Psomizopelma Gibson, 1995

Gibson, Gary A. P., 2018, The species of Psomizopelma Gibson (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae), Zootaxa 4444 (1), pp. 73-91 : 74-75

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4444.1.5

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:5978A5EC-EAC1-481F-A841-AD580B926E8F

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5998571

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/2F188787-BA58-3475-FF2E-3AD1FA9CF9A8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Psomizopelma Gibson
status

 

Psomizopelma Gibson

Psomizopelma Gibson, 1995: 255 –258. Type species: Psomizopelma brachypterum Gibson , by monotypy and original designation.

Diagnosis. FEMALE. Body usually mostly yellow (e.g. Figs 44, 45 View FIGURES 41–47 ) to dark brown (e.g. Figs 17, 18 View FIGURES 17–24 ) except gaster with all but apical one or two sternites and at least Gt1 and Gt2 and sometimes Gt3 laterally white ( Figs 8 View FIGURES 1–8 , 24 View FIGURES 17–24 , 33 View FIGURES 32–40 , 45 View FIGURES 41–47 , 62 View FIGURES 54–62 ), though sometimes with quite distinct metallic luster on head and mesosoma ( Fig. 54 View FIGURES 54–62 ) and gaster dorsally ( Fig. 62 View FIGURES 54–62 ); body (excluding appendages) mostly meshlike reticulate to punctate-reticulate, though sometimes acropleuron or gaster much more finely sculptured than rest of body.

Head in lateral view comparatively flat, lenticular ( Figs 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 18 View FIGURES 17–24 , 33 View FIGURES 32–40 ), and in frontal view ( Figs 3 View FIGURES 1–8 , 19 View FIGURES 17–24 , 34 View FIGURES 32–40 , 46 View FIGURES 41–47 , 56 View FIGURES 54–62 ) subcircular to somewhat transversely oval with comparatively large, densely setose, elongate-oval eyes with subparallel inner margins extending most of height of head such that malar space only about one-quarter to one-third height of eye; entirely setose except for variably extensively bare scrobes; scrobal depression more or less bell-shaped but lacking distinct margins except for sinuous, carinate margin lateral of torulus; toruli inserted much closer to oral margin than middle of head, ventral margin separated from oral margin by distance only about equal to height of torulus ( Figs 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 20 View FIGURES 17–24 , 35 View FIGURES 32–40 , 47 View FIGURES 41–47 , 57 View FIGURES 54–62 ). Mandible tridentate ( Figs 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 57 View FIGURES 54–62 ). Antenna ( Figs 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 36 View FIGURES 32–40 , 41– 43 View FIGURES 41–47 , 59 View FIGURES 54–62 ) variable in colour pattern, entirely dark to partly pale; clavate; fl1 longer than wide, subequal in length or longer than fl2; clava large, subequal in length to combined length of apical 4–6 funiculars, and in ventral view with variably conspicuous sensory region along most or entire length ( Figs 4 View FIGURES 1–8 , 43 View FIGURES 41–47 ).

Brachypterous (fore wing extending at least to base of gaster but for less than half length of gaster, Figs 1 View FIGURES 1–8 , 17 View FIGURES 17–24 , 32 View FIGURES 32–40 , 54 View FIGURES 54–62 ) or macropterous (fore wing extending about to apex of gaster, Figs 44, 45 View FIGURES 41–47 ). Fore wing densely setose and infuscate with orangish to dark brown setae, without hyaline regions with white setae ( Figs 7 View FIGURES 1–8 , 23 View FIGURES 17–24 , 38 View FIGURES 32–40 , 52 View FIGURES 48–53 , 61 View FIGURES 54–62 ). Mesosomal structures similar in both brachypterous and macropterous forms except mesoscutum with distinct, convex, triangular medial lobe only in macropterous female (cf. Figs 5 View FIGURES 1–8 , 48 View FIGURES 48–53 : arrow). Pronotum in dorsal view subtriangular, medially divided with dorsal surface in single plane, without differentiated collar and neck ( Figs 1 View FIGURES 1–8 , 17 View FIGURES 17–24 , 44 View FIGURES 41–47 , 48 View FIGURES 48–53 ). Prepectus ( Figs 6 View FIGURES 1–8 : pre, 21, 49, 58) comparatively short, not extending posteriorly to base of tegula ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1–8 : tg, 21, 37, 49, 58); bare or setose. Metapleuron ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 17–24 : pl3) bare or setose, separated by more or less distinct carina (e.g. Fig. 50 View FIGURES 48–53 : arrow) from more horizontal, quadrangular, setose metasternal surface ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 17–24 : st3; Gibson 1995, fig. 138: lpl) separating acropleuron from base of metacoxa ( Figs 22 View FIGURES 17–24 , 50 View FIGURES 48–53 ). Mesotibia with apical groove (e.g. Gibson 1995, fig. 329: mag) and with apical pegs over base of tibial spur (e.g. Gibson 1995, fig. 327: map); mesobasotarsomere ventrally with single row of pegs along either side (e.g. Gibson 1995, fig. 328: mpg), the pegs similar in color to tibia. Metafemur in lateral view sometimes with dorsal margin undulating ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1–8 ) or femur distinctly expanded subapically ( Figs 18 View FIGURES 17–24 , 60 View FIGURES 54–62 ); metatibia strongly compressed dorsally, unicolorous dark ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 32–40 ) or with dorsal margin paler ( Figs 2 View FIGURES 1–8 , 45 View FIGURES 41–47 ) and sometimes with variably distinct ‘notch’ along dorsal ( Fig. 60 View FIGURES 54–62 ) or ventral margin ( Fig. 40 View FIGURES 32–40 ). Propodeum with carinate margins of foramen sinuately or arch-like incurved to anterior margin, differentiating uniformly meshlike reticulate plical and callar regions ( Fig. 51 View FIGURES 48–53 ).

Gaster ( Figs 8 View FIGURES 1–8 , 24 View FIGURES 17–24 , 39 View FIGURES 32–40 , 53 View FIGURES 48–53 , 62 View FIGURES 54–62 ) with posterior margins of tergites transverse except Gt5 emarginate; syntergum extended posteriorly into syntergal flange over only slightly protruding ovipositor sheaths.

MALE. Head structure, setation and sculpture ( Figs 11 View FIGURES 9–16 , 27 View FIGURES 25–31 ) similar to female except for antennal structure and malar space longer, about 0.4× eye height. Antenna ( Figs 12 View FIGURES 9–16 , 28 View FIGURES 25–31 ) with pedicel almost as long as combined length of fl1 and fl2, and ventrally without line of long setae; flagellum variably distinctly robust-filiform with multiple rows of inconspicuous mps beyond fl1; fl1 almost as long to somewhat longer than wide, but slightly shorter than fl2, without mps; clava of same width as and at least as long as combined length of apical three funiculars, and tapered to point apically without distinct micropilose sensory region. Mesosoma not unusually modified for male Eupelminae ( Figs 13, 14 View FIGURES 9–16 , 30 View FIGURES 25–31 ); metapleuron with 2–5 setae ventrally; metasternal region ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 25–31 : st3) much smaller and less conspicuous than for female, but separated from metapleuron ( Fig. 30 View FIGURES 25–31 : pl3) by carina and separating mesepimeron from base of metacoxa ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 9–16 , 30 View FIGURES 25–31 ) similar to female. Fore wing ( Figs 15 View FIGURES 9–16 , 29 View FIGURES 25–31 ) without speculum; disc at least slightly infuscate behind marginal vein. Metatibia less distinctly compressed than for female, but sometimes with dorsal margin paler ( Fig. 10 View FIGURES 9–16 ) as for female.

Discussion. Females of Psomizopelma can be distinguished from those of all other genera except Taphronotus Gibson by their comparatively short prepectus ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 1–8 : pre) that apically is conspicuously separated from the base of the tegula ( Figs 6 View FIGURES 1–8 : tg, 21, 49, 58) (Gibson 1995, character 20, state 2, table 1). A more comprehensive description of both sexes is given by Gibson (1995), though some modifications to this are necessitated by the newly described species. The discovery of P. metallicum females demonstrates that at least the head ( Figs 54–57 View FIGURES 54–62 ) and mesosoma dorsally ( Figs 54, 61 View FIGURES 54–62 ) can have quite distinct metallic lusters. Males of P. metallicum are unknown and therefore it is unknown whether they display similar metallic lusters, but this is possible because the larger P. albiclava male exhibits slight but distinct metallic luster ( Fig. 11 View FIGURES 9–16 ). This contradicts Gibson’s (1995) couplet 13(12) for males, which keys out Psomizopelma . The discovery of P. albiclava males also falsifies some other statements in the couplet and the generic diagnosis. Relative length of the OOL for P. albiclava males differs from that stated in the key and generic diagnosis of Gibson (1995), the flagellar segments, including fl1, are all quite obviously longer than wide ( Fig. 12 View FIGURES 9–16 ), and the body is not uniformly dark brown but has some yellowish regions ( Fig. 13 View FIGURES 9–16 ) in addition to sometimes slight metallic luster. However, Psomizopelma males are quite readily identifiable to genus because head structure ( Figs 11 View FIGURES 9–16 , 27 View FIGURES 25–31 ) is otherwise similar to that of females ( Figs 3 View FIGURES 1–8 , 19 View FIGURES 17–24 ).

Homology of the lateral surface of the metathorax remains somewhat uncertain in Psomizopelma , but females have a vertical, sculptured, bare or setose region that here is interpreted as the metapleuron ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 17–24 : pl3). Ventrally this region is separated by a variably well-developed transverse carina ( Fig. 50 View FIGURES 48–53 : arrow) from a more horizontal, setose region that is here interpreted as an exposed part of the metasternum ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 17–24 : st3), which separates the posterior of the acropleuron from the base of the metacoxa ( Figs 22 View FIGURES 17–24 , 50 View FIGURES 48–53 ). Males are known for only P. albiclava and P. brachypterum . Females of P. albiclava have setae on both the presumptive metapleuron and metasternum (cf. Fig. 50 View FIGURES 48–53 ) whereas females of P. brachypterum have setae only on the presumptive metasternum ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 17–24 ). Males of both species have setae ventrally on the presumptive metapleuron whereas the presumptive metasternum is bare ( Figs 14 View FIGURES 9–16 , 30 View FIGURES 25–31 ), though a transverse carina below the setae is visible in males that distinguishes the much smaller presumptive metapleuron.

The presence of P. brachypterum and P. metallicum in Florida, as the only two species from the Nearctic region, indicates Psomizopelma is restricted to the tropical and subtropical regions of the New World.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Eupelmidae

Loc

Psomizopelma Gibson

Gibson, Gary A. P. 2018
2018
Loc

Psomizopelma

Gibson 1995: 255
1995
Loc

Psomizopelma brachypterum

Gibson 1995
1995