Ichnea aequinoctialis Spinola, 1844

Opitz, Weston, 2010, Classification, Natural History, and Evolution of the Epiphloeinae (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Part VIII. The Genera Acanthocollum Opitz, Stegnoclava Opitz, and Ichnea Laporte, The Coleopterists Bulletin (mo 9) 64, pp. 1-65 : 29-32

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1649/0010-065X-64.mo4.1

persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Ichnea aequinoctialis Spinola, 1844


Ichnea aequinoctialis Spinola, 1844

( Figs. 43, 44, 62 View Figs , 67, 68, 77 View Figs , 121, 126 View Figs , 136 View Figs , 157 View Figs , 185 View Figs , 197, 201 View Figs ; Map 3 View Map 3 )

Ichnea aequinoctialis Spinola, 1844: 22 . Neotype ♂. Here   GoogleMaps selected. PANAMÁ, Canal Zone, Madden Forest, 9°05′N, 79°37′W, 17 Apr. ’76, m, H. P. Stockwell (FSCA). (Specimen point mounted, gender label affixed to paper point; support card; locality label; collector label; Weston Opitz Col- lection label; FSCA acronymic label; neotype label; plastic vial with abdomen and aedeagus.) Chevrolat 1876: 7; Corporaal 1949: 398, 1950:270. As noted by Ekis (1975), the specimen on whom the description of the species is based is not housed in the Spinola collection. It has not been found in MNHN, the other repository of Spinola types. I have selected a Panamanian neotype specimen that best approximates the description and illustration provided by Spinola. This will fix the specific epithet to a specimen that represents a very widespread species.

Ichnea funesta Gorham, 1877: 410 . Lectotype ♂. Herein designated. Amazon, Ega, Bates (BMNH). New synonymy. Six paralectotypes. Amazon, Bates (BMNH, 3; MNHN, 2); Santarem, 1853 (ZMAN, 1). The characters upon which this nominal species was based fall within the range of characters of I. aequinoctialis . Lohde 1900: 101; Blackwelder 1945: 389; Schenkling 1903: 102, 1910: 123; Corporaal 1950: 270.

Ichnea disjuncta Gorham, 1877: 411 . Lectotype, gender not known. Herein designated. New synonymy. Amazon, Bates (BMNH). Two paralectotypes. Amazonas, Bates (BMNH, 1; ZMAN, 1). The characters upon which this nominal species was based fall within the range of characterstics of I. aequinoctialis . Gorham 1883: 180.

Ichnea histrica Gorham, 1883: 178 . Lectotype ♀. Herein designated. Panamá: Bugaba (BMNH). New synonymy. One paralectotype designated. Panamá: Chiriquí: Bugaba (BMNH). The characters upon which this nominal species was based fall within the range of characterstics of I. aequinoctialis .

Ichnea confluens Kuwert, 1894: 12 . Lectotype ♂. Peru: Amazones: Amazon. Herein designated. New synonymy. The characteristics upon which this nominal species was based fall within the range of characters of I. aequinoctialis . Corporaal 1950: 270.

Ichnea spinolai Corporaal, 1949: 398 . New synonymy. Corporaal correctly assessed that Spinola’ s I. lycoides variety E is not conspecific with Ichnea lycoides Laporte. Unfortunately , the specimen in question (as depicted by Spinola 1844: Plate 37, Figure 6 View Figs ) is conspecific with the senior synonym. The characters upon which this nominal species was based fall within the range of characterstics of I. aequinoctialis .

Diagnosis. The dark triangular marking on the pronotal disc will conveniently distinguish the members of this species from congeners. Also,

the antennae of these specimens exhibit a very compressed funicle ( Fig. 157 View Figs ).

Description. Size: Length 6.0 mm; width 1.6 mm. Form ( Fig. 136 View Figs ): Narrowly triangular. Integumental

color ( Figs. 43, 44, 67, 68): Cranium mostly yellow brown, dark markings behind eye continuous with dark streaks at pronotal sides, pronotal disc with triangular black mark that begins wide at pronotal collar and tapers to the front, remainder of pronotal disc yellow; elytra mostly dark brown, with short yellow line at humeral angles. Head: HW/PW 1.0; frons indented; EW/VW 3.1; antenna as in Fig. 157 View Figs , funicle compressed. Thorax: PL/PW 1.2; elytra strongly flared to posterior two-thirds, EL/PL 4.9; EL/EW 2.5; anterior margin of protibia with 12 spines. Male genitalia: Aedeagus as in Fig. 185 View Figs . Male mesodermal internal reproductive organs ( Fig. 197 View Figs ): Medial accessory gland much shorter than lateral gland; testes comprised of 12 follicles. Female mesodermal internal reproductive organs ( Fig. 201 View Figs ): Spermatheca not capsular; spermathecal gland attached to subapex of spermatheca; bursa copulatrix saccular.

Variation. Size: length 6.5–10.0 mm; width 1.8– 3.0 mm. The triangular dark marking on the pronotal disc vary in size and are not present in one specimen from Colombia. The triangular macula may extend anteriorly to the pronotal anterior margin and may briefly extend from the pronotal posterior margin; rarely is it absent. There is considerable variation in elytral color as depicted in Figs. 43, 44, 67, and 68.

Natural History. I collected a series of eight specimens on a dead sunlit log during January in Chiriquí, Panama . Farther south, these beetles were collected throughout the year, with South American individuals gathered below the Tropic of Capricorn from September through February. Specimens were also captured in a Malaise trap in a subtropical wet forest, from the underside of a leaning Manilkara sp. tree trunk aside Rio Negro in Brazil , and from cut wood in a secondary jungle in Guyana.

Distribution. This species extends from Honduras to Argentina ( Map 3 View Map 3 ).

Specimens Examined. 1 6 6. H O N D U R A S: Atlántida, Lancetilla, 30-V-1996, F. G. Andrews & J. Gilbert; Tela Tela, 27-V-1993, R. Cave: Cortes, Peña Blanca, Lago Yojoa, 21-VI-1979, J. A. Chemsak, A. & Michelbacher & W. W. Middlekauff: Yoro, 45 km S Tela Boom, 25-V-1979, E. Giesbert; 16 km SW Juticalpa, 16-VI- 1974, 427 m, C. W. O’ Brien: Olancho, 18 km NE Catacamas, 14-VI- 1974, C. W. O’ Brien; idem, 15-VI-1974, C. W. O’ Brien. PANAMA: Bocas del Toro, 24 km W Chiriquí Grande, 21-22-II-1999, J. E. Wappes: Colón: 6 km SW Margarita, 4-V-1975, H. Stockwell; N shore Gatun Lake, 2-VI-1984, E. Giesbert: Chiriquí, Hacienda Las Lagunas, 8-I-1981, dead trunk, G. Ekis; Panamá, 8–13 km El Llano, Carti Road, 10-13-V- 1996, Wappes, Huether & Morris; 7–9 km El Llano, Carti Road, 6-VI-1995, R. S. Anderson; Cerro Campana, 8°40′N 79°56′W, 850 m, 29-VII-1970, H. A. Hespenheide; Cerro Campana, 8°40′N 79°56′W, 3-VI-1972, H. Stockwell; 15 km E Portobello, CV mine Road; 25-IV-2-V-1992, J. E. Wappes; Ipeti, 3-VI-1983, E. Giesbert; 10 km N El Llano, 28-V-3- I-1984, E. Giesbert: Canal Zone, Madden Forest, 9°05′N 79°37′W, 17-IV-1976, H. P. Stockwell: Darien, Parque Nacional Darien, Pirre Estación Rio Frio, 1-2-IV-2004,Malaise,R.Cambra. COLOMBIA: Meta, Sierra de la Macarena, Caño Curia, 32°1′N 73°56′W, 21-XII- 2002, 460 m, Malaise, M, Duarte; idem, 17-I-9-II-2003, W.Villalba: Magdalena, Tairona Pueblito, 11°20′N 74°02′W, 15-VIII-1-IX- 2000, 225 m Malaise, R. Henriquez; idem, 29-VII-14-VIII- 2000, R. Henriquez: Vallé del Cauca: 1898, M. de Mathan: Chocó, Cacagualito, June: Boyacá, Brasilien, 24°38′N 54°07′W, 30-VIII-1992, Fritz Plaumann. VENEZUELA: Aragua, El Limón, 10-XI- 1975, 450 m, J. A. Clavijo; idem, 24-XI-1975, J. A Clavijo: Tachira, Rio Frio, 20-24-IV- 1982, 600 m: Bolivar, Rio Caura, 26-VI-1984, B. Bechyne: Amazonas, Rio Baria, 0°55′N 66°10′W, 4-11-II- 1984, 140 m, L. J. Joly & A. Chacon. GUYANA: Bartica, Kartoba, 16-VII-1925, on cut wood, S. H. Williams; idem, 20- VII-1925, on dead tree clearing, S. H. Williams: idem, 25-VII-1925. FRENCH GUIANA: Cayenne, 4 km SE Tonnegrande, 04°50′N 52°27′W, 27-28-VIII- 1995, E. Giesbert & J.Wappes. ECUADOR: Orellana, Reserva Ethnica, Waorani, 1 km S of Onkone Gare Camp, 00°39′S 76°27′W, 6-X- 1995, 216 m, T.L. Erwin: Napo, Jasuni Research Station, 76°36′W 0°38′S 28, 17-31-X-1998, B. K. Dozier; 1 km W Coca, 8-X-1997, F. Hovore; 2 km NE San Pedro de Avajuno, 15-30-III-2005, F. T. Hovore. PERU: Loreto, 48 km E Iquitos, 30-XII- 1984 - 5- I-1985, tropical rainforest, P. Skelley: Huanuco, Bella Durmiente near Tingo Maria, 12-VII-1968, C. W. & L. B. O’ Brien: Junin, Utcuyacu Tarma, 15-19-III- 1948, F. Woytkowski. BOLIVIA: La Paz, Callanga, G. Garlepp: Cochabamba, 1906, Léon Fairmaire: Santa Cruz, 4–6 km SSE Buena Vista, F & F Hotel, 2-12-II- 2000, J. E. Wappes; idem, 27-29-X-2000, J. E. Wappes & Morris; idem, 13-16-XI-2003, J. E. Wappes, Morris & Nearns; 12 km N Camin, 19°56′67″S 63°31′34″W, M. E. Inwin & F. Parker; Amboro National Park, Los Volcanes, 18°06′S 63°36′, 20-XI-12-XII-2004 W, 1000 m, Malaise trap on tree fall, M. V. L. Barclay & H. Mendel. BRAZIL: Amazonas, Manaus 1 km W Taruma Falls, 28-II- 1981, 100 m, C. W. Young; Manaus Taruma Falls, 3-13-II-1981, G. Ekis; idem, 15-II- 1-III-1981, on felled trunk of Manilkara ; Itaituba, R. Oberthur : Rondônia, 24°38′S 54°07′W, 30- VIII- 1952, 500 m, Fritz Plaumann, idem, 17-IX- 1952, Fritz Plaumann: Pará, Santarem, VI-1919, S. M Klages; idem, VII-1919, S. M. Klages: Tocantins, Chapada Forest; Chapada da Campo, X; idem, XI; idem, XII; Palmas San do Lageado, Fazenda Céu, XI-1992: Alagoas, São Miguel dos Campos, VI-1984, F. M. Ollveira: Bahia, San Antonio da Barra, XI-XII-1988, Gounelle: Goiás, Jatai, XI-1972, M. Chiveira; Jatahy, 1895–1896, C. Pujol: Espírito Santo, Conceicâo da Barra, X- 1970, M. Alvarenga; Conceicâo da Barra, 1-V- 1970, C. T. & C. Elias: Rio de Janeiro, XI: Santa Catarina, Nova Teutonia, 27°11′N 52°23′W, 17-X- 1944, Fritz Plaumann; idem, 6-XI-1944, Fritz Plaumann; Nova Teutonia, XI-1966, 300– 500 m, F. Plaumann; idem, XI-1972, F. Plaumann; Nova Teutonia, XII-1972, F. Plaumann; idem, II-1978, F. Plaumann: Rio Grande do Sul, S. F. Paula. PARAGUAY: Caazapá, Hermosa, 26°19′15″S 55°44′55″W, 3-XII-2000, 90 m, on\under bark fallen trees, Z. H. Falin: Itapúa, Hohenau, 4-XII- 1937, H. Jacob; idem, 14-XII-1937, H. Jacob;

Yatai , property Hostettler family, San Rafael Reserve, 26°38′17″S 55°39′50″W, 25-XI- 2000, 100 m, Z. H. Falin. ARGENTINA: Misiones, Loreto, I-2001, Malaise trap, subtropical wet forest, P. Fidalgo; Santa Maria, X-1948, M. J. Viana, idem, X-1952, M. J. Viana; idem, X-1954, M. J. Viana. Specimens are deposited in BMNH, CASC, CDAE, CMNH, EMEC, FSCA, IAVH, JEWC, JNRC, MCNZ, MIUP, MIZA, MNHN, RDCC, SEMC, STRI GoogleMaps , and WOPC.


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History


Essig Museum of Entomology


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Instituto de Ivestigacion de los Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt


Porto Alegre, Museu de Ciencias Naturais da Fundacao Zoo-Botanica do Rio Grande do Sul


Museo del Instituto de Zoologia Agricola Francisco Fernandez Yepez


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle


University of Kansas - Biodiversity Institute