Lamprophaea longicirrata ( Treadwell, 1902 ) Salazar-Vallejo, 2020

Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I., 2020, Revision of Leocrates Kinberg, 1866 and Leocratides Ehlers, 1908 (Annelida, Errantia, Hesionidae), Zootaxa 4739 (1), pp. 1-114 : 36-38

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Lamprophaea longicirrata ( Treadwell, 1902 )

n. comb.

Lamprophaea longicirrata ( Treadwell, 1902) n. comb., reinst.

Figs 3 View FIGURE 3 , 6 View FIGURE 6 , 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 , 18 View FIGURE 18 , Table 2 View TABLE 2

Castalia longicirrata Treadwell, 1902: 185 , Figs 2–3 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 (publication year modified after corresponding journal cover).? Dalhousiella longicirrata: Hartman 1956: 278 (n. comb.).

Leocrates chinensis: Pettibone, 1970: 214 , Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 (non Kinberg, 1866).

Leocrates longicirratus: Pleijel 1998: 160 (n. comb.).

Type material. Western Atlantic. Virgin Islands. Holotype of Castalia longicirrata ( USNM 15915 View Materials ), off Saint- Thomas, Sail Rock, U.S. Fish Commission Porto Rico Expedition, U.S.S: Fish Hawk, Sta. (151) 6079, coral, 36–41 m, 6 Feb. 1899.

Additional material. Western Atlantic. Florida, USA. Four specimens ( ECOSUR 3075 View Materials ), 800 m SSW off Alligator Reef Light (24°50’39” N, 80°37’30” W), 5–8 m, 30 Apr. 1961, pronox fish/dipnet, W. Starck, H. Feddem & T. Starck, coll. [13–32 mm long, 2–4 mm wide] GoogleMaps . One specimen ( UF 1890 ), N off St. Petersburg, hard ground with sponges (28°27’33.12” N, 84°16’18.48” W), 32 m, 13 Mar. 2011, G. Paulay, N. Evans, F. Michonneau, coll. [32 mm long, 4 mm wide] GoogleMaps . Two specimens ( UF 2531 ), NNW of St. Petersburg, S of Big Bend area, sponge reef (28°26’17.88” N, 84°16’21.00” W), 35 m, hard bottom, 23 May 2012, J. Slapcinsky, coll. [24–32 mm long, 3–4 mm wide] GoogleMaps . Five specimens (UF 2531/2582), NNW of St. Petersburg, S of Big Bend area, sponge reef (28°26’17.88” N, 84°16’21.00” W), 35 m, hard bottom, 23 May 2012, J. Slapcinsky, coll. [19–31 mm long, 2–4 mm wide] GoogleMaps . One specimen ( UF 2534 ), NNW of St. Petersburg, S of Big Bend area, sponge reef (28°26’17.88” N, 84°16’21.00” W), 35 m, hard bottom, 23 May 2012, J. Slapcinsky, coll. [23.5 mm long, 3.0 mm wide]. Panama GoogleMaps . One specimen ( UF 4933 ), Bocas del Toro, Punta Puebla (09°22’01.20” N, 82°17’27.60” W), 27 May 2016, M. Leray, F. Michonneau & R. Lasley, coll. [broken into two pieces, 8+ 7 mm long, 2 mm wide] GoogleMaps


Description. Holotype (USNM 15915) complete, damaged, bent laterally; right parapodia of chaetigers 3, 10 and 12, and left parapodia of chaetigers 3, 7, 8 previously removed (one in small container, without specification about its position, probably what Pettibone illustrated). Body obconic, blunt anteriorly, tapered posteriorly, colorless ( Fig. 18A View FIGURE 18 ), 19 mm long, 3 mm wide, 16 chaetigers; most cirri missing.

Prostomium wider than long, lateral margins progressively narrower, round ( Fig. 18B View FIGURE 18 ). Lateral antennae (left one complete) longer than prostomium, ceratophores distinct, antennae slightly longer than palps. Palps pale, palpophores three times longer than palpostyles. Median antenna missing, scar inserted between eyes.

Eyes brownish, anterior ones reniform, twice larger than posterior, round ones; in lateral view anterior and posterior eyes clearly separated.

Nuchal organs lobes L-shaped, lateral branches different in length, right one longer, exceeding lateral prostomial margin, left one smaller, as long as reaching lateral prostomial margin level, ridge whitish; lateral ciliated areas narrow. Tentacular cirri broken, left ones without middle to distal regions, detaching, reaching back up to chaetiger 4. Lateral cushions low, entire, longitudinal striae not visible.

Pharynx exposed, anterior margin smooth, with subdistal circle of irregular round constrictions ( Fig. 18C View FIGURE 18 ). Upper and lower jaws single, inserted slightly subdistally, brownish.

Chaetigers 1–4 without notochaetae, notochaetae present along chaetigers 5–16, most broken, about 50 per bundle, delicately denticulate subdistally. Notacicular lobes shorter than neurochaetal ones, tapered, blunt, tips swollen ( Fig. 18D View FIGURE 18 , inset). Neuracicular lobes round or blunt, as long as wide ( Fig. 18D View FIGURE 18 ). Neurochaetae sparse, about 20 per bundle, blades most broken, decreasing in size ventrally, 3–9 times longer than wide ( Fig. 18D View FIGURE 18 , insets), blades bidentate, guard approaching subdistal tooth, sometimes broken.

Posterior region damaged, slightly invaginated, preanal segment barely visible, cirri missing. Pygidium damaged, anal cirri missing.

Oocytes not seen.

Variation. There are slight differences in nuchal organs lobes during ontogeny ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Smaller specimens have lobes slightly divergent, and they proceed by growing laterally, often surpassing the level of lateral prostomial margins; they can be obscured by the tentacular belt anterior margin, but at least the tips of the lateral branches are evident. Parapodial features show some size-related variations ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 ). These variations are subtle regarding notacicular or neuracicular lobes, and they are round in anterior chaetigers, becoming longer in middle and posterior parapodia. The number of chaetae as well as the relative length of neurochaetal blades is size dependent ( Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 ); neurochaetal blades are longer along anterior chaetigers and in the upper neurochaetal bundle, and become shorter in following chaetigers and in the lower neurochaetal bundle ( Table 2 View TABLE 2 ). Anatomical features ( Fig. 8 View FIGURE 8 ) were illustrated for a single specimen but no other ones were dissected.

Remarks. Treadwell (1902) with one specimen collected in Puerto Rico coral bottoms (36–41 m depth), described Castalia longicirrata . He was the first to refer to nuchal organs, but called them “diverging processes” in the posterior prostomial margin, and indicated size proportions between lateral antennae and palps. His description indicated that anterior eyes were twice larger than posterior ones, and gave some details for chaetae. Treadwell’s original description was enhanced by Augener (1906: 155), by describing Castalia hesionoides (now Dalhousiella hesionoides ), with specimens collected in sediments at 300–720 m off the Lesser Antilles. Augener compared these two species and clarified the shape of nuchal organs and its lateral lobes, and indicated size proportions between palpophore and palpostyles.

Lamprophaea longicirrata ( Treadwell, 1902) is newly combined because of the shape of the nuchal organs lobes, and its upper and lower jaws are single, fang shaped. Augener (1906: 156–157) provided details about L. longicirrata in his description of Dalhousiella hesionides . Pettibone (1970:215) regarded L. longicirrata as a junior synonym of L. chinensis Kinberg, 1866 , but their nuchal organs are so different that they are herein regarded as belonging to different genera, and consequently, L. longicirrata is reinstated.

As indicated in the key above, L. longicirrata belongs in the group provided with notochaetae from chaetiger 5 and with palpophores three times longer than palpostyles. It differs from the other species in the group, L. cuprea Grube, 1867 , L. pleijeli n. sp. and L. cornuta n. sp. by being pale and by having convergent, round posterior prostomial margins, instead of being angular, neither round nor convergent.

Distribution. The holotype was collected in the Virgin Islands, in coral rocks at 36– 41 m. It has been found from Florida to Panama, in the Western tropical Atlantic, from shallow water (5 m), hard bottoms. The record by Rullier & Amoureux (1979: 159) of Leocrates claparedii for the Abrolhos Archipelago, Brazil, might be conspecific but the specimen was not available for confirmation.














Lamprophaea longicirrata ( Treadwell, 1902 )

Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I. 2020

Leocrates longicirratus:

Pleijel, F. 1998: 160

Leocrates chinensis: Pettibone, 1970: 214

Pettibone, M. H. 1970: 214

Castalia longicirrata

Hartman, O. 1956: 278
Treadwell, A. L. 1902: 185