Elasmopus

Alves, Jessika, Johnsson, Rodrigo & Senna, André R., 2016, On the genus Elasmopus Costa, 1853 from the Northeastern Coast of Brazil with five new species and new records, Zootaxa 4184 (1), pp. 1-40: 3-33

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4184.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:813D1C38-C237-4FFF-B352-433E651EB73D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/36672A18-FF8A-F44D-D3D5-FECA969EFE91

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Elasmopus
status

 

Genus Elasmopus  Costa, 1853

Composition of the genus. Elasmopus aduncus Myers, 1995  ; E. affinis Della Valle, 1893  ; E. alalo Myers, 1986  ; E. alkhiranensis Myers & Montazi, 2015  ; E. antennatus (Stout, 1913)  ; E. arafura Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. arrawarra Hughes & Lowry, 2006  ; E. atolgidus Barnard, 1965  ; E. balkomanus Thomas & Barnard, 1988  ; E. bampo Barnard, 1979  ; E. barbatus Schellenberg, 1925  ; E. bastidai Garcia-Madrigal, 2010  ; E. bollonsi Chilton, 1915  ; E. brasiliensis (Dana, 1853)  ; E. buchneri Spandl, 1924  ; E. calliactis Edmondson, 1951  ; E. canarius  Krapp- Schickel & Ruffo, 1990; E. caprai Maccagno, 1936  ; E. carteri Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. crenulatus Berents, 1983  ; E. delaplata Stebbing, 1888  ; E. dentiferus Schellenberg, 1938  ; E. dentipalmus Walker, 1916  ; E. diplonyx Schellenberg, 1938  ; E. dubius Walker, 1904  ; E. ecuadoriensis Schellenberg, 1936  ; E. elieri Ortiz, Lalana & Varela, 2004  ; E. erythraeus (Kossmann, 1880)  ; E. excavatus Schellenberg, 1938  ; E. fusimanus Oliveira, 1951  ; E. gracilis Schellenberg, 1938  ; E. hawaiensis Schellenberg, 1938  ; E. hyperopia Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. holgurus Barnard, 1962  ; 9; E. japonicus Stephensen, 1932  ; Elasmopus incarocai  sp. nov.; E. karamani Souza-Filho & Senna 2009  , E. karlae Garcia-Madrigal, 2010  ; E. koreanus Kim & Kim, 1991  ; E. lapu Myers, 1985  ; E. laufolii Myers, 1986  ; E. lecroyae Garcia-Madrigal, 2010  ; E. lejeunei Souza-Filho & Senna, 2009  ; E. hooheno Barnard, 1970  ; E. hyperopia Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. integer Myers  , 1982009; E. leveque Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. lemaitrei Ortiz & Lalana, 1994  ; E. levis Smith, 1873  ; E. longipropodus Senna & Souza-Filho, 2011  ; E. magnispinatus Kunkel, 1910  ; E. marcelae Garcia-Madrigal, 2010  ; E. marplatensis Alonso de Pina, 1997  ; E. mayo Barnard, 1979  ; E. mcluerensis Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. menurte Barnard, 1974  ; E. minimus Chevreux, 1908  ; E. molokai Barnard, 1970  ; E. mutatus Barnard, 1962  ; E. nanshaensis Ren, 1998  ; E. neglectus Chilton, 1915  ; E. oaxaquensis Garcia-Madrigal, 2010  ; E. ocoroni Barnard, 1979  ; E. otus Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. palu Appadoo & Myers, 2003  ; E. pachacuteci  sp. nov.; E. pectenicrus ( Bate, 1862)  ; E. perditus Reid, 1951  ; E. piikoi Barnard, 1970  ; E. pilosus Ledoyer, 1978  ; E. pocillimanus ( Bate, 1862)  ; E. podotrichius Ruffo, 1969  ; E. polynesus Krapp-Schickel & Müller, 2011  ; E. pseudaffinis Schellenberg, 1938  ; E. pseudinteger Appadoo & Myers, 2003  ; E. puteus Appadoo & Myers, 2003  ; E. rapax  Costa, 1853; E. rishikondiensis Kanakadurga et al., 1981  ; E. serricatus Barnard, 1969  ; E. seticarpus Myers, 1985  ; E. shepherdi Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; E. slatyeri Lowry & Hughes, 2009  ; E. souillacensis Appadoo & Myers, 2003  ; E. souzafilhoi Senna, 2011  ; E. spinibasus Sivaprakasam, 1970  ; E. spinicarpus Berents, 1983  ; E. spinidactylus Chevreux, 1907  ; E. spinimanus Walker, 1904  ; E. spinipalpus Ledoyer, 1982  ; E. spinipes Mateus, Mateus & Afonso, 1986  ; E. steelei Appadoo & Myers, 2003  ; E. steinitzi Ruffo, 1959  ; E. takamotus Myers, 1986  ; Elasmopus thalyae Gouillieux & Sorbe, 2015  ; E. temori Barnard, 1979  ; E. thomasi Ortiz & Lalana, 1994  ; E. tiburoni Barnard, 1979  ; E. tubar Barnard, 1979  ; E. vachoni Mateus & Mateus, 1966  ; E. veranocephalensis Lowry & Hughes, 2009  ; E. viracochai  sp. nov.; E. visakhapatnamensis Kanakadurga  et al, 1981; E. yahuarhuaci  sp. nov.; E. yupanchii  sp. nov.; E. wahine Barnard, 1972  ; E. waltersi Ledoyer, 1982  ; E. warra Kelaher & Lowry, 2002  ; E. woodjonesi Hughes & Lowry, 2011  ; Elasmopus yucalpeten Paz-Ríos & Ardisson, 2014  ; E. zoanthidea Barnard, 1979  .

