Loxaulus championi Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey

Medianero, Enrique, Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis & Melika, George, 2011, Two new Neotropical species of oak gall wasps of the genus Loxaulus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) from Panama, Zootaxa 2811, pp. 37-46 : 38-41

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.203682



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scientific name

Loxaulus championi Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey

sp. nov.

Loxaulus championi Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey sp. nov.

( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 , 2 View FIGURE 2 & 5 View FIGURE 5 A–D)

Type material. Holotype Ƥ ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 A) (in Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain ( MNCN), cardmounted. Cat. nº 2111). PANAMA, Chiriquí, Volcan Baru 8 º 48 ' 03.5” N, 82 º 30 ' 42.7 ” W, 2681 m; ex gall on stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. ( Fagaceae ), gall collected 17.vii. 2008, insect emerged vii.08, E. Medianero leg. Paratypes: 1 Ƥ PANAMA, Chiriquí, Volcan Baru 8 º 47 ' 54.55 ” N, 82 º 30 ' 32.5 ” W, 2447 m collected 26.xi. 2008, insect emerged xii.08, E. Medianero leg. Paratype in Maestría en Entomología, Universidad de Panamá ( MEUP).

Etymology. Named after George Champion (1851–1926) English entomologist, collector of the first cynipid galls from Panama.

Diagnosis and comments. The species resembles L. illinoisensis (Weld) from the United States, being similar in color and a majority of morphological characteristics. However, in L. illinoisensis the head is less massive from above, nearly 3.0 times or more as broad as long; the notauli are distinctly impressed at least in 2 / 3 of the mesoscutum length posteriorly; the radial cell of the forewing distinctly shorter, maximum 2.5 times as long as broad; the projecting part of the hypopygial spine 2.2–2.5 times as long as wide in lateral view; currently known only from Illinois, USA, induce subterranean stem swelling-like galls, usually at the base of young sprouts of Q. macrocarpa Michaux. The abrupt stem swelling induced by L. illinoisensis is approximately 4–5 times the normal diameter of the shoot and nearly 30 cm long. Galls mature in fall and adults emerge from the end of October through November ( Weld 1921).

Description. Body length 2.55 mm (range 2.5 – 2.6; N = 2) for females. Mesosoma and metasoma dark reddish-brown. Head, antennae and legs yellowish-brown with the genae, ocellar triangle, occiput, distal half of antennae meso- and metacoxae, femora and tibiae, reddish-brown. Forewing hyaline with some light infumation in and below the areolet area and on 2 r vein, veins light to dark brown, with the area of 2 r vein and base of radial cell darkened and lightly infuscate.

Female. Head finely coriaceous, in dorsal view about 2.0 times wider than long, 1.26 times broader than thorax. POL 1.7 times longer than OOL, posterior ocellus separated from inner orbit of eye by 2.3 times its longest diameter ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A); a longitudinal line of sculpture visible between the lateral ocelli. Head in anterior view ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B), 1.1 times wider than high, genae strongly broadened behind eyes. Vertex, frons, lower face, gena and occiput finely coriaceous with sparse very short gold setae and weak rugae on the face, radiating striae from clypeus delicate and short, not reaching ventral margin of compound eye and absent medially above clypeus. Clypeus square with ventral margin sinuate and strongly projecting over mandibles. Anterior tentorial pits well visible; with epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal lines slightly marked. Malar space 0.4 times height of compound eye, with a distinctive malar sulcus. Toruli situated slightly above mid-height of compound eye; distance between antennal rim and compound eye one times width of antennal socket including rim. Ocellar plate not raised. Head without occipital carina posteriorly. Occiput slightly concave. Mouthparts: mandibles not being well visible in the examined specimens, but presumably as usual in Cynipini , right mandible with three teeth; left with two teeth.

Antenna ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E–G) of moderate length, as long as 1 / 2 body length, with 13 antennomeres; flagellum not broadening towards apex; with short erect setae, and placodeal sensilla visible ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G). Relative lengths of antennal segments: 17: 13: 26: 25: 23: 21: 20: 18: 16: 15: 15: 13: 25. Pedicel, sub-globose, small, 0.7 as long as scape; F 1 only slightly longer as F 2 ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F). F 4 -F 11 longer than wide, F 11 2.7 times longer than wide, 2.2 times as long as F 10 ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 G). Placodeal sensillae on F 4 -F 11 disposed in one row of 5 sensillae in half dorsal area of each flagellomere.

Mesosoma. Slightly flattened dorso-ventrally; in lateral view 1.25 times as long as high. Pronotum, scarcely pubescent; lateral surface of pronotum coriaceous without longitudinal wrinkles dorsally ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D). Pronotum short medially, ratio of length of pronotum medially/laterally = 0.3. Pronotal plate indistinct dorsally ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C).

Mesonotum ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A). Mesoscutum slightly longer than broad in dorsal view, finely coriaceous and barely pubescent. Notauli distinct in posterior one third of mesoscutum, faint anteriorly and medially, widely separated at meeting of transscutal fissure, median mesoscutal impression absent. Anteroadmedian signa and parapsidal signa clearly visible. Scutellum ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A), rounded, about 0.4 as long as mesoscutum, slightly reticulate. Scutellar foveae not well differentiated, shallow, confluent medially, with some longitudinal striae and indistinctly margined posteriorly; in lateral view the scutellum not overlapping the dorsellum. Axillula without setae, only their anterior margins marked. Mesopleuron medially with coriaceous reticulate sculpture, lacking in antero-posterior and ventral areas of mesopleuron ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D).

Metanotum ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B). Metapectal-propodeal complex. Metapleural sulcus reaching posterior margin of mesopectus at about two thirds height ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D). Lateral propodeal carinae parallel, slightly branched posteriorly, a median longitudianal carina present and complete, median propodeal area with some secondary rugae ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 B), lateral propodeal area with reticulate carinae and almost bare.

Legs. Metatarsal claws simple, with a single curved apical tooth and without basal lobes ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 E).

Forewing ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 B) slightly longer than body, radial cell 3.1 times longer than wide; open along anterior margin; areolet small, triangular, closed and distinct. Rs depigmented apically, slightly bowed and not reaching margin of wing. Rs+M not reaching basalis. Apical margin of wing with a fringe of moderately long setae. Basal cell almost bare.

Metasoma ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C) as long as mesosoma, as high as long in lateral view. Second metasomal tergite covering about two thirds of metasoma, with line of 6–7 setae in its anteromedial area. Projecting part of hypopygial spine ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 D) about 2.8 times as long as broad in lateral view, laterally with some short setae.

Gall ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 C–D). Elongated slight swellings of twigs ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 C). The gall surface rough, of the same colour as the bark. The swellings have at least two times the diameter of a normal stem. Larval chambers are arranged longitudinally in rows under the surface of the bark ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 D). The galled stems are barely recognizable before the emergence of the adults.

Distribution. Loxaulus championi was found between 2400 and 2700 m a.s.l. at Volcan Baru, Chiriqui, Panama.

Biology. Only the asexual generation is known, inducing galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (section Quercus ). The galls are found between July and December during the rain season in Panama.


Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales