50) with malar space about 0.5–0.6x eye height and about 0.7–0.9x eye width. Pronotal collar always with at least fine transverse band of coriaceous-alutaceous sculpture posterolaterally (Fig. 51), and often with complete, sometimes longitudinally strigose-coriaceous transverse band. Scutellum sometimes with almost complete, but at least medially tapered and effaced frenal line. Mesopleuron (Fig. 55) sometimes with sculpture partly effaced on lower mesepimeron. Propodeum (Fig. 57) much more commonly with paramedian crenulate furrow only very narrowly V- like so as to differentiate a median carina or only very slender, posteriorly tapered median band. Petiole (Fig. 57) about 1.4–3.0x as long as medial width.

Figs 56–60. Spalangia bethyloides Bouček. 56 & 57, frenum–petiole, dorsal view: 56, ♀, 57, ♁; 58, ♀ antenna; 59, ♀ scape, inner surface; 60, ♁ antenna (insert: fu 1).

Material examined. Neotropical (125♀, 75♁). BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz, 5 km. SSE Buena Vista, 17º29.925S 63º39.128W, 440 m., Hotel Fauna y Flora, 6-15.XII.03, S. & J. Peck (2♁). BRAZIL: M. [Mato] Grosso, Rio Caraguata, 27.III.53, F. Plaumann (1♀ BMNH). Paraná — Curitiba, UFPR, Politéc. campus, 25º25'S 49º15'W, 913 m., 29.XI-I.XII.03, rainfor., D. Bickel (1♁); Rondon, VIII.52, 1, 4, 23.X.52, F. Plaumann (2♀, 2♁ BMNH). R. G. Sul. [Rio Grande do Sul], Fortaleza, viii.51, F. Plaumann (1♀ BMNH). S Bocaina, S. José Barreiro, 1650 m., XI.68, M. Oliveira (1♀). Sierra de Bocaina, S. Paulo, 1650 m., XI.68, M. Alvarenga (1♁). Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia, F. Plaumann — 11.IV.41 (1♀ AEIC), 9, 13, 22.V.41, 9, 10, 19.VI.41, 12.VIII.41, 18.VII.43, 26.VIII.43, 5, 7, 10, 13, 14, 18, 28.VIII.44, 15, 16, 18, 25, 26, 27.IX.44, 19.X.44, 2, 17, 20, 22, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28.II.50, 6, 8, 26.III.50, 5, 21, 29.IV.50, 11, 18.XII.51, 13.XII.51, 8.VIII.52, 5.XI.55 (53♀, 36♁ BMNH), 8.X.65 (1♀ MCZH); 27º11'S 52º23'W, VII.57 (1♀ paratype, BMNH), 300- 500 m., IV.71, IX.71, V.72, VI.72, VII.72, VIII.72, VIII-II.72, IX.72, X.72, XI.72, I.73 (30♀, 14♁). COSTA RICA: Alajuela, 5 km. W San Ramón, 1200 m., XI.76, O. Castro & P. Hanson (1♀ MZCR). Cartago, Turrialba, Café, 650 m., V-VI.94, M. Cerda & P. Hanson (1♁ MZCR). Guanacaste Prov., P. N. Guanacaste, 9 km. S Sta. Cecilia, Est. Pitilla, 700 m., 24.VIII-11.IX.92, P. Rica (1♀ INBIO). Heredia, Chilamate, 75 m., 25.III.89, Hanson & Godoy (1♀ MZCR). Pta. La Selva, 50 m., II.80, W. Mason (1♀). Puntarenas, Golfo Dulce, P. Hanson — W Piedras Blanca, 100 m., III-V.89, VI-VII.89 (3♀ MZCR); SW Rincon, 10 m., VI.91 (1♀ MZCR). Puntarenas, Los Patos, Par. Nac. Corcovado, 8º33'N 83º30'W, 200 m., II.00, 1-9.III.00, J.S. Noyes & M.A. Asofeifa (2♀ UCDC). Puntarenas Prov., Res. Biol. Carara, Est. Quebrada Bonita, 50 m., VI.92, J.C. Saborio (1♁ INBIO). San José, San Antonio Escazú, 1300 m., VIII.73, W. Eberhard & P. Hanson (1♀ MZCR). DOMINICA: 1.7 mi. E Pont. Cassé, 2000 ft, 4-11.III.65, H.E. Evans (1♀ USNM). Holmwood Est., 19.VII.65, D.L. Jackson (1♀ USNM). S Chiltern Est., 2.II.65, W.W. Wirth (1♁ USNM). St. Paul Parish, Springfield Estate, 505 m., 20-27.XII.94, L. Masner (2♀, 1♁). St. Peter Parish, Morne Diablotin, 700- 900 m., 26.XII.94, vir. for., L. Masner (1♁). ECUADOR: Napo, Limoncocha, 250 m., 15-28.VI.76, S. & J. Peck (1♁). Pichincha, S. & J. Peck — Sto. Domingo, VI-VIII.85 (1♀); Tinalandia, 500 m., 4-14.VI.76 (1♀, 1♁). FRENCH GUIANA: Kaw Mountains, 4º33.562' N 52º12.425'W, 3-27.III.07, K. Sarv (1♀). JAMAICA: Ocho Rios, Fern Gully, 19.II-1.III.84, D.H. Lindeman (1♀). MEXICO: Quintana Roo, Chetumal, 350 ft, 15.VII.83, R. Anderson (1♁). PANAMA: Canal Zone, Barro Colorado Is. — III.40, J. Zetek no. 4645, Rf. Heliconia mariae flrs. (1♀, 2♁ USNM); XI.41, J. Zetek no. 4920, Calathea violacea (2♀, 4♁ USNM); IX.42, X. Zetek no. 5027, fls. Anthurium (1♁ USNM); 16.II.76, A. Newton, external refuse deposit of Atta columbica AFN 3 (3♀ MCZH); 29.II.55, nest Eciton, C.W. Rettenmeyer (1♀ USNM). Panama [city], 3 km. N Torti, Rio Torti, 8º05.96'N 78º23.77'W, 150 m., 18.I.01, J.L. Garcia (1♁). [Las] Sabanas, 2.IV.23, R.C. Shannon (1♁ USNM). ST. VINCENT: H.H. Smith, 207 (1♁ USNM). Charlotte, Montreal, 8.VII.76, J.S. Noyes (1♀ BMNH). VENEZUELA: Aragua, Parque Nat. H. Pittier — Portachuelo Pass, 1021'N 6741'W, 1100 m., 14.V.98, S. Ashe & R. Brooks (2♀, 1♁); Rancho Grande env., 1100 m., 9-10.IV.94 (3♀); La Trilla, 200 m. 11- 14.IV.94 (1♀), L. Masner. Mérida, 3 km. N La Azulita, 8.IV.88, A. Finamore (1♀).

Distribution. Neotropical (Fig. 61), from Yucatán Peninsula ( Mexico) through Central America ( Costa Rica, Panama), West Indies ( Dominica, Jamaica, St. Vincent) and South America ( Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, French Guiana, Venezuela).

Biology. Diptera hosts unknown, but collected near the nests of Atta columbica (Guerin) and Eciton ( Hymenoptera : Formicidae ).

Recognition. I include S. bethyloides as one of seven species in the drosophilae species group as discussed under S. drosophilae . The species has not been mentioned in non-catalog literature since its original description and when identified usually was misidentified as S. drosophilae in collections. These two species and S. plaumanni are the most common of the seven drosophilae -group species. Spalangia bethyloides is the only one of the three to have the pectal region extensively smooth, shiny and bare, more or less mirror-like reflective, as well as the upper mesepisternum obliquely striate-strigose and delineated from the lower mesepisternum by both a fine transepisternal ridge and adjacent line of setae (Figs 54, 55). Spalangia drosophilae has a mirror-like reflective pectal region, but its upper mesepisternum is comparatively smooth and shiny to coriaceous-granular or finely reticulate, and it merges indistinguishably with the lower mesepisternum except for a variably complete line of setae (Figs 122, 123) (see further under S. drosophilae ). Spalangia plaumanni uniquely has a completely sculptured and setose pectal region (Fig. 395), though only sparsely setose in some males (Fig. 396).

I have not seen any specimens of S. bethyloides collected north of the isthmus of Tehunatepec, Mexico. Most individuals from Dominica have the legs completely yellow beyond the coxae similar to S. flavicrus , but one male and female have the front and hind femora variably distinctly brown. The Dominica specimens also have an unusually distinct, broad cross-band of coriaceous sculpture on the pronotal collar, but I found no other differences between these specimens and S. bethyloides from elsewhere. Currently, I consider the two differences that characterize Dominican specimens of S. bethyloides as only regional (island) differences.

Fig. 61. Distribution of Spalangia bethyloides Bouček.


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Spalangia bethyloides Bou

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2009

Spalangia bethyloides Bouček, 1965: 601–602

Boucek, Z. 1965: 602
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