Elasmopus yupanquii  sp. nov. ( Fig 1–5View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5)

Etymology. The species name refers to the emperor Cápac Yupanqui, who was the forerunner king of the first people of the Inca civilization.

Type locality. Marine State Park of Pedra da Risca do Meio (3º 33’ 800” S, 38º 26’ 000” W), Ceará, Brazil.

Examined material. Holotype. Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 5.8 mm, Marine State Park of Pedra da Risca do Meio (3º33’80” S, 38º26’00” W), Ceará state, Brazil, 21 April 2013, UFBA 3127.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes. Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 7.6 mm, Marine State Park of Pedra da Risca do Meio (3º 33’ 800” S, 38º 26’ 000” W), Ceará state, Brazil, UFBA 3128. Adult Male 7.0 mm, Marine State Park of Pedra da Risca do Meio (3º 33’ 800” S, 38º 26’ 000” W), Ceará state, Brazil, 21 April 2013, UFBA 3129. Adult Female (dissected and drawn) 7.9 mm, Marine State Park of Pedra da Risca do Meio (3º 33’ 800” S, 38º 26’ 000” W), Ceará state, Brazil, 21 April 2013 UFBA 3130. Adult Female (dissected and drawn) 4.2 mm, Marine State Park of Pedra da Risca do Meio (3º 33’ 800” S, 38º 26’ 000” W), Ceará state, Brazil, 21 April 2013, UFBA 3131.

Diagnosis. Antenna 1 accessory flagellum 2-articulate. Maxilliped laterally slender. Pereopod 5 basis posterior margin concave. Male gnathopod 2 propodus elongate, palm with 3 processes, one anterior concave process near ringe of the dactylus, the second one with a pronounced concavity and the palmar corner defined by a strong rounded process. Pereopods 5–7 merus and carpus poorly expanded and poorly setose. Epimeral plate 3 rounded and posteroventral corner serrated with 4 notches. Uropod 3 inner ramus shorter than outer ramus. Telson, cleft (about 50%) with apicolateral cusps developed, but not reaching the inner distal rounded projection.

Description Based on holotype, male, 5.8 mm. Head with big and rounded eyes, with distinct ommatidia. Lateral cephalic lobes broad and rounded. Antenna 1 longer than antenna 2, about one third of the body length; peduncular article 1 slightly shorter than article 2, with 3 robust setae on ventral margin; flagellum subequal in length to the peduncle; accessory flagellum 2-articulate. Antenna 2 densely setose, subequal in length to peduncle of antenna 1; cone gland reaching the end of article 1, peduncular article 4 bigger than article 5; flagellum with 7 articles. Mandible palp article 2 about 4 times longer than wide, slightly longer than article 3; article 3 falcate, densely setose on concave margin, with 5 long apical setae. Maxilla 1 inner plate with 2 plumose setae, outer plate with 4 robust dentate setae. Maxilla 2 outer and inner plate with long apical setae. Upper lip rounded with 2 ranks of sparse setae on distal margin. Lower lip outer lobes laterally extended, with apical setae; inner lobes ovated with apical setae.

