Loxaulus panamensis Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey

Medianero, Enrique, Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis & Melika, George, 2011, Two new Neotropical species of oak gall wasps of the genus Loxaulus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) from Panama, Zootaxa 2811, pp. 37-46 : 41-44

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.203682



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scientific name

Loxaulus panamensis Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey

sp. nov.

Loxaulus panamensis Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey sp. nov.

( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 , 4 View FIGURE 4 & 5 View FIGURE 5 E–G)

Type material. Holotype Ƥ ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 E) (in Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid, Spain, card mounted. Cat nº 2112). PANAMA, Chiriquí, Volcan Baru, 8 ° 46´36.8 ”N, 82 ° 31´39.3 ”W, 3079 m; ex gall on stems of Quercus bumelioides Liebm. ( Fagaceae ), gall collected 26.v. 2010, insect emerged vi. 10, E. Medianero leg. Paratypes: 1 Ƥ, same data as holotype. Paratypes: 1 Ƥ, PANAMA, Chiriquí, Volcan Baru, on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. ( Fagaceae ), collected 22.vii. 2008, E. Medianero leg. One paratypes in MNCN, one paratype in Maestría en Entomología, Universidad de Panamá ( MEUP).

Etymology. Named after the country where the new species was collected.

Diagnosis and comments. Closely resembles L. championi described above in majority of morphological characteristics. The species differs mainly by the relative length of notauli and the length of F 1 and F 2. L. championi have F 2 as long as F 1, whereas F 2 is 1.2 times as long as F 1 in L. panamenis . L. championi have notauli distinct only in posterior one third of mesoscutum whereas the notauli are nearly complete wider and deeper in L. panamensis . Additionally, L. championi have the lateral propodeal carinae parallel and slightly branched posteriorly, and the area between the median and the lateral propdeal carinae is rugose, whereas the lateral propodeal carinae are slightly convergent posteriorly in L. panamenis , and the surface between lateral and medial carinae is smooth. Another minor differences can be noted as follows: L. panamensis has the lateral surface of the pronotum with some longitudinal wrinkles, radial cell 3.8 times longer than wide, with well visible infuscation below areolet, and body mostly yellowish brown, while L. championi has a coriaceous lateral surface of the pronotum, radial cell only 3.1 times longer than wide, with very diffuse infuscate area below areolet, and the body is mostly dark reddish– brown.

Description. Female body length 2.0 mm (N = 3). Head, mesosoma, and metasoma yellowish brown with ocellar triangle, lateral surface of pronotum, scutellum (except by medial area), mesopleuron, metapectal-propodeal complex, distal half of antennae, metafemora and tibiae dark brown to black. Forewing hyaline with some very light infumation below the areolet area, veins light to dark brown, with the area of 2 r vein and basalis slightly darkened..

Female. Head coriaceous, in dorsal view about 2.2 times wider than long, 1.14 times broader than thorax. Genae strongly broadened behind eyes. POL 1.3 times longer than OOL, posterior ocellus separated from inner orbit of eye by 2.6 times its longest diameter ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A). Head in anterior view ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 B), ovate, 1.3 times wider than high. Vertex, frons, face, gena and occiput coriaceous with sparse gold setae on the face and vertex, radiating striae from clypeus absent. Clypeus square, coriaceous and moderately pubescent with ventral margin sinuate and slightly projecting over mandibles. Anterior tentorial pits well visible with epistomal sulcus and clypeo-pleurostomal lines slightly marked. Malar space 0.4 times height of compound eye, with a distinctive malar sulcus. Toruli situated slightly above mid-height of compound eye; distance between antennal rim and compound eye one times width of antennal socket including rim. Ocellar plate not raised. Head, posterior view without occipital carina. Mouthparts ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 B): mandibles strong, exposed; with dense setae at base.

Antenna ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C–E) of moderate length, as long as 1 / 2 body length, with 13 antennomeres; flagellum not broadening towards apex; with short erect setae, and elongate placodeal sensilla visible ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C). Relative lengths of antennal segments: 16: 15: 20: 25: 21: 21: 19: 18: 17: 17: 16: 15: 29. Pedicel, 0.9 as long as scape, 1.4 as long as wide;. F 1 0.8 times as long as F 2 ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 D). F 4 -F 11 longer than wide, F 11 2.9 times longer than wide, 2.1 times as long as F 10 ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 E). Placodeal sensillae on F 3 -F 11 disposed in one row of 5 sensillae in half dorsal area of each flagellomere.

Mesosoma. Coriaceous, in lateral view 1.25 times as long as high, slightly convex dorsally ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A). Pronotum, scarcely pubescent; lateral surface of pronotum coriaceous with longitudinal wrinkles dorsally ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A). Pronotum short medially, ratio of length of pronotum medially/laterally = 0.4. Pronotal plate indistinct dorsally ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 F).

Mesonotum ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 G). Mesoscutum coriaceous and barely pubescent, slightly longer than broad in dorsal view. Notauli nearly percurrent, only slightly faint in anterior one third of mesoscutum, slightly convergent posteriorly, at meeting of transscutal fissure; median mesoscutal impression absent. Anteroadmedian signa faint, not clearly marked, parapsidal signa clearly visible. Transscutal fissure narrow, well-visible, deeply impressed, slightly sinuate. Scutellum, scutellar foveae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B), axillula and mesopleuron ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A) as in L. championi .

Metanotum ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C). Metapectal-propodeal complex. Metapleural sulcus reaching posterior margin of mesopectus at about two thirds height ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 A). Lateral propodeal carinae subparallel, slightly convergent and not branched posteriorly, median longitudinal carinae present and complete, median propodeal area smooth ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 C), lateral propodeal area with reticulate carinae and almost bare.

Legs. metatarsal claws simple, without a strong triangular basal lobe or teeth ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 D).

Forewing ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 F) slightly longer than body, radial cell 3.8 times longer than wide; open along anterior margin; areolet small, triangular, closed and distinct. M nearly straight, not reaching wing margin. Rs slightly bowed. Rs+M not reaching basalis. Rs and M unpigmented. Apical margin of wing with hair fringe.

Metasoma ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 E) as in L. championi . Projecting part of hypopygial spine about 2.9 times as long as wide in lateral view ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 F), with some sparse long setae not reaching apex spine ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 G).

Gall ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 G). Cryptic, polythalamous in twigs. There is a only a slight stem hyperthrophy and the galls are barely detected before adults emergence. The gall consist of small ellipsoidal larval cells inside of twigs.

Distribution. Loxaulus panamensis was found to 3079 m a.s.l. at Volcan Baru, Chiriqui, Panama.

Biology. Only the asexual generation is known, inducing galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (section Quercus ). The galls are found between May and July during the rain season in Panama.


Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales