Clathria (Thalysias) venosa ( Alcolado, 1984 ), Alcolado, 1984

Zea, Sven, Rodríguez, Angélica & Martínez, Ana María, 2014, Taxonomy of Clathria (Thalysias) (Demospongiae: Poecilosclerida: Microcionidae) from the Colombian Caribbean, with description of three new species, Zootaxa 3835 (4), pp. 401-436: 413-417

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3835.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:E3F3FD5C-E526-4A66-911F-0FF5D692AAA8

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3511516

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/336C1F6A-D750-E739-4AD6-FCE6FBDCFD55

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Clathria (Thalysias) venosa ( Alcolado, 1984 )
status

 

Clathria (Thalysias) venosa ( Alcolado, 1984)  

Figures 7 View FIGURE 7 , 8 View FIGURE 8 ; plate 1 figures F, G, plate 2 figure E

Microciona venosa Alcolado, 1984: 6   , figs. 3 A, 4 A.

Rhaphidophlus venosus   ; Rozemeijer and Dulfer 1987, Appendix 1: 2 (ecology);? Kobluk and van Soest 1989: 1216; Zea 1994 b, 260, 263 (ecology); Aerts 2000, Fig. 7 View FIGURE 7 (ecology).

Clathria (Thalysias) venosa   ; Hooper 1996: 411 (synonymy and distribution); Díaz et al. 2005: 471; Collin et al. 2005, 654, fig.; Zea and Díaz-Sánchez 2011: 219 (ecology); Valderrama and Zea 2013, table 2; Gómez 2014: 70 View Cited Treatment , fig. 15 –16, 20E (with further synonymy).

Non: Clathria   ( Thalysias   )? venosa   ; Zea et al. 2009 (identity still uncertain).

Clathria venosa   ; Alcolado 2002: 64; Rützler et al. 2000: 235; Alcolado and Busutil 2012: 69; Rützler et al. 2009: 299 (checklist); Hajdu et al. 2011: 136, figs.

Non: Rhaphidophlus raraechelae   van Soest, 1984: 116, fig. 46, pl. 8 fig. 5 [= Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis ( Arndt, 1927)   , a valid species; synonymy suggested by Hooper 1996].

Rhaphidophlus schoenus   ; González Calderón 1992: 319 (ecology); Zea 1993: 82, 88 (ecology).

Microciona microchela Hechtel, 1965: 41   , fig. 7; Sánchez 1984: 50; Wintermann-Kilian and Kilian 1984: 134; Gómez 2014: 78 (type material).

Clathria (Thalysias) microchela   ; Lehnert and van Soest 1998: 87;? Díaz et al. 2005: 471;? Collin et al. 2005, 655, fig.

Non: Clathria (Clathria) microchela ( Stephens, 1916)   (a valid species from the NE Atlantic, originally described under genus Eurypon   , see Hooper 1996: 175 and synonymies therein).

Clathria (Thalysias) hechteli Hooper, 1996: 409   [new name for the combination Clathria (Thalysias) microchela ( Hechtel, 1965)   , preoccupied by Clathria (Clathria) microchela ( Stephens, 1916)   ].

For further synonymy see Hooper (1996: 409, 411).

Material examined. Holotype, Ido 413 (spicule slides INV-POR 1229), Barlovento, west coast of Havana, on jetty wall, 1 m, coll. P.M. Alcolado, 2 Mar. 1979; Paratype of Microciona microchela   , YPM 5236 ( USNM 24489), Rasta’s wreck, Port Royal, Jamaica, coll. G.J. Hechtel, 24 June 1961. Santa Marta: USNM 31994 (3–6 m, coll. K. Rützler, 17 July 1982), INV-POR 1220 (20 m, on dead coral, 3 Oct. 1983), Bahía de Santa Marta, Punta de Betín; INV-POR 1221 (15–20 m, reef, 26–27 Jan. 1988), 1230 (3–4.5 m, 10 Mar. 1988), Bahía de Santa Marta, Morro (material of Zea 1993); INV-POR 1233, Ojo de la Aguja, 23 m, on rock, coll. M. Rozemeijer and W. Dulfer, Jul. to Nov. 1986; ICN-MHN(Po) 260, Bahía de Nenguange, Piedra Ahogada, 12–14 m, on dead coral, 17 Mar. 1981; INV-POR 129 (under dead coral, seagrass bed, 0.5 m, 25 June 1983), 1232 (on mangrove root, 0.5 m, 12 Apr. 2011), Bahía de Chengue. Cartagena, Islas del Rosario: INV-POR 1231, Isleta, south side, on dead coral Acropora cervicornis   , 10 m, 29 Jan. 1983; INV-POR 1222, 1223, 1224, Isla Grande, Lemaitre, on dock pilings, 1 m, 29 Jan. 1983; INV-POR 1225, 1226, Pretelt, on dead coral A. cervicornis   , 6 m, 31 Jan. 1983. Islas de San Bernardo: INV- POR 1227, 1228, Isla Tintipán, mangrove lagoon, on roots, 0.5–1 m, 6 Oct. 1982.

Record Current interpretation Clathria copiosa var curacaoensis Arndt, 1927   Clathria(Thalysias)curacaoensis   Aulospongus schoenus   de Laubenfels, 1936 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Thalysias schoenus   ; Simpson 1968; Randall and Hartman 1968; Alcolado 1980 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Rhaphidophlus schoenus   ; van Soest 1984 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Rhaphidophlus schoenus   ; González Calderón 1992; Zea 1993 Clathria (Thalysias) venosa   Rhaphidophlus schoenus   ; Chen and Mok 1993 Identity uncertain Clathria (Thalysias) schoenus   ; Lehnert and van Soest 1998; Díaz et al. 2005; Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis Collin et al. 2005   ; Freeman et al. 2007; Zea and Díaz-Sánchez 2011; Valderrama

and Zea 2013

Clathria (Thalysias) schoenus   ; Gómez 2014 Identity uncertain Clathria   ( Thalysias   )? schoenus   ; Zea et al. 2009 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Clathria schoenus   ; Rützler et al. 2000; Zea 2001; Alcolado 2002; Rützler et al. Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   2009; Alcolado and Busutil 2012

Clathria schoenus   ; Hajdu et al. 2011 Pending confirmation Rhaphidophlus raraechelae   van Soest, 1984 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Rhaphidophlus raraechelae   ; Pulitzler-Finali 1986: 151 Pending confirmation Clathria (Thalysias) raraechelae   ; Lehnert & van Soest 1998; Gómez 2014 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Clathria raraechelae   ; Humann et al. 2013 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Rhaphidophlus juniperinus   ; Reyes and Campos 1992 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Microciona microchela   Hechtel, 1965; Sánchez 1984; Wintermann-Kilian and Clathria (Thalysias) venosa Kilian 1984   ; Gómez 2014

Eurypon microchela Stephens, 1916   Clathria (Clathria) microchela   Clathria (Thalysias) microchela   ; Lehnert and van Soest 1998 Clathria (Thalysias) venosa   Clathria (Thalysias) microchela   ; Díaz et al. 2005; Collin et al. 2005 Identity uncertain Clathria (Thalysias) hechteli Hooper, 1996   Clathria (Thalysias) venosa   Microciona venosa   Alcolado, 1984 Clathria (Thalysias) venosa   Rhaphidophlus venosus   ; Rozemeijer and Dulfer 1987; Zea 1994 b; Aerts 2000 Clathria (Thalysias) venosa   Rhaphidophlus venosus   ; Kobluk and van Soest 1989; Gammill 1998 Pending confirmation Clathria (Thalysias) venosa   ; Hooper 1996; Díaz et al. 2005; Collin et al. 2005; Clathria (Thalysias) venosa Zea and Díaz-Sánchez 2011   ; Valderrama and Zea 2013; Gómez 2014

Clathria   ( Thalysias   )? venosa   ; Zea et al. 2009 Identity uncertain Clathria venosa   ; Alcolado 2002; Rützler et al. 2000; Alcolado and Busutil 2012; Clathria (Thalysias) venosa Rützler et al. 2009   ; Hajdu et al. 2011

Microciona   sp. 4; Sánchez 1984 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis   Microciona   sp.; Díaz et al. 1985 Clathria (Thalysias) curacaoensis Shape   , color and consistency. Thin (up to 2 mm) encrustations forming irregular sheets extending over the substratum for up to about 0.25 m 2. Surface smooth, with a very conspicuous vein-pattern of the canal system and oscules, among which there are pore fields clearly visible to the naked eye. Oscules scattered over the entire surface, up to 8–10 mm in diameter, separated 3–4 cm; confluent canals up to 4–5 mm wide. Color of the ectosome pink, grayish, greenish or yellowish white, sometimes cinnamon. Choanosome bright orange. Cream in spirit. Consistency slightly firm; thicker specimens are somewhat crumbly.

Skeleton. Ectosome is a thin pinacoderm supported by erect brushes of small auxiliary subtylostyles; over subdermal spaces, the pinacoderm is supported by tracts of tangentially placed, larger subtylostyles, making it somewhat easier to detach. Skeleton formed by groups of thick, choanosomal principal styles that arise, in thicker areas, from of a basal spongin sheet; interspersed among these groups arise erect, echinating accessory acanthostyles. In some specimens, the styles are scarse, being replaced by large, choanosomal subtylostyles. Styles are followed by tracks of 4–8 or more choanosomal auxiliary subtylostyles which either end up in brushes of smaller, subectsomal to ectosomal auxiliary tylostyles, or diverge horizontaly to line the roofs and floors of subdermal canals. Spicules (Table 1): (1) Thick and slightly curved, basal principal styles of a wide range of sizes in a single specimen; very scarce in some specimens; heads from slightly prominent and irregular to warty; ends usually short, slightly telescopic; 119– 231.6 – 432 µm by 3.8– 10.4 – 17.6 µm. (2) Straight to very slightly sinuous auxiliary subtylostyles with smooth or microspined heads in two size categories by spatial location: large, choanosomal and subectosomal ones, 199– 286.7 – 389 µm by 2.9– 4.6 – 7.1 µm; smaller, mostly ectosomal ones, 81– 132.9 – 204 µm by 0.5– 2.9 – 3.8 µm. (3) Basal, echinating accessory acanthostyles, with a prominent, heavily spined head and a thoroughly spined shaft, 46– 53.4 – 70 µm by 2.5 – 5.0 – 7.7 µm. (4) Toxa in three size categories, although this varies with the specimen; long, 242–513 µm, oxeote toxa are sometimes present; wing-shaped to accolade, the shortest, the more curved, 38 – 153.0 – 299 µm; most specimens have an additional category of small oxhorn toxa, 4.6–18.4 µm, which sometimes may be very scarce or altogether absent. (5) Palmate isochelae in two size categories, large ones, 8.1 –15.0 µm, and tiny ones, frequently twisted-contorted, 4.0– 6.9 µm; density of isochelae also varies from one specimen to the next. On average, megascleres are slightly larger in specimens from Cartagena and Islas de San Bernardo than those from Santa Marta (Table 1).

Distribution and ecology. Gulf of Mexico (Veracruz, Gómez 2014), Cuba ( Alcolado 1984, 2002), Jamaica ( Hechtel 1965; Lehnert & van Soest 1998), Guadeloupe ( Alcolado & Busutil 2012: 69), Colombia [Santa Marta (also Sánchez 1984; Wintermann-Kilian & Kilian 1984; Rozemeijer & Dulfer 1987; Zea 1993, 1994b; Aerts 2000), Cartagena and Islas del Rosario (also González Calderón 1992; Zea & Díaz-Sánchez 2011), Islas de San Bernardo, Urabá ( Valderrama & Zea 2013)], Panama (Díaz et al. 2005; Collin et al. 2005), Belize ( Rützler et al. 2000), Brazil (Bahia, Hajdu et al. 2011). Seems to be absent from Florida, Bahamas, and from reefs of the San Andrés and Old Providence Archipelago in the SW Caribbean (although it may be present in the latter localities on mangrove stilt roots). Its presence in Curaçao needs to be confirmed. In Bocas del Toro ( Panama), S.Z. did not observe this species on rocky and reef environments; it occurs in mangrove habitats (Díaz et al. 2005 and Collin et al. 2005). In the continental coast of Colombia this species is an important space occupier of hard substrata, including rocky shores, caves ( Rozemeijer & Dulfer 1987), reefs (where they frequently interact with live corals, see Aerts 2000), dock pilings and mangrove stilt roots. In general, it inhabits from shallow waters to 30 m deep or more.

Remarks. From revision of types, we believe that Microciona venosa Alcolado, 1984   and Microciona microchela Hechtel, 1965   are conspecific. Hence, the new name Clathria (Thalysias) hechteli   put forward by Hooper (1996) to replace M. microchela   for being preoccupied also falls into junior synonymy of C. venosa   . However, Gómez (2014: 79, under C. virgultosa   ) also examined type material of M. microchela   but did not relate it to C. venosa   . Collin et al. (2005) distinguished these two species in mangrove stilt root and peat bank habitats of Bocas del Toro, Panama. Their underwater photo of C. venosa   conforms to this species, but their photo of C. microchela   seems something else altogether from its aspect and bluish color. Under C. curacaoensis   remarks (see also Table 2), we have mentioned the confusion between this species and C. venosa   in the literature, and how they can clearly be separated in the field and from spicules. What was initially described as C.? venosa   by Zea et al. (2009) from the Bahamas is another, apparently still undescribed species of Clathria   .

YPM

Peabody Museum of Natural History

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Poecilosclerida

Family

Microcionidae

Genus

Clathria

Loc

Clathria (Thalysias) venosa ( Alcolado, 1984 )

Zea, Sven, Rodríguez, Angélica & Martínez, Ana María 2014
2014
Loc

Clathria venosa

Alcolado 2012: 69
Rutzler 2009: 299
Alcolado 2002: 64
Rutzler 2000: 235
2002
Loc

Clathria (Thalysias) microchela

Soest 1998: 87
1998
Loc

Clathria (Thalysias) venosa

Gomez 2014: 70
Zea 2011: 219
Hooper 1996: 411
1996
Loc

Clathria (Thalysias) hechteli

Hooper 1996: 409
1996
Loc

Rhaphidophlus schoenus

Zea 1993: 82
Gonzalez 1992: 319
1992
Loc

Rhaphidophlus venosus

Soest 1989: 1216
1989
Loc

Microciona venosa

Alcolado 1984: 6
1984
Loc

Microciona microchela

Gomez 2014: 78
Sanchez 1984: 50
Wintermann-Kilian 1984: 134
Hechtel 1965: 41
1965