Gnathopod 1 subchelate, coxa posteroventral corner produced and rounded, ventral margin with 4 long setae; basis posterior margin with long seta, ventral margin with 4 setae; ischium posteroventral corner with 3 setae; merus distally setose; carpus longer than broad; propodus with long marginal and facial setae, palm oblique, convex, with small thick setae, palmar corner with an acute jut; dactylus reaching the palmar corner. Gnathopod 2 subchelate, coxa with 4 long setae; basis with 5 setae on posterior margin and 3 setae on anterior margin; ischium with 3 setae on posteroventral corner; merus with posteroventral corner acute slightly produced; propodus elongated 0.53 times longer than wide, with subparallel margins, without medial excavation, densely setose along the posterior margin, anterior margin with sparse long setae; palm oblique, bearing a rounded and apically concave process near ringe of dactylus, 2 acute processes, first one with a pronounced concavity and palmar corner defined by a strong rounded process. Pereopod 3 coxa as long as large, ventral margin with sparse setae; basis posterior margin with 3 long setae; merus longer than carpus and similar in length to propodus; propodus with row of robust setae on posterior margin, dactylus about 0.6 times propodus length, nail present. Pereopod 4 similar to pereopod 3, but coxa longer than large and posterior margin slightly excavated. Pereopod 5 coxa wider than long, excavated ventrally; basis posterior margin lightly concave, smooth, with thin setae, posteroventral corner slightly produced, rounded; merus with posterior margin gently serrate and anterodistal corner produced; carpus subquadrate, anterior and posterior margin with two and three sets of setae, respectively; propodus longer than wide, with a row of setae; dactylus distally excavated with one seta. Pereopod 6 coxa wider than long, ventrally excavate; basis posterior margin rounded, gently serrated with robust setae; merus 2 times longer than carpus; carpus subquadrate, with 2 setae on each side; propodus longer than wide, dactylus distally excavated with single seta. Pereopod 7 coxa small, subquadrate; basis margin posteriorly convex, posterior margin sinuous, with sparse setae; merus and carpus subequal in length and longer than wide.

Epimeral plate 1 posterior margin with 2 notches and short spine on posteroventral margin. Epimeral plate 2 margin without notches. Epimeral plate 3 posteroventral margin smooth, posterior margin with 4 notches, posteroventral corner broadly rounded. Uropod 1 peduncle with a robust basofacial seta, and a robust seta distally, without spur; inner ramus with 3 setae on posterior margin; outer ramus with 2 setae on posterior margin. Uropod 2 peduncle inner margin with three setae; inner and outer rami subequal in length and longer than peduncle. Uropod 3 peduncle with distal robust seta, outer ramus apically truncated, slightly shorter than peduncle, with 5 robust apical setae; inner ramus slightly longer than outer ramus, apically truncated, with 6 apical setae. Telson wider than long, cleft (about 50%), with 3 robust setae in each lobe.

Female (sexually dimorphic characters)

Gnathopod 2 basis slender, posterior margin with 6 long setae, anterior margin with 3 long setae and 4 short setae; ischium lightly produced in acute point; carpus about 0.72 times longer than wide; propodus 0.4 times longer than wide; palm oblique, straight, with 10 short setae; dactylus reaching the end of the palm. Telson 0.77 times wider than long, cleft (about 30%), with 6 distal robust setae.

Remarks Elasmopus yupanquii  sp. nov. is more related to the Brazilian species E. longipropodus  and the French species E. thalyae  by presenting gnathopod 2 palm with 3 projections and because of the epimeral plates. Elasmopus yupanquii  sp. nov. differs from E. longipropodus  and E. thalyae  by having the following characters: (1) Accessory flagellum 2-articulate; (2) second gnathopod palm with 2 acute processes, a pronounced concavity and palmar corner defined by a strong rounded process; (3) pereopod 5 posterior margin convex; (4) upper lip without apical brunches of setae; (5) maxiliped laterally slender. Elasmopus yupanquii  also differs from the Brazilian species E. brasiliensis  , E. spinidactylus  , E. pectenicrus  , and E. fusimanus  by having pereopod 5 basis with posterior margin concave; and from the species E. lejeunei  and E. karamani  by having the epimeral plate 3 posterior margin rounded, slightly serrated and not produced in an acute point. Elasmopus yupanquii  differs from others species of E. rapax  complex: E. antennatus  , E. bampo  and E. rapax  by having the epimeral plate 3 posterior margin not subacute; E. mayo  , E. tiburoni  and E. temori  by having the uropod 3 inner ramus shorter than outer ramus; E. ocoroni  , E. tubar  and E. zoanthidea  by having the telson not deeply cleft (about 50%); E. equadorensis  , E. hawaiensis  and E. serricatus  by the distinct form of male gnathopod 2 palm.

Distribution. The new species is known exclusively from the type locality, Marine State Park of Pedra da Risca do Meio (3º 33’ 800” S, 38º 26’ 000” W), Ceará state, Brazil ( Fig 28View FIGURE 28).

Elasmopus incarocai  sp. nov. ( Fig 6–11View FIGURE 6View FIGURE 7View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 11)

Etymology. The species name refers to the emperor Inca Roca, the first king of Inca civilization.

Type locality. Itacaré (14° 16' 36'' S, 38° 59' 56'' W), Bahia State, Brazil.

Examined material. Holotype. Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 5.3 mm, Itacaré Beach, Bahia state, Brazil, coll. E. G. Couto, 21 December 2012, UFBA 3132. 

Paratypes. Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 7.8 mm, Itacaré Beach (14° 16' 36'' S, 38° 59' 56'' W), Bahia state, Brazil, coll. E. G. Couto, UFBA 3133GoogleMaps  . Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 4.3 mm, Itacaré Beach (14° 16' 36'' S, 38° 59' 56'' W), Bahia state, Brazil, 21 December 2012 coll. E. G. Couto, UFBA 3134GoogleMaps  . Adult Female (dissected and drawn) 7.6 mm, Itacaré Beach (14° 16' 36'' S, 38° 59' 56'' W), Bahia state, Brazil, 21 December 2012 coll. E. G. Couto, UFBA 3135GoogleMaps  . Three females, Itacaré Beach (14° 16' 36'' S, 38° 59' 56'' W), Bahia state, Brazil, 21 December 2012, coll. E. G. Couto, UFBA 3136GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis Antenna 1, accessory flagellum 3-articulate. Male gnathopod 2, propodus with a medial excavation and four medial teeth, palm not defined with a rounded process presenting 8 stout setae. Pereopod 6 posterior margin smooth, posteroventral corner pronounced. Pereopod 7 basis posterior margin sinuous. Epimeral plate 3, posteroventral corner not produced and with one notch. Uropod 3 inner ramus thinner and shorter than outer ramus.

Description Based on holotype 5.3 mm and paratype 8.5 mm. Head with large ovate eyes, with distinct ommatidia; lateral cephalic lobes rounded, with anteroventral notch. Antenna 1 longer than antenna 2; peduncular article 1 subequal in length to article 2, with 4 facial long setae and branches of 3 small setae on posterior corners; peduncular article 2 about 1.7 times the length of article 3; flagellum shorter than peduncle with 17 articles; accessory flagellum 3-articulate. Antenna 2 densely setose, peduncular article 2 cone gland reaching half the length of article 3; article 4 subequal in length to article 5; flagellum with 19 articles. Lower lip with small setae on apical margin of outer plates, inner plate ovated and without setae. Second article of mandibular palp, about 2.5 times longer than wide, 1.6 times shorter than article 3; article 3 falcate, setose along concave margin with 3 long apical setae. Maxilla 1 inner plate rounded with 3 long setae; outer plate with 4 apical setae differently cuspidate; palp 2- articulate, article 2 longer than article 1, with many apical and lateral setae. Maxilla 2 outer and inner plate with apical setae. Maxilliped inner plate with apical plumose setae; outer plate reaching less than half of palp article 2; palp article 4 with apical setae.

Gnathopod 1 subchelated; anteroventral corner rounded, posterior and ventral margin with small setae; basis posterior margin with 3 long setae, posteroventral corner with 2 setae; merus densely setose distally; about 1.6 times longer than large. Carpus and propodus with long facial and lateral setae, carpus slightly longer than propodus. Propodus about 0.8 times longer than large, palm acute, lightly convex, beset by long setae; dactylus reaching beyond the palmar corner. Gnathopod 2 subchelated; coxa, anterior and ventral margin with small setae, ventral margin with long seta; basis subrectangular, posterior margin with 6 long setae and small seta; ischium anterodistal corner acute, not produced; merus with posteroventral corner produced and rounded. Carpus 2.1 times longer than wide, about 0.4 times the length of the propodus, posteroventral corner produced and setose. Propodus suboval, tapering distally, 2.04 times longer than wide, with a medial excavation and medial stout setae, posterior margin covered by dense fringe of long and plumose setae, palm acute, not defined by stout seta, spine or palmar corner, with a rounded process with 8 stout setae near hinge of dactylus. Pereopod 3 coxa longer than wide, ventral margin with small simple setae; basis posterior margin with 5 long setae and 3 small setae, merus longer than carpus; carpus with 4 stout setae and some long setae on posterior margin; propodus with row of robust setae on posterior margin; dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 4, coxa wider than long, anteroventral margin with small setae, posterior margin slightly excavated; basis posterior margin with 4 long setae and 9 medium setae; merus, carpus, propodus and dactylus similar to pereopod 3. Pereopod 5, coxa wider than long, excavate ventrally, anteroventral lobe slightly produced and rounded; basis posterior margin slightly concave, smooth, with row of small setae, posteroventral lobe produced, rounded; merus and carpus longer than wide; dactylus nail present. Pereopod 6 coxa wider than long, bearing 4 stout setae posteroventrally; basis posterior margin straight, smooth, with a row of small setae, posteroventral corner rounded and produced; merus and carpus longer than wide; dactylus nail present. Pereopod 7 coxa small, wider than long; basis posterior margin convex, lightly wavy, posteroventral lobe slightly produced and rounded; merus and carpus longer than wide; dactylus nail present. Epimeral plate 1 posteroventral corner not produced, with simple setae.

