Glyptapanteles henrytownesi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.
Arias-Penna, Diana Carolina, Whitfield, James B., Janzen, Daniel H., Winifred Hallwachs,, Dyer, Lee A., Smith, M. Alex, Hebert, Paul D. N. & Fernandez-Triana, Jose L., 2019, A species-level taxonomic review and host associations of Glyptapanteles (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Microgastrinae) with an emphasis on 136 new reared species from Costa Rica and Ecuador, ZooKeys 890, pp. 1-685 : 1
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|Glyptapanteles henrytownesi Arias-Penna, sp. nov.|
Body length 2.12 mm, antenna length 2.47 mm, fore wing length 2.53 mm.
Holotype: COSTA RICA • 1♀; 02-SRNP-23728, DHJPAR0000027; Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Toma Agua ; cloud forest; 1,140 m; 10.92847, -85.46680; 16.ix.2002; Mariano Pereira leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; a disorderly (oriented in all directions) jumbled row of light brown cocoons on each side of the caterpillar, cocoons formed on 30.ix.2002; adult parasitoids emerged on 09.x.2002; ( CNC) GoogleMaps . Paratypes. • 44 (3♀, 4♂) (30♀, 7♂); 02-SRNP-23728, DHJPAR0000027; same data as for holotype; ( CNC) GoogleMaps .
Reared material. COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Toma Agua : • 17 (4♀, 3♂) (10♀, 0 ♂); 98-SRNP-2191, DHJPAR0000107; cloud forest; 1,140 m; 10.92847, -85.46680; 04.ii.1998; Fredy Moraga leg. GoogleMaps ; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; golden brown tough cocoons, elongated cylinders, adhered together and to the leaf forming irregular cordwood and formed on 07.ii.1998; adult parasitoids emerged on 15.ii.1998. • 63 (3♀, 3♂) (42♀, 15♂); 98-SRNP-3335, DHJPAR0001456; same data as for preceding except: 09.viii.1998; Mariano Pereira leg. GoogleMaps ; caterpillar was collected dead; cylindrical cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; date of cocoons not reported; adult parasitoids emerged on 25.viii.1998. • 18 (5♀, 3♂) (0 ♀, 10♂); 02-SRNP-23730, DHJPAR0000028; same data as for preceding except: 16.ix.2002; Mariano Pereira leg. GoogleMaps ; caterpillar collected in third instar; two somewhat sloppy rows of brown cordwood cocoons on each side of the caterpillar, cocoons formed on 30.ix.2002; adult parasitoids emerged on 08.x.2002.
Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, Sendero Nayo: • 51 (5♀, 5♂) (38♀, 3♂); 03-SRNP-3971, DHJPAR0000045; cloud forest; 1,090 m; 10.92446, -85.46953; 27.iv.2003; Dunia Garcia leg. GoogleMaps ; caterpillar collected in fifth instar; beige cocoons forming two rows of cordwood on each side of the caterpillar, snuggled up against both sides so that larva is in a groove between them, cocoons at right angles to the long axis of the body, cocoons formed on 30.iv.2003; adult parasitoids emerged on 09.v.2003.
Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Mundo Nuevo, Sendero Melon : • 14 (3♀, 3♂) (6♀, 2♂); 07-SRNP-57287, DHJPAR0020269; intergrade dry-rain forest; 361 m; 10.76820, -85.43504; 12.vi.2007 GoogleMaps ; José Alberto Sanchez leg.; caterpillar collected in third instar; cream adhered together hard cocoons, jumbled on both sides of cadaver, not attached to it, cocoons formed on 23.vi.2007 ; adult parasitoids emerged on 27.vi.2007. • 33 (3♀, 2♂) (28♀, 0 ♂); 07-SRNP-57289, DHJPAR0020268; same data as for preceding except: caterpillar collected in second instar; cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 28.vi.2007 .
Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Del Oro, Metereológico: • 32 (3♀, 1♂) (2♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-22294, DHJPAR0045168; intergrade dry-rain forest; 590 m; 11.00199, -85.46166; 05.x.2010; Lucia Ríos leg. GoogleMaps ; caterpillar collected in fourth instar; irregular cordwood brown cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate and formed on 13.x.2010; adult parasitoids emerged on 01.xi.2010.
Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Sendero Evangelista : • 41 (5♀, 2♂) (34♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-30348, DHJPAR0038273; rain forest; 660 m; 10.98680, -85.42083; 14.i.2010; Petrona Rios leg. GoogleMaps ; caterpillar collected in third instar; cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate and formed on 31.i.2010; adult parasitoids emerged on 06.ii.2010. • 40 (5♀, 1♂) (34♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-30427, DHJPAR0038288; same data as for preceding except: adult parasitoids emerged on 05.ii.2010 GoogleMaps . • 31 (5♀, 1♂) (25♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-30428, DHJPAR0038277; same data as for preceding except: adult parasitoids emerged on 05.ii.2010 GoogleMaps . • 32 (5♀, 0 ♂) (27♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-30429, DHJPAR0038279; same data as for preceding except: adult parasitoids emerged on 04.ii.2010 GoogleMaps . • 36 (5♀, 4♂) (27♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-30430, DHJPAR0038259; same data as for preceding except: two rows of cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate. • 36 (5♀, 3♂) (28♀, 0 ♂); 10-SRNP-30431, DHJPAR0038285; same data as for preceding except: caterpillar collected in third instar; double cordwood cocoons adhered to the leaf substrate; adult parasitoids emerged on 05.ii.2010 GoogleMaps .
COSTA RICA: Área de Conservación Guanacaste, Alajuela, Sector San Cristóbal, Bosque Trampa Malaise : • 1♀; 07-SRNP-67371, DHJPAR0025909; rain forest; 815 m; 10.86280, -85.38460; Malaise; 22.vii.2007; DH Janzen & W Hallwachs leg. GoogleMaps
Proximal half of propodeum curved, without a median longitudinal carina, propodeal spiracle without distal carina ( Figs 99C View Figure 99 , 100C View Figure 100 ), propleuron with fine rugae ( Figs 99E View Figure 99 , 100E View Figure 100 ), distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate, mesoscutum punctation distinct throughout ( Figs 99B View Figure 99 , 100B View Figure 100 ), medioanterior pit of metanotum bisected by a median longitudinal carina ( Fig. 99B, C View Figure 99 ), scutellum in profile flat and on same plane as mesoscutum ( Figs 99E View Figure 99 , 100E View Figure 100 ), phragma of the scutellum partially exposed ( Figs 99C View Figure 99 , 100C View Figure 100 ), nucha surrounded by long radiating carinae ( Figs 99C View Figure 99 , 100C View Figure 100 ), dorsal carina delimiting a dorsal furrow on propleuron present ( Figs 99E View Figure 99 , 100E View Figure 100 ), petiole on T1 parallel-sided in proximal half then narrowing ( Figs 99D View Figure 99 , 100D View Figure 100 ), precoxal groove deep ( Figs 99A View Figure 99 , 100A View Figure 100 ), anteroventral contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so ( Figs 99E View Figure 99 , 100E View Figure 100 ), edges of median area on T2 polished and followed by a deep groove ( Figs 99D View Figure 99 , 100D View Figure 100 ), and fore wing with r vein curved, outer side of junction of r and 2RS veins forming a distinct stub ( Figs 99I View Figure 99 , 100H View Figure 100 ).
( Fig. 99A View Figure 99 ). General body coloration light brown except scape, pedicel, labrum, mandibles, maxillary and labial palps, and tegulae pale yellow; all antennal flagellomeres dark brown on both sides. Eyes and ocelli silver. Fore and middle legs yellow except brown coxae; hind legs yellow except coxae, apex of femora and tibiae brown, tarsomeres brown except first tarsomere proximally yellow. Petiole on T1 brown, but medially light brown, and sublateral areas yellow; T2 with median and adjacent areas brown, and lateral ends yellow; T3 and beyond completely brown; distally each tergum with a narrow yellowish transparent band. In lateral view, T1-3 yellow; T4 and beyond completely brown. S1-3 yellow; S4 and beyond completely brown.
Head ( Fig. 99A, B, E View Figure 99 ). Head triangular with pubescence short and dense. Proximal three antennal flagellomeres longer than wide (0.18:0.06, 0.19:0.06, 0.18:0.06), distal antennal flagellomere subequal in length with penultimate (0.11:0.05, 0.10:0.05), antenna longer than body (2.47, 2.12); antennal scrobes-frons shallow. Face convex, dense fine punctations, interspaces with microsculpture and longitudinal median carina present. Frons smooth. Temple wide, punctate and interspaces with microsculpture. Inner margin of eyes diverging slightly at antennal sockets; in lateral view, eye anteriorly convex and posteriorly straight. POL shorter than OOL (0.10, 0.13). Malar suture present. Median area between lateral ocelli without depression. Vertex laterally rounded and dorsally wide.
Mesosoma ( Fig. 99 A–C, E View Figure 99 ). Mesosoma dorsoventrally convex. Mesoscutum proximally convex and distally flat, punctation distinct throughout, interspaces wavy/lacunose. Scutellum triangular, apex sloped and fused with BS, scutellar punctation distinct throughout, in profile scutellum flat and on same plane as mesoscutum, phragma of the scutellum partially exposed; BS only very partially overlapping the MPM; ATS demilune with short stubs delineating the area; dorsal ATS groove smooth. Transscutal articulation with small and heterogeneous foveae, area just behind transscutal articulation with a smooth and shiny sloped transverse strip. Metanotum with BM wider than PFM (clearly differentiated); MPM circular and bisected by a median longitudinal carina; AFM without setiferous lobes and not as well delineated as PFM; PFM thick and smooth; ATM proximally with semircular/undulate carina and distally smooth. Propodeum relatively polished without median longitudinal carina, proximal half curved; distal edge of propodeum without flange; propodeal spiracle without distal carina; nucha surrounded by very short radiating carinae. Pronotum with a distinct dorsal furrow, dorsally with a well-defined smooth band; central area of pronotum smooth, but both dorsal and ventral furrows with short parallel carinae. Propleuron with fine rugae and dorsally wit h a carina. Metasternum flat or nearly so. Contour of mesopleuron straight/angulate or nearly so; precoxal groove deep with faintly transverse lineate sculpture; epicnemial ridge convex, teardrop-shaped.
Legs. Ventral margin of fore telotarsus entire, but with a tiny curved seta, fore telotarsus almost same width throughout and longer than fourth tarsomere (0.20, 0.06). Hind coxa with punctation only on ventral surface and dorsal outer depression present. Inner spur of hind tibia longer than outer spur (0.25, 0.16), entire surface of hind tibia with dense strong spines clearly differentiated by color and length. Hind telotarsus as equal in length as fourth tarsomere (0.11, 0.10).
Wings ( Fig. 99I, J View Figure 99 ). Fore wing with r vein slightly curved; 2RS vein straight; r and 2RS veins forming an angle at their junction and outer side of junction not forming a stub; 2M vein slightly curved/swollen; distally fore wing [where spectral veins are] with microtrichiae more densely concentrated than the rest of the wing; anal cell 1/3 proximally lacking microtrichiae; subbasal cell with a small smooth area; vein 2CUa absent and vein 2CUb spectral; vein 2 cu-a absent; vein 2-1A proximally tubular and distally spectral, although sometimes difficult to see; tubular vein 1 cu-a curved, incomplete/broken, not reaching the edge of 1-1A vein. Hind wing with vannal lobe wide, subbassally evenly convex and subdistally straightened, and setae present only proximally.
Metasoma ( Fig. 99A, D, F–H View Figure 99 ). Metasoma laterally compressed. Petiole on T1 completely smooth and polished, with faint, satin-like sheen, parallel-sided in proximal half and then narrowing (length 0.27, maximum width 0.15, minimum width 0.08), and with scattered pubescence and concentrated in the first distal third. Lateral grooves delimiting the median area on T2 clearly defined and reaching the distal edge of T2 (length median area 0.16, length T2 0.16), edges of median area polished and lateral grooves deep, median area broader than long (length 0.16, maximum width 0.18, minimum width 0.05 mm); T2 with scattered pubescence only distally. T3 longer than T2 (0.23, 0.16) and with pubescence more notorious in distal half. Pubescence on hypopygium dense.
Cocoons ( Fig. 4S View Figure 4 ). Brown oval cocoons with ordered silk fibers, but covered by a net. Cocoons disorderly, irregular and oriented in all directions forming two rows of cordwood and located on each side of the caterpillar.
In some specimens, the general body coloration is polished and black instead of light brown and in lateral view the T3 is brown only ventrally.
( Fig. 100 A–I View Figure 100 ). Similar in coloration and shape to female.
Henry Keith Townes Jr. (20 January 1913 - 2 May 1990) was widely known for his work on hymenopteran systematics, particularly the large and difficult family Ichneumonidae .
Parasitized caterpillars were collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector Cacao (Sendero Nayo and Sendero Toma Agua), Sector Del Oro ( Metereológico), Sector Mundo Nuevo (Sendero Melón), and Sector Pitilla (Sendero Evangelista), during February and August 1998, September 2002;, April 2003, June 2007, and January and October 2010 at 361 m, 590 m, 660 m, 1,090 m, and 1,140 m in intergrade dry-rain, rain and cloud forests. The adult parasitoid was collected in Costa Rica, ACG, Sector San Cristóbal (Bosque Trampa Malaise), during July 2007 at 815 m in rain forest.
The lifestyle of this parasitoid species is gregarious.
Heterochroma sarepta (Druce) ( Noctuidae : Amphipyrinae) ( Fig. 4S View Figure 4 ) feeding on Smilax mollis and S. spinosa ( Smilacaceae ). Caterpillars were collected in second, third, fourth and fifth instar.
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