Zelus tetracanthus Stal , 1862

Zhang, Guanyang, Hart, Elwood R & Weirauch, Christiane, 2016, A taxonomic monograph of the assassin bug genus Zelus Fabricius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae): 71 species based on 10,000 specimens, Biodiversity Data Journal 4, pp. 8150-8150: 8150

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.4.e8150

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:262DB958-2422-46B6-92E6-1675C3C07DB1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/35180F90-EE5D-33D0-3211-906A6D7B0543

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Biodiversity Data Journal by Pensoft

scientific name

Zelus tetracanthus Stal , 1862
status

 

Zelus tetracanthus Stal, 1862 

Zelus tetracanthus  Stål, 1862, p. 454, orig. descr. (subgenus Pindus  ) ; Stål, 1872, p. 92, cat. (subgenus Pindus  ); Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 153, cat.; Champion, 1898, p. 362, Tab. XV, fig. 27, note and fig.; Fracker, 1913, p. 240, key and list (subgenus Pindus  ); Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 50, checklist; Hart, 1986, p. 536-537, redescription, note, fig. and key; Maldonado, 1990, p. 331, cat.

Diplodus tetracanthus  : Walker, 1873, p. 124, cat.; Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist.

Pindus socius  Uhler, 1872b, p. 420, orig. descr.; Uhler, 186, p. 62, list (reprint); Uhler, 1877, p. 1329, list; Uhler, 1894, p. 284, list.; Hart, 1986, p. 536, junior syn. of Z. tetracanthus  .

Diplodus socius  : Uhler, 1886, p. 24, checklist; Gillette and Baker, 1895, p. 60, list.

Zelus socius  : Lethierry and Severin, 1896, p. 153 cat.; Barber, 1906, p. 28,6, list; Hart, 1907, p. 237, list; Torre-Bueno, 1908, p. 235, list (subgenus Pindus  ); Van Duzee, 1909, p. 177, list; Banks, 1910b, p. 16, cat.; Fracker, 1913, p. 240, key and list (subgenus Pindus  ); Torre-Bueno, 1913, p. 60, list (subgenus Pindus  ); Barber, 1914, p. 506, list; Parshley, 1914, p. 144, list; Van duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist (subgenus Pindus  ); Van Duzee, 1917, p. 261, cat. (subgenus Pindus  ); Parshley, 1921, p. 5, list; Anonymous, 1923, p. 120-135, note; Blatchley, 1926, p. 569, 571, key and descr. (subgenus Pindus  ); Readio, 1926, p. 168, 177, note and fig.; Readio, 1927, p. 169, 179-181, P1. XIV. fig. 1,2,5, descr., notes and fig.; Leonard, 1928, p. 105, list; Essig, 1929, p. 357, note; Knowlton, 1932, p. 12, note; Harris, 1937, p. 174, list; Brimley, 1938, p. 73, list; Procter, 1946, p. 319, list; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 50, checklist; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Sibley, 1951, p. 92, list; Elkins, 1954, p. 47, note; Atkins, et. al., 1957, p. 251-259, note; Drew and Schaeffer, 1962, p. 106, list; Wene and Sheets, 1962, p. 395-398, note; Whitcomb and Bell, 1964, p. 22, list; Butler, 1966, p. 1306-1307, note; Nutting and Spangler, 1969, p. 763-769, note and photo.

Diplocodus socius  : Van Duzee, 1914, p. 13, list and note.

Zelus audax  Banks, 1910, p. 325, orig. descr.; Fracker, 1913, p. 240, note; Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30 checklist (subgenus Pindus  ); Van Duzee, 1917, p. 261, cat. (subgenus Pindus  ); Britton, 1923, p. 687, list (subgenus Pindus  ); Blatchley, 1926, p. 569, 571-572, key and descr. (subgenus Pindus  ); Readio, 1927, p. 169, 181, descr.; Leonard, 1928, p. 105, list; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Hart, 1986, p. 536, junior syn. of Z. tetracanthus  and lectotype desig.

Zelus occiduus  Torre-Bueno, 1913a, p. 22, orig. descr. (subgenus Pindus  ); Van Duzee, 1916, p. 30, checklist; Van Duzee, 1917, p. 261, cat. (subgenus Pindus  ) ; Readio, 1927, p. 169, 181-182, key and descr.; Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 50, checklist; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Hart, 1986, p. 536, junior syn. of Z. tetracanthus  and lectotype desig.

Zelus angustatus  Hussey, 1925, p. 66-67, orig. descr.; Blatchley, 1926, p. 569, 572, descr. and note (subgenus Pindus  ); Readio, 1927, p. 169, 182., key and descr.; Blatchley, 1928, p. 6, note (subgenus Pindus  ); Wygodzinsky, 1949a, p. 48, checklist; Elkins, 1951, p. 410, list; Hussey, 1953, p. 9-11, note; Hart, 1986, p. 536, junior syn. of Z. tetracanthus  .

Materials

Type status: Holotype. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00075078; occurrenceRemarks: Verbatim label info: Mexico Coll. Signoret / Tetracanth. det. Stal / B.C.A. Rhyn. II. Zelustetracanthus St. / Holotype / Zelustetracanthus Stal / Lectotypus Zelustetracanthus STAL, 1862 etik. Hecher 1996 REDV. 488/1; recordedBy: Signoret; sex: Adult Male; Taxon: scientificName: Zelustetracanthus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: MEXICO; stateProvince: None or Unknown; locality: unknown ; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: No date provided; Record Level: institutionCode: NHMW  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00057796; occurrenceRemarks: Lectotype of Zelusaudax Banks, 1910, designated by Hart (1986), junior synonym of Zelustetracanthus Stal; recordedBy: N. Banks; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zelustetracanthus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: New York; county: Nassau; locality: Sea Cliff, Long Island ; verbatimElevation: 5 m; decimalLatitude: 40.84944; decimalLongitude: -73.65233; georeferenceSources: Google Earth; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: no date provided; Record Level: institutionCode: AMNHGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00057797; occurrenceRemarks: Lectotype of Zelusocciduus Torre-Bueno, designated by Hart (1986), junior synonym of Zelustetracanthus Stal. Additional label information: M.C.Z Paratype 27979, Zelus (Pindus) occiduus 776 Bueno, LECTOTYPE Zelusocciduus Torre-Bueno des. by E. R. Hart; recordedBy: J.M.A.; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zelustetracanthus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: California; county: Santa Clara; locality: Salt Marshes, Palo Alto ; decimalLatitude: 37.44188; decimalLongitude: -122.14302; georeferenceSources: GeoLocate Software; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: 1906-04-20; Record Level: institutionCode: AMNHGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00017636; occurrenceRemarks: Paralectotype of Zelusaudax Banks, 1911, designated by Hart 1986, junior synonym of Zelustetracanthus Stal; recordedBy: N. Banks; sex: Adult Male; Taxon: scientificName: Zelustetracanthus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: New York; county: Nassau; locality: Sea Cliff, Long Island ; verbatimElevation: 5 m; decimalLatitude: 40.84944; decimalLongitude: -73.65233; georeferenceSources: Google Earth; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: no date provided; Record Level: institutionCode: AMNHGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: catalogNumber: UCR_ENT 00046742; occurrenceRemarks: Paralectotype of Zelusaudax Banks, 1911, designated by Hart 1986, junior synonym of Zelustetracanthus Stal; recordedBy: N. Banks; sex: Adult Female; Taxon: scientificName: Zelustetracanthus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: Virginia; county: Falls Church; locality: Falls Church ; decimalLatitude: 38.88222; decimalLongitude: -77.17138; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: 1900-08-29; Record Level: institutionCode: AMNHGoogleMaps  Type status: Other material. Occurrence: occurrenceRemarks: Holotype of Zelusangustatus Hussey, 1925, junior synonym of Zelustetracanthus Stal. Type specimen information extracted from literature. Location of actual specimen could not be determined (Hart, 1986); recordedBy: T.H. Hubbell; sex: Adult Male; Taxon: scientificName: Zelustetracanthus; family: Reduviidae; genus: Zelus; scientificNameAuthorship: Stål, 1862; Location: country: USA; stateProvince: Florida; locality: Gainesville ; Identification: identifiedBy: G. Zhang; dateIdentified: 2012; Event: eventDate: 1923-12; Record Level: institutionCode: Unknown 

Description

Figs 190, 191, 192

Male: (Fig. 190a) Medium-sized, total length 11.34-13.73 mm (mean 12.36 mm, Suppl. material 2); slender. COLORATION: Greyish-brown to black. Anteocular lobe dark reddish-brown to brownish-black, variable yellowish-brown areas usually present dorsolaterally anterior to compound eyes, dorsally and medially at antennal bases, and on lateral and ventral surfaces. Postocular lobe dark reddish-brown with lighter areas between ocelli and compound eyes, along mid-dorsal line, longitudinally on lateral and ventral surface. Labium reddish-brown to brownish-black with anterior surface of segment I lighter in color, yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Antennal segments I and II reddish-brown, outer dorsolateral surface of I darker, especially near base, base and apex of II darker, segments III and IV yellowish-brown to reddish-brown. Anterior pronotal lobe reddish-brown to brownish-black, occasionally with variable lighter areas, especially near margins, lateral surface reddish-brown to brownish-black, usually lighter ventrally. Posterior pronotal lobe reddish-brown to brownish-black with dark yellowish-brown posterior margin and/or darker reddish-brown to brownish-black apices on lateral and dorsal processes. Scutellum variably yellowish-brown to brownish-black, usually with lighter apex. Legs yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, usually with variable darker reddish-brown spots or bands, especially near dorsal surfaces of femoral apices. Hemelytron brown to dark brown, veins in area anterior to basal and discal cells lighter. Abdomen variable, dark yellowish-brown to reddish-brown, darker areas usually at posterior of segments of connexivum and mid-laterally at anterior of segments 3-7. Abdomen yellowish-brown with variable reddish-brown areas on lateral and posterior margins and posterior surface. VESTITURE: Moderately setose. Short recumbent and short to long erect setae, many specimens covered with white waxlike exudation. Anteocular lobe with short recumbent setae on entire surface, longer erect setae on tylus and ventral surface; postocular lobe with short recumbent setae over entire surface, moderate to long erect setae on posterodorsal and ventral surfaces. Entire surface of anterior pronotal lobe with short recumbent and erect setae, confined to setal tracts dorsally, longer erect setae laterally; posterior lobe with short recumbent setae over surface, some long erect setae laterally; scutellum setae short, recumbent to semi-erect. Corium and clavus with short, recumbent setae. Abdominal dorsum with sparse short erect setae, remainder of surface with short recument and sparse moderate erect setae. Exposed surface of pygophore with short to long semi-erect and erect setae, especially posteriorly. STRUCTURE: Head: Elongated, L/W = 2.63. Postocular lobe long; in dorsal view anteriorly gradually narrowing, posterior portion constant, slightly narrower. Eye moderately sized; lateral margin only slightly wider than margin of postocular lobe; dorsal and ventral margins removed from surfaces of head. Labium: I: II: III = 1: 2.3: 0.4. Basiflagellomere diameter larger than that of pedicel. Thorax: Anterolateral angle rounded, without projection; medial longitudinal sulcus shallow near collar, deepening posteriorly. Posterior pronotal lobe with finely rugulose surface; disc slightly elevated above humeral angle; humeral angle armed, with short tuberculate processes. Scutellum moderately long; apex angulate, very slightly projected upward. Legs: Slender. Hemelytron: Surpassing apex of abdomen by about length of abdominal segment seven; quadrate cell small and slender; Cu and M of cubital cell subparallel. GENITALIA: (Fig. 191) Pygophore: Ovoid; not expanded laterally in dorsal view. Medial process broadly triangular; very short; semi-erect; straight; apex in posterior view blunt, without modification. Paramere: Cylindrical; short, not reaching apex of medial process; directed posteriad; nearly straight; apical part enlarged. Phallus: Dorsal phallothecal sclerite somewhat ovoid; apical portion of phallothecal sclerite not distinctly tapered, slightly convex; apex medially notched, degree and shape variable; posterior margin of foramen nearly straight to broadly concave. Struts attached to dorsal phallothecal sclerite; apically separate, connected by bridge; basally fused. Basal plate arm slender; separate; subparallel; in lateral view very slightly curved; bridge long; extension of basal plate small and confined to apex of basal plate arm.

Female: (Fig. 190b, c) Similar to male, except for the following. Larger than male, total length 13.22-15.63 mm (mean 14.43 mm, Suppl. material 2). Often darker than male. Tuberculate processes of posterior pronotal lobe usually more pronounced, apex often produced. Mid femur slightly swollen on central 1/4, pro- and mesofemoral diameters subequal, about 1.4-1.5x diameter of hind femur. Hemelytron attaining apex of abdomen.

Diagnosis

Recognized by the disc of the posterior pronotal lobe with large conspicuous tubercles and the greyish-black coloration. Males can also be recognized by the medial process broadly triangular; the paramere not exceeding medial process; and the dorsal phallothecal sclerite apically with deep emargination.

Distribution

North America, Central America and parts of South America (Fig. 192). Countries with records: Brazil, Costa Rica, Curaçao, Honduras, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, USA and Venezuela.

Taxon discussion

Besides Z. tetracanthus  , two other species, Z. minutus  and Z. lewisi  also exhibit tuberculate processes on posterior pronotal lobe, but these species can be easily separated on the basis of coloration and body shape. Zelus tetracanthus  is a rather widely distributed species, found nearly throughout North America, ranging from southern Canada to parts of Central America. A few records are from Brazil and Paraguay. As the collecting events of these specimens are unrelated, it is highly unlikely these specimens are mislabelled (unless they were each independently mislabelled, which is not likely). Further investigations should examine if the South Amerian populations are native or introduced. Hart (1986) discussed intraspecific variations in Z. tetracanthus  .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Reduviidae

Genus

Zelus

Loc

Zelus tetracanthus Stal , 1862

Zhang, Guanyang, Hart, Elwood R & Weirauch, Christiane 2016

2016
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840
Loc

Pindus

Steud. 1840

1840