Odontomachus minangkabau , Satria, Rijal, Kurushima, Hiroaki, Herwina, Henny, Yamane, Seiki & Eguchi, Katsuyuki, 2015

Satria, Rijal, Kurushima, Hiroaki, Herwina, Henny, Yamane, Seiki & Eguchi, Katsuyuki, 2015, The trap-jaw ant genus Odontomachus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Sumatra, with a new species description, Zootaxa 4048 (1), pp. 1-36: 28-34

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4048.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:635F2D91-E791-4918-9D77-763F39EF217C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/3105E946-DE20-FFAA-FF51-5FCFFDDAF9B0

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Odontomachus minangkabau
status

sp. nov.

Odontomachus minangkabau  sp. nov.

( Figs. 14View FIGURE 14, 15View FIGURE 15, 16View FIGURE 16, 17, 18)

Type material. Holotype, worker, secondary forest within the campus of Andalas University, Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia [RS01-PDG- 14, Robby J. leg., 22.ix. 2014] ( MZBAbout MZB); paratypes: 17 workers, 1 queen, 5 males, same data as holotype ( MZBAbout MZB, MHNGAbout MHNG, MCZC & RSC).

Non-type material examined. Indonesia: Jambi, Kerinci Seblat N. P., 8.XI. 2006, Syaukani leg., 2 workers ( SKYC); same loc., 10.XI. 2006, Syaukani leg., SYAU 06-39, 7 workers ( SKYC). Lampung: Sumber Jaya, Bodong Jaya, 16.IX. 2007, Sk. Yamane leg., Su07-SKY-159, 19 workers ( SKYC). West Sumatra: Maninjau, 7–9.VIII. 1985, S. & Sk. Yamane leg., 3 workers ( SKYC); same loc., 7.VIII. 1985, S. & Sk. Yamane leg., 2 workers ( SKYC); same loc., 16-18.VIII. 1985, S. & Sk. Yamane leg., 1 worker ( SKYC); Padang, 30.XI. 1983, K. Nakamura leg., 83 -PD-2, 1 worker ( SKYC); Padang, HPPB UNAND, 14.IX. 2011, S. Rijal leg., 15 worker ( SKYC); same loc., 10.X. 2012, S. Rijal leg., PDG- 22 -12, 30 workers, 2 queens ( SKYC, RSC); same loc., 11.IX. 2012, S. Rijal leg., PDG- 12 -12, 11 workers ( SKYC, RSC); Lubuk Gadang, 21-23.VIII. 1985, Sk. Yamane leg., SNS col., 4 workers ( SKYC); Sako nr Tapan, 4–5.IX. 1985, Sk. Yamane leg., 2 workers ( SKYC); Ulu Gadut nr Padang, 27–30.VIII. 1985, Sk. Yamane leg., 2 workers ( SKYC); Ulu Gadut, Satar house, E. Suzuki leg., 1 worker ( SKYC); Ulu Gadut, Pinang-pinang, 29.IV. 1997, F. Ito leg., 1 worker ( SKYC); same loc., 13.VIII. 1989, E. Suzuki leg., 1 worker ( SKYC).

Materials used for DNAAbout DNA barcoding. Colony PDG- 22 - 12 (RJ 20141201 - 1, LC056047View Materials), colony RS01-PDG- 14 (RJ 20150126 - 2, LC056051View Materials).

Worker measurements and indices. Holotype and paratypes (n= 10): HW 2.05–2.34 mm, HL 3.13–3.55 mm, SL 3.30–3.65 mm, IFLW 0.56–0.64 mm, EL 0.42–0.50 mm, MDL 1.85 –2.00 mm, WL 4.15–4.65 mm, PTL 0.78– 0.86 mm, PTH 1.25–1.40 mm, CI 65–69, SI 153–161, MDI 53–61, PTHI 158–173.

Worker description. Relatively large (HL 3.13–3.55 mm, WL 4.15–4.65 mm). Head in full-face view much longer than broad, with posterior margin weakly concave; median furrow on vertex present as dark line; neither side of line swollen; frontal lobes followed by strong frontal carinae which are nearly parallel; minimum distance between margin of ocular ridge and margin of compound eye less than half of major axis of compound eye; mandible relatively slender; masticatory margin with 11–14 denticles; subapical tooth 2.5 times as long as broad, with truncate apex; palp formula 4, 4. Mesosoma in lateral view relatively slender; pronotum including its anteromedian lobe long, in lateral view with anterodorsal slope gentle; mesopleuron without anteroventral ridge, with anterodorsal margin weakly carinate, clearly separated by distinct dorsal carina from mesonotum and metapleuron; propodeum in lateral view with dorsum almost straight, and gradually sloping posteriad, with posterior face relatively gently sloping; propodeal dorsum anteriorly without median longitudinal depression. Petiolar node conical; node in lateral view, excluding apical spine with anterior face weakly convex or weakly and bluntly angulate and posterior face weakly convex; apical spine short and stout, less than 1 / 4 as long as petiolar height, sometimes weakly curved posteriad (but shape variable within species); subpetiolar process anteroposteriorly as long as dorsoventrally high, lobate, directed ventrally. First gastral tergum in lateral view long, with anterior face relatively short and vertical.

Head in full-face view largely smooth and shiny, but with a striate area bordered by frontal carinae and ocular ridges; frontal lobe with rough texture and shiny; faint striation extended from extraocular furrow through part of temporal ridges till part of posterolateral face of vertex; median part of vertex along median furrow faintly striate transversely; lateral face of head largely smooth and shiny, with its posterior third faintly striate; venter of head smooth and shiny; median disc of clypeus smooth and shiny. Pronotal disc and mesonotum densely and weakly striate transversely; posterolateral face of pronotum partly smooth and shiny; mesopleuron largely smooth and shiny, with its anterior 1 / 3 and posteriormost part finely striate; metapleuron and propodeum with transversal striation which is a little sparser and stronger than that of pronotum and mesonotum. Petiolar node largely smooth and shiny, but with its basal area faintly striate.

Vertex with a pair of long erect setae; frontal lobe sometimes with a seta; pronotal disc without long erect setae; first gastral tergum without erect setae. Head, mesosoma, petiole and gaster with fine appressed pubescence which is sparse and very short on head and sparse and extremely short on gaster.

For color pattern see in Fig. 14View FIGURE 14; body dark reddish brown, with head paler; coxae and femora yellowish brown; tibiae and tarsi reddish brown.

Queen measurements and indices. Paratype (n= 1): HW 2.36 mm, HL 3.29 mm, SL 3.35 mm, IFLW 0.65 mm, EL 0.54 mm, OL 0.15 mm, MDL 1.80 mm, WL 4.80 mm, FWL unmeasurable (due to the paratype dealated) PTL 0.88 mm, PTH 1.61 mm, CI 72, SI 142, MDI 55, PTHI 183.

Non-type (n= 1): HW 2.37 mm, HL 3.30 mm, SL 3.50 mm, FLW 0.66 mm, EL 0.52 mm, OL 0.15 mm, MDL 1.72 mm, WL 4.70 mm, FWL 9.50 mm, PTL 0.88 mm, PTH 1.60 mm, CI 72, SI 147, MDI 52, PTHI 182.

Queen description. In general appearance queen is similar to worker. Vertex near ocelli not swollen; ocular ridge clearly developed; distance between lateral ocelli shorter than distance between lateral and median ocelli, and as long as major axis of median ocellus; ocelli in lateral view protruded dorsad. Mesosoma with main sclerites associated with wing function ( Figs. 15View FIGURE 15 B, 15 C), in dorsal view long and slender; anterodorsal slope of pronotum in lateral view gentle; anterodorsal outline of mesoscutum in lateral view relatively steep; mesoscutum with very weak median longitudinal depression; parapsidal furrow very weak and slightly curved; mesopleuron with fine, oblique furrow; propodeum in lateral view relatively long, with its dorsum almost straight and sloping gradually posteriad. Wing venation as in Figs. 15View FIGURE 15 E and 15 F. Petiolar node in lateral view, excluding apical spine with anterior and posterior faces weakly convex; apical spine relatively stout and slightly curved posteriad; subpetiolar process anteroposteriorly as long as dorsoventrally high. First gastral tergum in lateral view long, with anterior face relatively short and vertical.

Head in full-face view largely smooth and shiny, but with striate area bordered by frontal carinae and ocular ridges; frontal lobe with rough texture and shiny; faint striation extending from extraocular furrow through part of temporal ridges to posterolateral face of vertex; median part of vertex along median furrow faintly striate transversely; lateral face of head largely smooth and shiny, with its posterior third faintly striate; venter of head smooth and shiny; median disc of clypeus smooth and shiny. Pronotum densely and finely striate transversely; mesoscutum weakly and longitudinally striate; mesopleuron largely smooth and shiny, with anterior third and posteriormost part faintly striate; mesoscutellum smooth and shiny; propodeum strongly and sparsely striate transversely. Petiolar node largely smooth and shiny, with its basal area faintly striate.

Pair of long erect setae present on vertex near ocelli; frontal lobe, pronotal disc, and 1 st gastral tergum without erect setae. Head, mesosoma, petiole and gaster with sparse, subdecumbent to decumbent pubescence which is extremely short in gaster; mesopleuron with very sparse subdecumbent to decumbent pubescence.

FIGURE 17. Male Odontomachus  , 9 th abdominal sternum, ventral view: A, O. simillimus  , arrows indicating direction (colony: PKJ- 33 - 12; individual: SEMUT 150224 C); B, O. latidens  (GK- 38 - 12; SEMUT 150224 E); C, O. procerus  (SAGO-01- 12; SEMUT 150224 B); D, O. rixosus  (PKN-01- 12; SEMUT 150224 D); E, O. minangkabau  (paratype; RS01-PDG- 14; SEMUT 150224 A).

For color pattern see in Fig. 15View FIGURE 15; head, mesosoma, petiole and gaster reddish brown ( Fig. 15View FIGURE 15) to dark brown; femora yellowish brown; tibiae reddish brown.

Male measeurements and indices. Paratypes (n= 5): HW 1.41–1.44 mm, HL 1.21–1.24 mm, SL 0.28–0.29 mm, EL 0.85–0.89 mm, EW 0.45–0.49 mm, OL 0.21–0.23 mm, OES 0.18–0.21 mm, WL 3.28–3.40 mm, FWL 6.17–6.46 mm, PTL 0.68–0.71 mm, PTH 0.95–1.07 mm, CI 115–119; SI 15–17, PTHI 139–157.

Male description. Size large (HL 1.21–1.24 mm, WL 3.28–3.40 mm). Major axis of median ocellus as long as minimum distance between lateral ocellli; antenna 13 -merous; scape very short, 1 / 3 as long as 3 rd antennomere; 2 nd antennomere 1 / 2 as long as scape; 3 rd to 13 th antennomeres each extremely long; palp formula 6, 4; dorsal outline of clypeus in lateral view straight. Mesosoma in lateral view relatively slender and long; dorsal outline of pronotum in lateral view almost straight; anterodorsal outline of mesoscutum in lateral view gentle; mesoscutum without FIGURE 18. Male Odontomachus  , with arrows in A indicating direction: A−E, 8 th abdominal tergum, lateral view; F−J, paramere and volsella, right-hand side, inner view; K− O, penisvalva, right-hand side, inner view. A, F, K, O. simillimus  (colony: PKJ- 33 - 12; individual: SEMUT 150224 C); B, G, L, O. latidens  (GK- 38 - 12; SEMUT 150224 E); C, H, M, O. procerus  (SAGO-01- 12; SEMUT 150224 B); D, I, N, O. rixosus  (PKN-01- 12; SEMUT 150224 D); E, J, O, O. minangkabau  (paratype; RS01-PDG- 14; SEMUT 150224 A).

median depression; parapsidal furrow weak and almost straight; oblique mesopleural furrow relatively shallow and narrow; ventrolateral part of katepisternum without furrow; propodeum in lateral view with its dorsal outline roundly convex; metapleuron separated from propodeum indistinctly by suture; wing venation similar to queen (see Figs. 15View FIGURE 15 E and 15 F for queen wings). Petiolar node in lateral view tapering gently to bluntly pointed apex; its anterior slope weakly convex, and posterior slope straight; subpetiolar process in lateral view anteroposteriorly as long as dorsoventrally high, lobate and slender; petiolar sternum without posteroventral process. First gastral tergum in lateral view long; posterior spine of 8 th abdominal tergum long and slender, weakly curved (Fig. 18 A); pygostyle with long setae in its apical third; disc of 9 th abdominal sternum much broader than long, with posterolateral corner expanding laterad and posterolateral corner distinctly angled; apical lobe much longer than disc and slightly narrowed in basal half, with apical margin weakly convex; telomeral apex in lateral view much longer than high; distiventral apex of valviceps strongly produced; basiventral corner of valviceps distinctly produced; ventral margin of valviceps with 28–29 denticles.

Head including area between lateral ocelli entirely smooth and shiny. Pronotum in lateral view smooth and shiny; mesoscutum in dorsal view smooth and shiny; scuto-scutellar suture with sparse, strong, longitudinal striation; mesopleural anepisternum and katepisternum smooth and shiny; metapleuron smooth and shiny; propodeum in dorsal view with rough texture and shiny. Petiole smooth and shiny.

Head, mesosoma, legs, petiole and gaster with fine dense subdecumbent to decumbent pubescence; mandible, vertex near ocelli and gaster except 1 st gastral tergum with several long erect setae.

For color pattern see in Fig. 16View FIGURE 16; body basically pale yellow; antennae, area around ocelli, anteromedian and lateral parts of mesoscutum, metanotum and dorsum of propodeum blackish; tibiae, petiole and gaster yellowish brown.

Species recognition. Odontomachus minangkabau  is morphologically most similar to O. rixosus  and O. pararixosus  . However, it is distinguishable from the latter two by the following characteristics of the worker: large size: HL 3.13–3.55 mm, WL 4.15–4.65 mm (vs. small size: HL 2.40–3.03 mm, WL 3.35 –4.00 mm in latter two); masticatory margin of mandible with 11–14 denticles (vs. less than 10 denticles in latter two); SI 153–161 (vs. SI 131–150 in latter two); median part of vertex along median furrow faintly striate transversely (vs. smooth and shiny or with rough texture in latter two); colors of head, mesosoma, petiole and gaster darker than in the latter two. Furthermore, Odontomachus minangkabau  is easily distinguished from O. rixosus  by the following characteristics of the male: first gastral tergum in lateral view long (vs. short in the latter); apical lobe of 9 th abdominal sternum slightly narrowed in basal half, with apical margin weakly convex (vs. gently tapering to almost truncate apex in the latter); telomeral apex in lateral view much longer than high (vs. longer than high in the latter); ventral margin of valviceps with 28−29 denticles (vs. 21−22 denticles in the latter); head, pronotum, mesoscutum and mesopleuron pale yellowish (vs. yellowish to yellowish brown in the latter).

Etymology. The specific epithet is named after the Minangkabau  ethnic group indigenous to West Sumatra, Indonesia (type locality of this species).

Distribution. Sumatra Island, Indonesia.

Bionomics. Odontomachus minangkabau  inhabits secondary and primary lowland forests, and nests in the soil near the base of living trees.

DNAAbout DNA barcoding. The average K 2 P distance between O. minangkabau  and two closely related species, O. rixosus  and O. pararixosus  , are 8.48 % (SE= 0.013) and 6.59 % (SE= 0.012), respectively. These values are a little higher than the average K 2 P distance between O. rixosus  and O. pararixosus  (5.48 %, SE= 0.010). The results support the species-level delimitation among O. minangkabau  , O. rixosus  and O. pararixosus  .

Materials of O. pararixosus  used for DNAAbout DNA barcoding are as follows: colony MS 14-18 (individual no. RJ 20150126 - 5, accession no. LC056045View Materials).

MZB

Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

DNA

Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport