Odontostilbe pulchra ( Gill, 1858 ),
Bührnheim, Cristina M. & Malabarba, Luiz R., 2007, Redescription of Odontostilbe pulchra (Gill, 1858) (Teleostei: Characidae: Cheirodontinae), and description of two new species from the río Orinoco basin, Neotropical Ichthyology 5 (1), pp. 1-20: 2-11
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|Odontostilbe pulchra ( Gill, 1858 )|
Fig. 1View Fig
Poecilurichthys pulcher Gill, 1858: 419 [original description, type locality: western portion of the Island of Trinidad].
Tetragonopterus pulcher . - Günther, 1864: 317 [new generic combination].
Chirodon (Odontostilbe) pulcher . - Lütken, 1875: 236-238 [new generic combination, redescription].
Odontostilbe pulcher . - Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1892: 54 [new generic combination]. - Eigenmann, 1909: 327 [listed, Trinidad]. - Eigenmann, 1910: 429 [listed, Trinidad]. - Price, 1955: 11, Fig. 3 [map with distribution in the Caroni, Caparo, and northern Oropouche drainages in Trinidad, known to occur inVenezuela]. - Boeseman, 1960:72, 88-89 [listed, synonym list]. - Eigenmann, 1920: 4, 9-10 [listed to the Valencia basin, Venezuela, Maracay, Rio Bue]. - Schultz, 1944: 318- 319 [list of synonyms, specimen from Caripito, Venezuela].
Cheirodon pulcher . - Ulrey, 1895: 289-290 [in key, including teeth counts, Trinidad].
Chirodon pulcher . - Regan, 1906: 378, 380, 385, Pl. XXII. Fig. 2View Fig [species redescription, distribution Trinidad, Cumuto, partial designation in key, illustration]. - Guppy, 1934: 118, 120-122, Fig. 5View Fig [recorded in ponds and water holes in the vicinity of rice fields, compilation of Regan’s 1906 drawing, listed as larvicidal fish, usually in dams, only from Trinidad].
Odontostilbe pulchra . - Eigenmann, 1915: 90, 95-96, Pl. XVII. Fig. 1View Fig [in key, Regan’s characters compilation, reproduction of Regan’s illustration]. - Fowler, 1943: 65-66. Fig. 2View Fig [common name sardine doree, drawing of a specimen]. - Böhlke, 1954: 137-140 [possibly synonym of Odontostilbe fugitiva , table with measurements and counts of O. pulchra and O. fugitiva ]. - Géry, 1977: 558 [in key].
Syntypes. MNHN 0000-9593, 2 (females 28.7mm SL and 30.8mm SL), western portion of Trinidad .
Non-type material. Uncertain drainage, TRINIDAD: CAS 70933View Materials, 1View Materials (male 24.7 mm SL), 10°37’N 61°13’W. Cunapo River basinGoogleMaps , TRINIDAD: INHS 40081View Materials, 4View Materials m (2 females 32.6-33.3 mm SL, 2 unsexed 26.3-29.9mm SL), Quare River , 1km E Valencia on road to Arima .
Caroni River basin, TRINIDAD: ANSP 70181View Materials, 1View Materials (unsexed 18.2 mm SL), sent from Port-of-Spain . INHS 40101View Materials, 20View Materials m (13 males 29.4- 32.7 mm SL, 1 male 32.5 mm SL c&s, 4 females 33.6-34.6 mm SL, 1 female 34.4 mm SL c&s, and 1 unsexed 25.1 mm SL), Cumuto River , 5 km S Brazil on the road to Talparo. ROM 41035View Materials, 9View Materials unsexed 17.9- 27.6 mm, east side of north-south canal south of Blue river , Caroni swamp . ROM 44764View Materials, 20View Materials m (6 males 26.2-28.6 mmSL, 11 females 28.4-36.9 mm SL, 3 unsexed 28.3-31.2 mm SL), near Bamboo Grove on Churchill and Roosevelt highway, St. Joseph River . ROM 1082View Materials, 2View Materials c&s (1 male, 1 unsexed), near Bamboo Grove on Churchill and Roosevelt highway, St. Joseph River . ROM 1139View Materials CS, 1 c&s, near Bamboo Grove on Churchill and Roosevelt highway, St. Joseph River . USNM 290410View Materials, 7View Materials unsexed 30.8-37.2 mm SL, Valencia River , [Aripo River drainage, upper Caroni River basin] . USNM 177552View Materials, 50View Materials (2c of 10 females 27.1-36.3 mm SL, 11 males 26.6-32.1 mm SL, 6 unsexed 14.6-18.2 mm SL), [Caroni County], Piarco. O’Meara River basin, TRINIDAD : ROM 41069View Materials, 1View Materials m (female 35.0 mm SL), small stream, 13 miles east of Port Spain on Churchill-Roosevelt highway, at B1- 13, 10°38’N 61°20’W. Bejucal River basin, TRINIDADGoogleMaps : UMMZ 189000View Materials, 20View Materials of 40 (20 unsexed 18.5-29.2 mm SL), [Caroni County, Cunupia], Mt. Plaisance Village , BWI. Tuy River basin - Caribbean coastal drainage , VENEZUELA: INHS 29318View Materials, 16View Materials (3 males 24.8- 27.0 mm SL, 1 male 28.9 mm SL, 12 unsexed 12.5-32.0 mm SL), Miranda, Quebrada Querepe, tributary of río Merecure , 5 km NE Caucagua. Río Unare basin - Caribbean coastal drainage, VEN- EZUELA: ANSP 165594View Materials, 2View Materials (unsexed 18.9-21.8 mm SL) alizarin stained, [Anzoategui], Laguna at San Pable, L. Encantada . INHS 31295View Materials, 5View Materials (1 male 34.0 mm SL, 4 unsexed 20.5-22.9 mm SL), Guarico, quebrada Honda, río Unare , 7 km W Zaraza , hwy. 13. Lake Valencia basin , VENEZUELA: CAS 70934View Materials, 43View Materials (19 males 28.5-31.3 mm SL, 9 females 31.5-36.4 mm SL, 15 unsexed 24.7-37.9 mm SL), Aragua, [ río Bue ], Maracay . MCP 14945View Materials, 9View Materials (1 male 29.8 mm SL, 8 unsexed 25.1- 34.5 mm SL), caño Cambur tributary to Lake Valencia , 11 km S El Valencia , formerly ANSP 150108View Materials . INHS 60011View Materials, 6View Materials (1 male 29.2 mm SL, 5 unsexed 24.4-29.3 mm SL), Carabobo , río Las Penitas , Vigirima, 10°20’N 67°52’W. Río Meta basinGoogleMaps , COLOMBIA, META: ANSP 128231View Materials, 10View Materials of 41 (7 males 24.6-28.9 mm SL, 3 females 29.5-30.5 mm SL), río Metica ca. 3 km SE Mozambique ranch, 03°57’N 73°02’W. ANSP 131976View Materials, 21View Materials (5 males 26.4-31.6 mm SL, 16 unsexed 25.1-37.7 mm SL), río Metica , ca. 1.5 km E of Rajote. ANSP 131977View Materials, 10View Materials (2 males 25.5-31.3 mm SL, 8 unsexed 25.1-32.6 mm SL), same locality as ANSP 131976 . ANSP 133239View Materials, 2View Materials (unsexed 28.0- 32.1 mm SL), caño Rico at Brasília . ANSP 139335View Materials, 8View Materials (unsexed 25.1-35.6 mm SL), same locality as ANSP 128231 . ANSP 139346View Materials, 10View Materials x of 15 (6 males 21.2-30.8 mm SL, 2 females 32.0- 30.1 mm SL, 7 unsexed 25.3- 31.5 mm SL), same locality as ANSP 128231 . ANSP 139347View Materials, 1View Materials (female 29.6 mm SL), tributary of caño El Chocho ca. 5 km N of La Siberia. ANSP 139348View Materials, 10View Materials (2 males 23.1 mm SL & 25.0 mm SL, 8 unsexed 24.4-29.5 mm SL), tributary of caño La Raya, 1 st caño N of La Siberia. ANSP 139349View Materials, 3View Materials (females 29.1-33.5 mm SL), laguna El Batin, ca. 4 km SW upstream of lake Mozambique , S side of río Metica . ANSP 139450View Materials, 8View Materials of 21 (4 males 24.2-25.9 mm SL, 4 females 25.7-27.5 mm SL) , MCP 40990View Materials (1 male 24.3 mm SL c&s, 1 female 26.9 mm SL c&s), laguna Doctor Sanchez , a cut-off oxbow, entrance ca. 5 km SW from inlet to lake Mozambique, 03°56’N 73°08’WGoogleMaps . ANSP 139452View Materials, 2View Materials (1 male 25.4 mm SL, 1 female 25.5 mm SL), río Negro , downstream from main Villavicencio-Puerto Lopez highway at La Balsa, W side of river . ANSP 139456View Materials, 1View Materials (female 33.8 mm SL), río Negrito at bridge on road joining Puerto Lopez and Villavicencio, 200-400 yd downstream of bridge . ANSP 139469View Materials, 4View Materials (2 males 24.2- 27.3 mm SL, 2 females 27.1-27.6 mm SL), same locality as ANSP 139349 . ANSP 139471View Materials, 23View Materials of 63 (11 males 23.1-27.4 mm SL, 12 females 28.4-32.6mm SL), caño Rico at La Defensa, NW of Laguna Mozambique , becomes caño Buenaventura before entering río Negro . ANSP 139472View Materials, 94View Materials m (4 males 23.0-25.0 mm SL, 4 females 27.2-34.7 mm SL), tributary of La Raya , 1 st caño north of La Siberia, 04°50’N 73°05’WGoogleMaps . ANSP 139485View Materials, 74View Materials (14 males 18.9-23.6 mm SL, 60 unsexed 18.3-24.3 mm SL), Mozambique ranch, lake Mozambique, N shore at main house . ANSP 139572View Materials, 3View Materials x of 128 (68 males 20.9-31.1 mm SL, 60 unsexed 24.5-33.9 mm SL), río Negrito at bridge at La Balsa . ANSP 139579View Materials, 20View Materials m of 199 (10 males 16.6-25.7 mm SL, 10 females 23.1- 29.2 mm SL), Mozambique ranch, lake Mozambique, N end directly in front of main house . ANSP 140762View Materials, 1View Materials (male 24.6 mm SL), Metica river , upstream from entrance to lake Mozambique, halfway to entrance to laguna Arrotas . ANSP 140794View Materials, 19View Materials (3 males 20.5-24.5 mm SL, 16 unsexed 18.6-29.8 mm SL), same locality as ANSP 139347 . ANSP 140830View Materials, 34View Materials (9 males 24.5-28.8 mm SL, 2 females 32.9 mm SL, 23 unsexed 21.7-31.7 mm SL), confluence of río Guayariba and río Metica . FMNH 84037View Materials, 4View Materials (1 unsexed 26.7, 3 males 26.6-28.3 mm SL), río Meta , temporary pool near caño Venturosa, at 1 km N Puerto Lopez. ICNMHN 935, 1 (female 40.4 mm SL), Meta, [Cundinamarca], Quebrada Tascona, río Guacavia , [upper río Meta] . INPA 25174View Materials, 30View Materials (15 males 23.2-30.0 mm SL, 15 unsexed 24.1-32.0 mm SL), same data as ANSP 139572 . MCP 14942View Materials, 5View Materials (2 males 27.9- 27.6 mm SL, 3 unsexed 23.2-26.8 mm SL), Mozambique ranch, río Metica, just SW of lake Mozambique. MCP 14946View Materials, 5View Materials (females 25.7-30.7 mm SL), lake Mozambique , Mozambique ranch N side, formerly 137577 . MCP 14952View Materials, 5View Materials (females 27.9-32.4 mm SL), same locality as ANSP 139347, formerly ANSP 134733View Materials . MCP 14956View Materials, 20View Materials (10 males 19.1-24.2 mm SL, 10 unsexed 14.9-23.3 mm SL), formerly ANSP 139579View Materials . MCP 14964View Materials, 10View Materials (4 males 29.2-31.6 mm SL, 8 unsexed 28.2-32.1 mm SL), formerly ANSP 131977View Materials . MCP 14965View Materials, 20View Materials (3 males 23.8-26.4, 17 unsexed 22.3-28.0 mm SL), formerly ANSP 139472View Materials . MCP 14966View Materials, 20View Materials (7 males 25.1-30.8 mm, 13 unsexed 29.6-34.4 mm SL), formerly ANSP 131976View Materials . MCP 14975View Materials, 20View Materials (1m male 29.5 mm SL, 1m female 29.6 mm SL, 18 unsexed 16.2-23.2 mm SL), formerly ANSP 139485View Materials . MCP 38863View Materials, 19View Materials m of 49 (9 males 22.4-29.9mm SL, 1 male 30.6mm SL c&s, 3 females 32.0- 33.4 mm SL, 1 female 30.8 mm SL c&s, and 5 unsexed 24.2- 22.8 mm SL), formerly ANSP 139572View Materials . MHNG 2171.39View Materials, 2View Materials (unsexed 26.7-28.3 mm SL), Villavicencio, upper río Meta . MHNG 2171.82View Materials, 2View Materials (unsexed 20.8-21.4 mm SL), floodplains, caño Carupa of río Guachariria. Golfo de Paria coastal drainage, VEN- EZUELA, MONAGAS: ANSP 150112View Materials, 9View Materials (1 male 29.7 mm, 8 unsexed 26.7-34.1 mm SL), río Pina , 6 km N of Maturín , [ Golfo de Paria ] . MCP 14970View Materials, 8View Materials (unsexed 25.5-32.2 mm SL), formerly ANSP 150112View Materials . INHS 31438View Materials, 11View Materials (2 males 27.2-34.7 mm SL, 9 unsexed 18.9-38.4 mm SL), río De Oro , río Guarapiche- río San Juan drainage, 4 km SW Jusepín. INHS 31461View Materials, 14View Materials (unsexed 18.8-33.6 mm SL), río Guanipa (Caribbean Sea Dr.), 20 km SSE Maturín on hwy. 10. INHS 31485View Materials, 9View Materials (unsexed 19.7-25.9 mm SL), río Tigre , 50 km of Maturín, rt. 10 bridge . USNM 163149View Materials, 11View Materials (8 males 27.9-31.9 mm SL, 3 unsexed 31.1-37.3 mm SL), Caicara, Guarapiche river . Río Orinoco basin , VENEZUELA, ANZOATEGUI: ANSP 159909View Materials, 7View Materials (unsexed 21.9-27.2 mm SL), río Orinoco at Soledad boat launch just below Puente Angostura . INHS 61950View Materials, 14View Materials (4 males 23.8-26.8 mm SL, 10 unsexed 20.9- 28.3 mm SL), [río Caris], in hato El Moron, SE of El Tigre. VEN- EZUELA, BOLIVAR: ANSP 160790View Materials, 5View Materials x of 40 (unsexed 20.0- 31.6 mm SL), river and flooded area 15 km N of Maniapure on Caicara - Puerto Ayacucho hwy (río Chaviripa?) . ANSP 160819View Materials, 20View Materials (1 male 29.2 mm SL, 19 unsexed 20.9-35.1 mm SL), small stream crossing Caicara - Puerto Ayacucho hwy 18 km N of Maniapure. USNM 233520View Materials, 95View Materials (unsexed 16.1-23.4 mm SL), río Orocopiche , ca. 15 km from mouth in río Orinoco, downstream from route 19 bridge, 08°03’N 63°40’WGoogleMaps . VENEZUELA, DELTA AMACURO: USNM 233359View Materials, 97View Materials (unsexed 18.3-25.0 mm SL), río Orinoco , small caño on w side just above downstream mouth of caño Remolinos, 74 nautical miles upstream from Sea Buoy . USNM 233652View Materials, 37View Materials (unsexed 19.8-31.8 mm SL), río Orinoco , backwater caño Araguao, 112 nautical miles upstream from Sea Buoy . USNM 233689View Materials, 6View Materials (unsexed 23.7-26.7 mm SL), río Orinoco , lagoon at caño Araguaito, ca. km 130 . VENEZUELA, MONAGAS: USNM 233745View Materials, 31View Materials (1 male 25.5 mm SL, 30 unsexed 18.6-26.8 mm SL), río Orinoco , Barrancas, laguna El Guatero, 143 nautical miles upstream from Sea Buoy. Río Essequibo basin, Cuyuní drainage , VENEZUELA, BOLIVAR: CAS 70907View Materials, 9View Materials (unsexed 19.9-23.6 mm SL), río Carichapo , 30 km E of Upata , 200 km E of ciudad Bolivar. INHS 31574View Materials, 5View Materials (unsexed 20.7-27.0 mm SL), río Oronata , río Yuruari drainage, between Upata & El Manteco . INHS 31625View Materials, 20View Materials (2 males 24.7-25.2 mm SL, 1 female 26.6 mm SL, 17 unsexed 19.9-25.4 mm SL), tributary of río Yuruari , 3 km W Guasipati via La Pastora . INHS 31662View Materials, 7View Materials (unsexed 21.2-26.2 mm SL), tributary of río Yuruari , near La Pastora, W of Guasipati. INHS 31754View Materials, 16View Materials (3 males 20.8-23.1 mm SL, 13 unsexed 20.7-28.5 mm SL), río Corumo , E Tumeremo on road to Bochinche . INHS 31718View Materials, 23View Materials unsexed 17.9- 23.7 mm SL, río Guanare , río Yuruari drainage, El Miamo . INHS 31744View Materials, 14View Materials (4 males 21.4-24.5 mm SL, 7 females 22.8-25.5 mm SL, 3 unsexed 21.2-21.6 mm SL), tributary of río Corumo , E Tumeremo on road to Bochinche. Río Apure basin , VENEZUELA, GUARICO: ANSP 139544View Materials, 7View Materials (unsexed 22.7-25.5 mm SL), Camaguán swamp, on W side of highway to San Fernando de Apure, ca. 2 km N of Camaguán. ANSP 141553View Materials, 16View Materials (unsexed 16.3-26.6 mm SL), río Orituco , tributary of río Guarico, 15 km SSE of Calabozo on Cazorla Road. ANSP 149992View Materials, 4View Materials (2 males 31.0- 32.8 mm SL, 2 unsexed 22.4-25.9 mm SL), [ upper río Guarico ], lagoon 2-15 km SW El Sombrero. ANSP 163489View Materials, 7View Materials (3 males 23.2-24.5 mm SL, 4 unsexed 25.6-25.9 mm SL), río Portuguesa ; caño Falcón, laguna La Raya near Camaguán . CAS 70882View Materials, 3View Materials (2 males 26.1- 25.8 mm SL, 1 female 28.0 mm SL), spring brook, a tributary to río Guarico , 5 km south of Calabozo . CAS 70906View Materials, 30View Materials of 119 (unsexed 19.0- 34.2 mm SL), spring brook, tributary of río Guarico , 6 km southwest of Calabozo . MCP 14961View Materials, 6View Materials (unsexed 18.2-25.3 mm SL), formerly ANSP 139544View Materials . MCP 14976View Materials, 16View Materials (unsexed 16.8-28.4 mm SL), formerly ANSP 141553View Materials . USNM 260590View Materials, 10View Materials (unsexed 18.8-28.8 mm SL), río Orituco where crossed by road from Calabozo . VENEZUELA, APURE: ANSP 140752View Materials, 12View Materials (unsexed 19.0- 28.7 mm SL), río Apure , S bank and backwater areas downstream side of bridge at San Fernando de Apure . INHS 28049View Materials, 17View Materials (unsexed 18.6-26.7 mm SL), río Arauca overflow pool, upper río Apure, north edge of Elorza . INHS 89783View Materials, 22View Materials (unsexed of 140 13.5-16.9 mm SL), caño Caicara, río Matiyure drainage, ca. 15 km SSW Mantecal on Bruzual-Elorza road. USNM 260598View Materials, 28View Materials (16 males 28.3-35.0 mm SL, 11 unsexed 19.4-22.9 mm SL), Centro de Recria M.A.C. – Mantecal , pools along side of road about 2.5 km south of road from Mantecal . USNM 260601View Materials, 21View Materials (3 males 21.1-22.2 mm SL, 18 unsexed 21.2-29.5 mm SL), side channel of río Apure ca. 5 km west of San Fernando de Apure . USNM 330330View Materials, 2View Materials (1 male 25.1 mm SL, 1 female 25.3 mm SL), modulos experimentales de Mantecal . VENEZUELA, PORTUGUESA: CAS 64404View Materials, 4View Materials (unsexed 19.3-30.7 mm SL), caño Maraca en el puente 60 km via Guanare- Guanarito road . FMNH 96160View Materials, 20View Materials (1 male 31.1 mm SL, 19 unsexed 25.4-31.2 mm SL), Guanare , río Maria, side pool, 800 m upstream from bridge, 4 km E of Guanare. INHS 54553View Materials, 20View Materials (unsexed of 48 16.7- 22.8 mm SL), caño Maraca, caño Ignes, río Portuguesa drainage, on road from Guanare to Guanarito at 60 km marker . INHS 54650View Materials, 3View Materials (unsexed 18.0- 19.9 mm SL), río Portuguesa , Hwy. 5 bridge . INHS 56134View Materials, 1View Materials (unsexed 20.1 mm SL), río Portuguesa , Hwy. 5 bridge . INHS 89824View Materials, 6View Materials (unsexed 13.3-16.8 mm SL), caño Mamón, río Portuguesa drainage, El Mamón, 24 km E Guanare. USNM 332091View Materials, 10View Materials (1 male 32.0 mm SL, 9 unsexed 25.6-32.1 mm SL), río Portuguesa , cerca de Nueva Florida . USNM 348669View Materials, 1View Materials unsexed (26.3 mm SL), Guanare- Guanarito road at road Km 60, 08°49’39’’N 69°20’42’’WGoogleMaps . VENEZU- ELA, COJEDES: CAS 70884View Materials, 45View Materials (1 male 27.6 mm SL, 44 unsexed 22.4-29.8 mm SL), río Tinaquillo , Orinoco basin . CAS 70901View Materials, 14View Materials unsexed 25.9-38.2 mm SL, same locality as CAS 70884View Materials . VENEZU- ELA, LARA: CAS 70900View Materials, 5View Materials (unsexed 19.5-22.4 mm SL), quebrada Seca near Moran, 25 km. S of Barquisimeto. VENEZUELA, TACHIRA: INHS 28152View Materials, 27View Materials (4 males 21.0- 22.7 mm SL, 23 unsexed 15.1-24.2 mm SL), tributary of río Doradas , upper río Apure, La Pedrera. VEN- EZUELA, ARAGUA: INHS 31382View Materials, 12View Materials unsexed 26.7-34.7 mm SL, río Guarico , Barbacoas. Río Guaviare basin , COLOMBIA, META: ICNMHN 2956, 9 (1 male 27.3 mm SL, 8 unsexed 21.1-35.9 mm SL), La Macarena, alto raudal, río Santo Domingo . SU 50346, 1 (unsexed 34.5 mm SL), Colombia , río Guaviare basin, vicinity of Los Micos, north end of Cordillera Macarena, 03°20’N 73°56’WGoogleMaps . USNM 181359View Materials, 1View Materials unsexed 20.5 mm SL, llanos, río Guaviare. Waini River Basin - coastal drainage, GUYANA : ROM 67867View Materials, 5View Materials (unsexed 28.1-31.5 mm SL), Barama River , Chinese Landing at base camp, 73°10’N 59°33’WGoogleMaps . ROM 67868View Materials, 11View Materials (5 males 25.2-28.3 mm SL, 6 unsexed 26.2-30.1 mm SL), Barama River , Chinese Landing, 1.5 km upstream from store, 72°90’N 59°34’W . ROM 67869View Materials, 1View Materials unsexed 29.0 mm SL ,
same locality as ROM 67867View Materials. ROM 67872View Materials, 20View Materials (8 males 25.4-28.2 mm SL, 12 unsexed 19.0- 31.3 mm SL), Waini River at Kwabanna next to float plane ramp, 73°40’N 59°09’W. Rio Amazonas basin, BRAZIL, AMAZONAS: INPA 20980View Materials, 1View Materials (male 29.3 mm SL), rio Toototobi , affluent of upper rio Demini, rio Negro drainage, indigenous campGoogleMaps .
Diagnosis. A remarkably long anal-fin base (26.0-33.5% SL) distinguishes O. pulchra from most other Odontostilbe species, e.g. from O. fugitiva (23.5-29.4% SL) ( Fig. 2View Fig) the species nearest in distribution (Amazon basin). Only O. nareuda from the rio Madeira basin has a similarly long anal-fin base length (31.3-32.8% SL), but differs from O. pulchra in number of anal-fin rays (24-26 vs 17-24, usually 19-22 in O. pulchra ). Furthermore, mature males of O. pulchra differ from O. fugitiva , O. ecuadorensis , O. dierythrura , O. parecis , O. paraguayensis , and O. microcephala , and the two new species from the rio Orinoco, O. splendida , and O. pao , by the presence of hooks on the 1 st to 22 nd anal-fin branched rays of males, practically on all branched anal-fin rays (vs 1 st to 9 th, mostly 6 th- 7 th, anal-fin branched rays of males with hooks); the anal-fin’s distal border slightly concave to almost straight in mature males (vs, distal border concave); the longer pectoral fin passing a vertical through pelvic-fin origin (vs shorter pectoral fin reaching but not trespassing to vertical through pelvic-fin origin, e.g. vs O. fugitiva in Fig. 3), almost absence of elongation of the 2 nd unbranched dorsal-fin ray (vs noticeably elongate 2 nd unbranched dorsal-fin ray). Additionally, the longer upper jaw in males, females and unsexed specimens differ O. pulchra (26.8-32.5% HL) from O. fugitiva (23.4-30.0% HL) ( Fig. 4View Fig). Among other characters formerly cited, snout length in males distinghishes O. pulchra (18.0-26.0% HL, mean 21.8% HL) from the sympatric O. splendida (24.1-26.9% HL, mean 25.2% HL), and O. pao (26.7-30.6, mean 28.6% HL) ( Fig. 5View Fig).
Description. Morphometric data given in Table 1. Largest male 32.7 mm SL, largest female 36.9 mm SL. Body elongate and compressed. Greatest body depth at dorsal-fin origin. Snout short, more blunt in males. Head profile gently convex to straight from snout to posterior tip of supraoccipital bone. Predorsal profile slightly convex between posterior tip of supraoccipital bone and dorsal-fin origin, then straight from dorsal-fin origin to caudal peduncle. Ventral profile convex from mouth to anal-fin origin. Anal-fin base straight. Caudal peduncle slightly longer than deep.
Head relatively small. Posterior margin of opercle sinusoidal with upper portion concave and lower portion convex. Mouth terminal. Maxilla obliquely positioned ending at vertical through anterior border of eye, and practically at horizontal through inferior border of eye. Premaxillary teeth 5, bearing 7- 10 cusps; central cusp longest ( Fig. 6View Fig). Maxilla with 2-3 (mainly 2) teeth bearing 6-10 cusps, cusp number decreasing to posterior tip of maxilla. Dentary teeth 7-9 bearing 1-7 cusps, gradually decreasing in size; first 5-6 teeth large with 5-7 cusps, 1 medium-sized tooth with 5-6 cusps and posterior teeth very small decreasing from 5 cusps to conical. Smaller cusps of large dentary teeth overlap cusps of adjacent tooth or not.
Dorsal-fin rays ii,9 (117). Dorsal-fin origin slightly behind mid length of body, and slightly posterior to pelvic-fin origin. Second unbranched dorsal-fin ray and 1 st- 2 nd branched dorsal-fin rays longest.Anal-fin rays iv (5), v (103) or vi(9), 17(1), 18(1), 19 (10), 20 (32), 21(46), 22(21), 23(4), or 24(2). Anal-fin distal border usually concave, slightly concave to almost straight in mature males. Pectoral-fin rays i (117), 10(43), 11(60), or 12 (14). Distal tip of pectoral fin slightly pointed, 1 st unbranched pectoral-fin ray and 1 st- 3 rd branched pectoral-fin rays longer, reaching posterior to vertical through pelvic-fin origin in males. Pelvic-fin rays i (117), 6(2), 6i(2), 7 (112), or 7i(1). Unbranched pelvic-fin ray slightly elongate, reaching to or slight posterior to anal-fin origin in males. Epithelium from external border of unbranched pectoral-fin ray and unbranched pelvic-fin ray thickened in males. Principal caudal-fin rays 16(1), 18(1), 19 (112), or 20(2). Procurrent caudal fin rays: dorsal 10 (12), 11 (36), 12(51), 13(16), or 14(1), ventral 8(11), 9 (52), 10(43), or 11(8). Some dorsal and ventral procurrent caudalfin rays laterally expanded or bifurcated. Caudal-fin ray flaps ventrally on 4 th- 7 th rays of upper lobe, dorsally on 13 th- 16 th (most 13 th- 15 th) rays of lower lobe. Adipose-fin at vertical through last anal-fin ray insertion.
Males with acute well-developed retrorse hooks on medial margin of pelvic-fin rays and posterior margin of anal-fin rays. One to three paired and unpaired hooks per segment of lepidotrichia at distal half-length of last unbranched anal-fin ray and 1 st to 22 th branched anal-fin rays. One to three unpaired and long hooks per segment of lepidotrichia on 1 st unbranched pelvic-fin rays (3 specimens) on midlength portion, and on 1 st- 7 th branched pelvic-fin rays, on midlenght portion through distal tip of fin ray. One or two unpaired hooks per segment of lepidotrichia on lateral or anterior bor- der of branches in a few to several pelvic- and anal-fin rays.
Scales cycloid: lateral line complete 33 (6), 34 (51), 35(28), 36(5), or 37(1); predorsal row 9(3), 10 (84), 11(25), or 12(2); scale rows between lateral line and dorsal-fin origin 5 (49), or 6(64); scale rows between lateral line and anal-fin origin 3 (14), or 4 (102). Scale rows around peduncle 14 (102). Triangular modified scale on pelvic-fin base extends posteriorly covering 2 scales. Scales on anal-fin base 6 or 7.
Cleared and stained specimens (12), x-rays (18): supraneurals 4(18), 5(2); precaudal vertebrae, including Weberian apparatus, 14(1), 15(26), or 16(3); caudal vertebrae 17(9), 18(17), or 19(4); gill rakers (8 c&s), upper 6(3), or 7(5), lower 11(7), or 12(1) (2-3 on hypobranchial). Alcohol specimens (64): gill rakers, upper 5(4), 6 (48), or 7(12), lower 10(4), 11 (45), or 12 (15). Upper gill rakers with 1-4 denticles along anterolateral border, and 1-2 similar denticles on posterolateral border; lower gill rakers with 1-6 denticles on anterolateral bor- der, and none or 1 on posterolateral surface; and posteriormost lower gill raker with none to 2 denticles on posterolateral bor- der, and none to 3 denticles on anterolateral border ( Fig. 7View Fig). Denticulation mainly on basal portion of gill rakers.
Color in alcohol. General ground body color pale beige, pale orange, or brownish in syntypes. Dorsum with small dark chromatophores from head to caudal peduncle, chromatophores more concentrate on scales border. Scattered dark chromatophores on scales on pseudotympanum area, extending over lateral line. Dark chromatophores along all dorsal-fin rays, ex- cept last branched fin ray only pigmented near fin base; 1 st and 2 nd unbranched dorsal-fin rays strongly pigmented.All anal-fin rays with chromatophores, more concentrated on distal halflength, last unbranched fin ray and 1 st branched fin ray less pigmented. All pectoral-fin rays with dark chromatophores, gradually fading to posterior branched rays, 1 st unbranched pectoral-fin ray more pigmented. Pelvic fin clear or with some scattered chromatophores (two specimens). Caudal fin almost entirely covered with diffuse dark chromatophores, except for a light area near caudal-fin spot. Rounded black caudal spot, reaching upper border of caudal peduncle.
Black chromatophores on snout, upper and lower lips, anteriormost portion of maxilla, and anteriormost portion of dentary.Abundant dark chromatophores on fontanel, frontals and parietals, deep-lying chromatophores over brain membrane below frontals and parietals. Body with faint dark and silver midlateral stripe, along middle longitudinal body axis, beginning posterior to pseudotympanum, above lateral line, and reaching caudal spot. Guanine on eye iris, opercle, isthmus, and circumorbital series. Below lateral line, belly faint practically without pigmentation, chromatophores just above anal-fin base forming about 10 chevron shaped markings.
Ground body coloration of syntypes dark brown, faded chromatophores forming caudal-fin spot and the mentioned silvery longitudinal stripe along body.
Color in life. Notes of UMMZ 189000: orange-red in anal, dorsal and caudal fins; center of caudal fin colorless. Regan (1906) described: “olivaceous; sides silvery or a silvery longitudinal stripe from operculum to base of caudal; an indistinct dark humeral spot; a blackish spot at the base of caudal, posteriorly ending in a point and margined with yellow above and below; dorsal and anal pink.”
Sexual dimorphism. As mentioned males have hooks on anal- and pelvic-fin rays. There is no elongation of the second unbranched dorsal-fin ray, but a slight elongation of the unbranched pelvic-fin ray, and the anal-fin distal border is less concave than in females ( Fig. 1View Fig). The pectoral-fin and the distance from snout to dorsal-fin origin are longer in males than in females ( Figs. 8-9View FigView Fig). The snout is usually more developed in males ( Fig. 10View Fig). A gill gland is present on the first gill arch of mature males, including about 8 to 11 anterior branchial filaments ( Fig. 7View Fig).
Remarks on the type material. Poecilurichthys pulcher was described by the American naturalist Theodore Gill in the year he traveled to the West Indian Islands. He departed in January, 1858 ( Dahl, 1916), and resided in Trinidad for several months “through portions of the spring and summer” ( Gill, 1858). The description of P. pulcher did not refer to any catalog number, but Gill (1858: 371) remarked: “specimens of most of the species which are being described have been deposited in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution, and in the private cabinets of Messrs. Stewart and Brevoort.” Therefore, not all type specimens would have been deposited at moving it from Poecilurichthys Gill to Chirodon Girard. Regarding C. (O.) pulcher specimens examined for his study, Lütken explained that they were from Trinidad (1875: 220- 221): “From the 11 species of this family – Characinidae - from Trinidad that Prof. Gill carried home, the Museum has obtained about seven through the Judicial Counselor Mr. Riise, and further one that Mr. Gill overlooked: when all of these have been unknown by Günther; and because of insufficient descriptions he was unable to arrange Tetragonopterins in their systematic place, here these species are the object for some remarks or partly for complete descriptions” [our translation]. Coincidentally, Prof. Gill is the American naturalist that described the species in 1858, and Mr. Riise the man honored in the description of Corynopoma riisei Gill, 1858 ( Gill, 1858: 427): “Mr. A. H. Riise of the Danish Island of St. Thomas, the gentleman to whom this species has been dedicated, is well known as one of the most active zoologists of the West Indies, and has greatly contributed to our knowledge…, by his contributions to Dr. Louis Pfeiffer, and to Dr. A. Lütken” [our translation]. Further detailing Mr. Riise’s contribution to the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen (ZMUC), Lütken (1875: 223) wrote under diagnosis of Corynopoma Gill : “In this small collection of fishes from Trinidad, which Prof. Gill gave to Mr. Riise at that time and whom again gave it to the Museum,…” [our translation], in a foot note, Lütken Smithsonian. The Smithsonian catalog of type specimens of Characiformes (Vari & Howe, 1991) did not mention the type material of P. pulcher Gill, 1858 , though referred to the syntypes of Poecilurichthys brevoortii Gill, 1858 , which are the unique type material found at Smithsonian among other new species of characins described by Gill in that year.
Later in 1875, the Danish zoologist Christian F. Lütken redescribed Chirodon (Odontostilbe) pulcher from Trinidad, (1875: 222): “The Justice Counselor Mr. Riise donated to the Museum eigth species of Characins and four Siluroids from Trinidad ” [our translation].
Considering what is mentioned above, Lütken’s (1875) species redescriptions of the characins from Trinidad, which had been previously described by Gill (1858), could have been based on type material or related material caught at the time Gill was in Trinidad.As Lütken worked at ZMUC from 1852 to 1899 (Alves & Pompeu, 2001), the type material of Poecilurichthys pulcher Gill could have been donated to him through Riise and Gill. However, the type material of P. pulcher Gill is not listed in the “Catalog of fish types of Zoological Museum of Copenhagen” ( Nielsen, 1974), and not found in ZMUC (personal communication of Dr. Jörgen G. Nielsen, ZMUC curator).
During the course of this study, two specimens of O. pulchra obtained on loan from the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (MNHN), have been proven to be the Lütken (1875) specimens. The two fishes were donated to MNHN from ZMUC with the following information: “Museum of Copenhague (Reinhardt and Lütken) 1876. Provenance: Trinidad ” (Patrice Pruvost, MNHN, personal communication). In Lütken’s (1875) redescription, C. (O.) pulcher was redescribed probably on the basis of two specimens as indicated by lateral line, dorsal-fin and anal-fin ray counts in p. 238: “…33-34 scales along the entire lateral line,… D: 10.11 (2.8-9); …A: 23-25 (3-4 + 20-21)” [our translation]. These two specimens, MNHN 0000-9593, examined herein match these counts of C. pulchra by Lütken (1875) and other characters: a- each dentary with 7 teeth; b- 5 transversal scale series above lateral line; c- 33-34 lateral line scales; d- dorsal fin 10.11, including 1 or 2 unbranched dorsal-fin rays plus 9 branched dorsal-fin rays; e- pectoral fin 12, not including the 1 st unbranched fin ray, f- ventral fin 8, including the 1 st unbranched pelvic-fin ray; and g- anal fin 23-25 (3-4 +20-21), 4 unbranched fin rays plus 20 unbranched fin rays. The external morphology and color descriptions of Lütken’s specimens fit the two MNHN specimens, for example: “Pectoral fins reach to pelvic fins,...”, or “The white lateral band and the dark shoulder and caudal spots are generally enough distinct; however the spots of the shoulder may be lacking” [our translations]. The white lateral band is actually silver, and remains in the two specimens ( Fig. 1View Fig). The “shoulder spot” is the pseudotympanum. Therefore, MNHN 0000-9593 specimens match those examined by Lütken (1875).
After Lütken’s 1875 redescription of C. (O.) pulcher , there were no more citations found refering to further examinations of Gill’s type material. Britski (2001) stated that there is a lower number of type specimens in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen than the number of species described in another Lütken’s study about fishes of the Rio das Velhas, and suggested that part of the type material was lost or donated to different museums, as is the case of the syntypes of Leporinus reinhardti Lütken, 1875 and L. taeniatus Lütken, 1875 currently deposited at MNHN.
Based on the evidences presented above, mainly the donation of the characins from Trinidad by Gill to Riise, and then to Lütken, the two specimens of MNHN 0000-9593 are herein recognized as the syntypes of Odontostilbe pulchra . Gill’s (1858) description of that species seems to be based on one specimen, and matches dorsal-fin, anal-fin and pelvic-fin ray counts of one specimen of MNHN 0000-9593, p. 419: “D. 10. A. 22… V.8.”. Probably unbranched and branched fin rays were jointly counted by Gill, and the anal-fin ray count is 20 branched anal-fin rays. Despite of that indication for the existence of an holotype, we prefer to consider the two as syntypes because they were collected together, and remained in the same jar after Lütken’s examination .
The following incorrect information was found on the label of the two syntypes MNHN 0000-9593: a- Area: Uruguay, Locality: Trinidad; b- Collectors: Reinhardt, Lütken, c- Date: 1976. These data were corrected to: a- Area: none information, Locality: western portion of Trinidad; b- Collectors: unknown; c- Date of determination: 1876 by Johannes T. Reinhardt and Christian F. Lütken; d- Date of collection: 1858. This date of collection is based on the biography of Gill by Dahl (1916), in which he confirmed that the visit to Trinidad occurred in 1858 between January and August (p315): “Gill sailed in January, 1858...He went to Washington in August 1858 ...”. Notes supporting corrections: (1) the city Trinidad in Uruguay is localized on the margin of río La Plata basin, where there are no cheirodontines with lateral line complete with 34-35 scales, number of ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays 8-11, plus dentary teeth with seven cusps (differing of Heterocheirodon spp., Cheirodon spp., and Holoshesthes pequira , the cheirodontines present in La Plata basin); (2) Lütken examined the syntypes, probably also Reinhardt as he worked with Lütken, but there is no evidence that they had been collecting in Trinidad, Uruguay in 1876; (3) additional information from MNHN files (through Patrice Pruvost personal communication) confirming origin of the material from ZMUC, Denmark.
The syntypes are somewhat damaged with broken fins ( Fig. 1View Fig, top). Specimen 28.7 m SL lacks most premaxillary and maxillary teeth, but the other female 30.8 mm SL has entire dentition preserved on premaxilla and maxila, and some dentary teeth. This female 30.8 mm SL has the body bent, making measurements difficult. Scales are relatively well-preserved in both specimens.
Distribution. Odontostilbe pulchra occurs on the Island of Trinidad, being registered to the western drainages of the Caroni, Bejucal and O’Meara river drainages, and to the eastern Quare river, Cunapo basin ( Fig. 11View Fig). An uncertain drainage that is probably on the southeast of Trinidad is referred in the geographical coordinates of CAS 70933View Materials, not plotted in the map. It is widespread in río Orinoco basin, smaller coastal drainages of Venezuela, Lake Valencia system, and the río Essequibo basin ( Fig. 11View Fig).
Information on the distribution of Odontostilbe pulchra based on previous studies is doubtful, since it appears that several undescribed cheirodontine species of the genera Odontostilbe , Serrapinnus and even Holoshesthes , from northern South America have been identified as O. pulchra . The species was described by Price (1955) as “found in Caroni, Caparo and northern Oropouche drainages only and is known to occur in Venezuela as well”. Taphorn (1992) provides a map with distribution of “ Cheirodon pulcher ” for the río Apure basin, but the records are most probably of an undescribed species of Serrapinnus as he mentioned the lateral line being incomplete in the diagnosis of “ C. pulcher ” (complete in O. pulchra ). “ C. pulcher ” ( Gill, 1858) is cited in the list of fishes from Venezuela (Taphorn et. al., 1997). Lasso et al. (2003) cited C. pulcher to the Orinoco, Cuyuní, Gulf of Paria, Caribbean, and Lake Valencia; all drainages confirmed by examined material in the present study. Lasso et al. (2004) recorded C. pulcher in the río Orinoco basin for the following drainages: upper Orinoco, Ventuari, Atabapo, Meta, Cinaruco, Suarape, Capanaparo, Arauca, Apure, Cuchiviero, Zuata, Caura, Pao, Caris, Caroní, Morichal Largo, Delta, and the own Orinoco (most drainages not listed in the material examined herein).
Odontostilbe pulchra is not restricted to the río Orinoco basin and the Island of Trinidad. There is a spot occurrence in the upper rio Demini, rio Negro, Amazonas basin, though represented by an unique mature male ( Fig. 11View Fig). This is a locality near southern headwaters of the río Orinoco basin, indicating that the species is present in the Orinoco-Amazon basin boundaries. Lasso et al. (1990) discussed the biogeographic history and faunistic similarity between upper río Caroni and the neighbouring rio Branco, rio Negro, mentioning possible connection between these water systems, which could be previous to the uplifting of Sierra de Pacaraima, or through divergent Gran Sabana paleoflowings. The rio Demini, where O. pulchra is recorded, runs parallel to rio Branco, thus the occurrence of the typical species of Orinoco as O. pulchra might be an evidence of the common biogeographical history for the Orinoco-Amazon basin in this region. The proximate historical relationship between Orinoco and northern Amazon ichthyofauna is hypothesized to date before the Orinoco-Amazonas divide in the Late Miocene by the Vaupes Arch to Guyana Shield on the west to the Serrania de La Macarena ( Lundberg et al., 1998). However, there is the alternate hypothesis that the Rupununi inundated savannah is a modern dispersal route to the fishfaunas from upper rio Negro and the rio Essequibo (Hubert & Renno, 2006).
Ecological notes. As stated above, information of O. pulchra based on previous studies is doubtful, since it appears that several undescribed cheirodontine species have been identified as O. pulchra . In Trinidad, it is described as “found in drains and ravines in the high woods, Cumuto” ( Regan, 1906). In Venezuela, Winemiller (1989) referred to “ O. pulcher ” as the numerically dominant species in the estero during wet season caño Maraca, a swamp-creek in the floodplain of the western Venezuelan llanos, Apure-Orinoco drainage. “ O. pulcher ” was found in diets of Charax gibbosus , Hoplias malabaricus , Pygocentrus notatus , Caquetaia kraussii , and Gymnotus carapo , being the main food item for C. gibbosus between 50-60 mm ( Winemiller, 1989). Fish census at the same caño Maraca, totalled 3182 specimens of “ O. pulcher ”, the most numerous fish in the sampled fishfauna (Winemiller & Pianka, 1990). Taphorn (1992) refers to the species Cheirodon pulcher as “ubiquitous in the piedmont and llanos”, “abundant” in Apure River Basin, “slow moving streams and especially in lowland lentic systems”. In a table, Taphorn (1992: 500) classified C. pulcher as r1 strategist, omnivorous, occurring in white, clear and blackwaters, abundant, present in both mountains and llanos. R1 strategists are “those species with low juvenile and adult survivorship, low fecundity per reproductive bout, but many bouts per season, a short generation time, and population densities that fluctuate greatly between the wet and dry seasons” ( Taphorn, 1992). However, the “ C. pulcher ” studied by Taphorn (1992), as commented before probably is an undescribed species of Serrapinnus , as he mention the incomplete lateral line in “ C.
pulcher ” diagnosis (complete in O. pulchra ). Despite of the difficulties in the identification of the species, probably the species has been analysed in many ecological studies as that of Lasso (1992) for the lower Suapure ichthyofauna, listing O. pulcher as an important fish in ornamental trade of the Los Pijiguaos region in Venezuela, Flecker (1992) using C. pulcher , a dominant “tetra” in río Las Marias in experiments about trophic guilds, or Jepsen (1997) listing “ Chierodon sp. 1 and sp. 2” among the most common fish species taken from sand bank habitats in the Cinaruco River. Recently, Hoeinghaus et al. (2004) reinforces the high abundance of “ C. pulcher ” in the llanos foodplain of the río Portuguesa, remarking it is the most frequently collected species jointly with Roeboides dayi .
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.
Odontostilbe pulchra ( Gill, 1858 )
|Bührnheim, Cristina M. & Malabarba, Luiz R. 2007|
|Ulrey, A 1895: 289|
|Price, J 1955: 11|
|Schultz, L 1944: 318|
|Eigenmann, C 1920: 4|
|Eigenmann, C 1910: 429|
|Eigenmann, C 1909: 327|
|Eigenmann, C 1892: 54|
Chirodon (Odontostilbe) pulcher
|Lutken, C 1875: 236|
|Gunther, A 1864: 317|
Poecilurichthys pulcher Gill, 1858: 419
|Gill, T 1858: 419|