Epimeral plate 2, posteroventral corner acute and produced with simple setae. Epimeral plate 3 posteroventral corner with notch, rounded, beset by simple setae. Uropod 1 peduncle with basofacial robust seta, one robust seta distally and 9 robust setae dorsally, without spur; inner ramus about 1.3 times longer than peduncle; outer ramus subequal in length to inner ramus. Uropod 2 peduncle as long as outer ramus; inner ramus longer than outer ramus. Uropod 3 with 2 setae ventrally; outer ramus apically rounded, lightly longer than peduncle, with apical stout setae and 2 sets of robust setae on outer margin; inner ramus thinner and slightly shorter than outer ramus, apically truncated, with apical stout setae, inner margin with 2 small setae. Telson 1.2 times wider than long, deeply cleft (about 80%), each lobe with 2 lateral tiny setae and apicolateral cusp well developed.

Female (sexually dimorphic characters)

Based on paratype female 7.6 mm. Gnathopod 1 basis dorsal margin bearing 8 stout setae, ventral margin densely setose; carpus with 4 ventral plumose setae; propodus not facially setose. Gnathopod 2 carpus with long ventral setae; propodus 1.9 times longer than wide; posterior margin with row with long setae and distal row with small setae; palm acute, bearing tubercle slightly pronounced. Uropod 3 peduncle shorter than rami, with 2 setae on ventral margin; outer ramus slightly longer than inner ramus, with 2 sets of robust setae on outer margin; inner ramus as large as outer ramus, apically truncated with 4 apical setae.

Morphological variations. In the largest male, the telson lobes are asymmetric, one of which similar to the one present in other males of the species. Nevertheless, the other lobe is rounded, short and without setae. The authors believe that the aberrant telson morphology is due to the molting of this specimen.

Remarks. Elasmopus incarocai  sp. nov. is closely related to the Brazilian species E. brasiliensis  by the presence of (1) Gnathopod 2 propodus palm with a rounded process near hinge of the dactylus; (2) Pereopod 6 and 7 basis not castelloserrate; (3) Uropod 1 peduncle with one long and stout seta. Nevertheless, E. incarocai  is clearly different by presenting (1) Gnathopod 2 propodus palm with a row of simple setae and a unique rounded tubercle near hinge of dactylus; (2) Epimeral plate 3 not produced, with setae and a small notch; (3) Uropod 3 (of males) inner ramus thinner than outer ramus. The new species also differs from Brazilian species: (1) E. souzafilhoi  by having the accessory flagellum 3-articulate; Gnathopod 1 propodus facially setose; Gnathopod 2 propodus posterior margin with row of setae not plumose; pereopod 5 basis posterior margin concave; pereopod 7 basis posterior margin serrated (not castelloserrate). (2) E. longipropodus  by having Gnathopod 2 of male palm acute not defined by setae, spine or palmar corner; Lower lip outer margins laterally expanded; Pereopod 5 basis posterior margin concave; Uropod 3 inner ramus thinner than outer ramus. (3) E. pectenicrus  by presenting the gnathopod 2 of male posterior margin of the propodus without medial excavation and pereopod 6 basis posterior margin not castelloserrate. (4) E. brasiliensis  by the gnathopod 2 of male palmar corner with tubercle near dactylus. (5) E. spinidactylus  by having gnathopod 2 of male with rounded process near hinge of dactylus and dactyli of pereopods 5–7 with denticles. (6) E. fusimanus  by having pereopod 7 basis with posterior margin serrated. E. incarocai  sp. nov. differs from others species of rapax  complex E. tubar  , E. tiburoni  , E. temori  , E. ecuadorensis  , E. hawaiensis  , E. mayo  , E. bampo  and E. antennatus  by presenting Epimeral plate 3 posteroventral margin rounded, and also from the species: E. zoanthidea  , E. serricatus  and E. ocoroni  by having gnathopod 2 propodus palm not defined by a spine or setae.

FIGURE. 10. Elasmopus incarocai  sp. nov.: Paratype, male, 7.8 mm, Itacaré Beach (14° 16' 36'' S, 38° 59' 56'' W), Bahia state, Brazil, UFBA 3133. Scale Bars: 0.5 mm.

Distribution. The new species is known exclusively from the type locality, Itacaré (14° 16' 36'' S, 38° 59' 56'' W), Bahia state, Brazil, Brazil ( Fig 28View FIGURE 28).

Elasmopus yahuarhuaci  sp. nov. ( Fig 12–16View FIGURE 12View FIGURE 13View FIGURE 14View FIGURE 15View FIGURE 16)

Etymology. The species name refers to the Yahuar Huac—the third Inca King, whose name means tears of blood. This name alludes to the red color of the living species.

Examined material. Holotype. Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 6.9 mm, Vilas do Atlântico (12° 53′ 38″ S, 38° 19′ 40″ W), Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia state, Brazil, coll. Alves, J. & Senna, A. R., 0 9 September 2014, UFBA 314.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes. Adult Female (dissected and drawn) 6.1 mm, Vilas do Atlântico (12° 53′ 38″ S, 38° 19′ 40″ W), Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia state, Brazil, coll. Alves, J. & Senna, A. R., 0 9 September 2014, UFBA 314.GoogleMaps 

Type locality. Vilas do Atlântico, Lauro de Freitas, Bahia State, Brazil.

Diagnosis. Antenna 1 accessory flagellum 3-articulate. Maxilla 1 inner plate subtriangular. Gnathopod 1 carpus and propodus with plumose setae. Gnathopod 2 carpus with 3 distal rows of simple and plumose setae; propodus facially setose, palm not defined by spine; tubercle or palmar corner, palm oblique with gently rounded tubercle near hinge of dactylus. Pereopod 5 basis posterior margin straight. Pereopod 6 basis posterior margin gently concave and smooth. Pereopod 7 basis posterior margin produced and rounded, smooth, with short setae.

Description. Based on holotype, 7.0 mm. Head with irregular eyes, lateral cephalic lobe broad, with posteroventral notch. Antenna 1 peduncle article 1 subequal in length to article 2; penduncle article 3 0.6 times as long as article 2; accessory flagellum 3-articulate; flagellum subequal in length to peduncle, with 21 articles. Antenna 2 cone gland reaching end of third article; peduncular article 4 subequal in length to article 5; flagellum shorter than peduncle (about 0.5 times the length of the penduncle), with 11 articles. Maxilla 1 inner plate subtriangular, with 2 apical plumose setae; outer plate apically truncated, with 5 apical cuspidate setae; palp 2- articulate apically setose. Maxilla 2 inner plate with sparse lateral setae and dense apical setae; outer plate with dense apical setae. Mandible palp second article about 3 times longer than wide; slightly shorter than article 3; article 3 falcate, setose along concave margin with 3 long apical setae; molar developed, with plumose seta on right mandible. Maxilliped inner plate with facial row of 7 setae; outer plate facially and apically setose.

Gnathopod 1 coxa anteroventral corner rounded and produced, with small setae on ventral margin; basis posterior margin with 6 long setae; merus ventrally setose; carpus wider than long, with numerous ventral setae and row of plumose setae; propodus ventrally setose and with 3 sets of dorsal setae, palm oblique, lightly convex. Gnathopod 2 coxa longer than wide, bearing small ventral setae; basis posterior margin with 4 long setae; carpus wider than long, with 3 ventral sets of plumose setae; propodus facially setose, with 8 sets of dorsal setae and numerous ventral plumose setae; palm not defined by spine; tubercle or palmar corner, palm oblique with gently rounded tubercle near hinge of dactylus. Pereopod 3 coxa longer than wide, ventral margin beset with small simple setae; basis without long seta; ischium longer than carpus; propodus with 5 stout setae on posterior margin; dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 4 coxae 1.2 times longer than wide, with posterior margin excavated; merus as long as carpus; propodus with simple setae on posterior margin; dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 5 coxa wider than long with ventral excavation; basis posterior margin straight, smooth, anterior margin minutely serrate with stout setae, posteroventral corner rounded, produced; merus and carpus longer than wide; propodus posterior margin with 4 stout setae and 7 slender apical setae; dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 6 coxa wider than long, with developed ventral excavation, with 6 posterior stout setae; basis posterior margin slightly convex, smooth, with small simple setae; merus and carpus longer than wide; propodus with sparse setae; dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 7 coxa small, wider than long; basis posterior margin produced and rounded, smooth, beset by small setae, posteroventral corner rounded and produced; merus and carpus longer than wide; propodus with 5 sets of 3 setae on posterior setae; dactylus short, nail present.

Epimeral plate 1 posteroventral margin straight, posteroventral corner not produced. Epimeral plate 2 posteroventral corner produced into acute point, ventral margin beset with sets of double setae. Epimeral plate 3 posteroventral corner and ventral margin similar to epimeral plate 2. Uropod 1 with basofacial setae, without distoventral spur, with 5 stout setae on inner ventral margin; inner ramus 0.9 times as long as peduncle, with apical setae; outer ramus lightly longer than inner ramus with 5 apical setae. Uropod 2 peduncle with 3 ventral setae; outer ramus with 4 lateral setae and 3 apical setae; inner ramus with 4 lateral setae and 3 apical setae. Uropod 3 peduncle 1.2 times longer than wide, with 2 stout setae on each corner; inner ramus apically truncated, with 4 stout setae, 0.75 times as long as peduncle; outer ramus subequal in length to peduncle, apically truncated, with 6 apical setae. Telson 1.2 times wider than long, each lobe with 2 small plumose setae, one apicolateral cusp and 2 apical setae, deeply cleft (about 71%).

Female (sexually dimorphic characters)

Female 6.0 mm. Gnathopod 1 carpus with distal stout plumose setae; carpus and propodus not facially setose. Gnathopod 2 propodus with 7 sets of dorsal setae, ventral margin with simple setae, palm without pronounced tubercle. Uropod 3 inner ramus slightly shorter than outer ramus; outer ramus with 2 sets of setae. Telson 1.6 times wider than long, each lobe with small plumose setae.

Remarks. Elasmopus yahuarhuaci  sp. nov. is closely related to the Brazilian species E. souzafilhoi  by presenting gnathopod 2 propodus palm not defined with a rounded process near hinge of dactylus and a row of plumose setae. Nevertheless, the new species differs from E. souzafilhoi  by having the gnathopod 2 carpus with 3 distal rows of simple and plumose setae, propodus with only one row of plumose setae and one rounded process. Elasmopus yahuarhuaci  is also closely related to Brazilian species E.incarocai  sp. nov., but is different by presenting male uropod 3 rami subequal in length. Elasmopus yahuarhuaci  sp. nov. differs from the Brazilian species: E. longipropodus  and E. youpanquii  sp. nov. by having male gnathopod 2 propodus palm with rounded tubercle. Furthermore, the new species differs from other species of E. rapax  complex: (1) E. antennatus  by having the gnathopod 2 propodus with ventral plumose setae and male uropod 3 outer ramus with 2 sets; (2) E. ecuadorensis  by having telson 71% deeply cleft; (3) E. oaxaquensis  by presenting the gnathopod 2 propodus palm not defined and (4) E. hawaiensis  by having the male gnathopod 2 densely setose.

Distribution. The new species is known exclusively from the type locality, Vilas do Atlântico (12° 53′ 38″ S, 38° 19′ 40″ W), Lauro de Freitas City, Bahia state, Brazil ( Fig 28View FIGURE 28).

Elasmopus viracochai  sp. nov. ( Fig 17–22View FIGURE 17View FIGURE 18View FIGURE 19View FIGURE 21View FIGURE 22)

Etymology The species name refers to the emperor Viracocha, who was the fourth King of the Inca civilization.

Examined material. Holotype. Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 5.8 mm, Pecém Harbor (39º50’00’’ W, 3º30’00’’ S), São Gonçalo do Amarante municipality, Ceará state, Brazil, 4 May 2012, coll. Pachelle, P.P.G., UFBA 1702.GoogleMaps 

Type locality. Pecém Harbor (39º50’00’’ W, 3º30’00’’ S). Ceará State. Brazil.

Diagnosis Antenna 1 accessory flagellum 2-articulate; Gnathopod 2 of male posterior margin of propodus with row of plumose setae; palm not defined, with a small tubercle near hinge of the dactylus. Pereopod 5 posterior margin straight. Pereopod 6 posterior margin serrated, posteroventral corner not produced. Pereopod 7 posterior margin castelloserrate. Uropod 3 of male peduncle shorter than rami; outer ramus as large as inner ramus.

Description Based on holotype, 6.1 mm. Head with ovated eyes with distinct ommatidia, lateral cephalic lobes broad with posterodistal notch. Antenna 1 peduncular article 1 similar in length to article 2, with long setae on ventral margin; flagellum longer than peduncle with 22 articles; accessory flagellum 2-articulate. Antenna 2 article 2 cone gland not reaching the end of article 3; article 4 subequal in length to article 5; flagellum with 13 articles. Mandible palp second article about 4 times longer than wide, slightly shorter than article 3; article 3 falcate, setose along the concave margin, with 5 long apical setae. Maxilla 1 inner plate rounded, with 2 apical robust setae; outer plate with 5 stout setae variably cuspidate; palp 2-articulate, article 2 with 3 apical and 3 facial setae. Upper lip rounded, with rank of small setae. Lower lip outer lobes laterally projected, with apical setae; inner lobes ovated with apical circle of setae.

Gnatopod 1 subchelate; coxa anteroventral corner slightly produced and rounded, ventral margin covered with sparse setae; basis posterior margin with 3 long setae; merus densely setose distally; carpus densely setose ventrally, about 2 times longer than wide; propodus with marginal setae dorsally and ventrally, palm acute, convex and setose; dactylus reaching the palmar corner. Gnathopod 2 subchelate; coxa ventral margin with sparse setae; basis subrectangular, posterior margin without setae; merus posteroventral corner produced, rounded and setose; carpus 1.4 times longer than wide, ventrally setose; propodus posterior margin covered by dense fringe of plumose setae, with a smooth medial excavation and four medial teeth; palm oblique, not defined by spine, setae or palmar corner, bearing a small tubercle near hinge of dactylus. Pereopod 3 coxa longer than wide, basis rectangular, posterior margin with 3 small setae; merus 1.3 times longer than carpus; carpus with 4 robust setae on posterior margin; propodus with row of 6 stout setae on posterior margin; dactylus elongate, nail present, with small seta. Pereopod 4 coxa as long as large, with posterior margin excavate; basis subrectangular, posterior margin with 2 long setae and 3 small setae; merus 1.5 times longer than carpus; carpus with 3 small setae on posterior margin; propodus with row of stout setae, dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 5 coxa ventrally excavated forming 2 lobes; basis posterior margin straight, smooth, with stout setae; merus and carpus longer than wide, posterior margin expanded; propodus subrectangular, with sets of setae on anterior margin; dactylus elongate, nail present. Pereopod 6 coxa wider than long, slightly excavated ventrally; basis posterior margin slightly convex, serrate, with small setae; merus 1.6 times longer than carpus; carpus longer than wide, poorly expanded; propodus with row of stout setae on posterior margin. Pereopod 7 coxa small, wider than long; basis posterior margin castelloserrate, posteroventral corner weakly produced; merus and carpus longer than wide; propodus longer than carpus; dactylus nail present.

Epimeral plate 1 posterior margin smooth without notches; posteroventral corner acute. Epimeral plate 2 posterior margin smooth; posteroventral corner rounded. Epimeral plate 3 posteroventral corner rounded, not produced, with long setae. Uropod 1 peduncle with robust basofacial setae. Uropod 2 peduncle with 2 robust setae on posterodistal margin; inner ramus slightly shorter than outer ramus, with 4 setae on outer margin; outer ramus with 3 setae on outer margin, apically truncated. Uropod 3 peduncle with 4 small setae on posterior margin and 3 robust setae on posteroventral corner; inner ramus shorter than outer ramus, apically truncated, with 5 apical robust setae; outer ramus as large as inner ramus, with 2 sets of setae on outer margin. Telson deeply cleft, wider than long, with 2 apicolateral cusps, each one with 3 robust setae.

Remarks. Elasmopus viracochai  sp. nov. is related to the Brazilian species E. souzafilhoi  by having (1) Accessory flagellum 2-articulate; (2) male gnathopod 2 palm not defined by a spine, seta or palmar corner; (3) Pereopod 7 basis castelloserrate. Nevertheless, E. viracochai  differs from E. souzafilhoi  by having (1) male gnathopod 2 posterior margin of propodus with just one row of plumose setae and weakly pronounced tubercle near hinge of dactylus; (2) Lower lip outer lobes laterally projected; (3) Pereopod 5 basis posterior margin straight; (4) Epimeral plate 3 rounded with setae; (5) Male uropod 3 outer ramus as stout as inner ramus. E. viracochai  differs from Brazilian species (1) E. fusimanus  by the male gnathopod 2 palm with tubercle near hinge of dactylus; (2) E. longipropodus  by the male gnathopod 2 palm not defined by spine, seta or palmar corner; (3) E. spinidactylus  by having the pereopod 7 posterior margin almost entirely castelloserrate; (4) E. pectenicrus  by having the gnathopod 2 propodus posterior margin without excavation and pereopod 6 posterior margin serrated; (5) E. brasiliensis  by having the male gnathopod 2 palm without seta near hinge of the dactylus; (6) E. incarocai  sp. nov. by having the pereopod 7 basis posterior margin castelloserrate. Elasmopus  . viracochai  also differs from others species of E. rapax  complex E. oaxaquensis  by having the palm not defined by setae or teeth and E. serricatus  by the absence of middle palmar tooth near hinge process.

Distribution. The new species is known exclusively to the type locality, Pecém Harbor (39º50’00’’ W, 3º30’00’’ S), São Gonçalo do Amarante municipality, Ceará state, Brazil ( Fig 28View FIGURE 28).

FIGURE. 20. Elasmopus viracochai  sp. nov.: Holotype, male, 6.1 mm, Pecém Harbor (39º50’00’’ W, 3º30’00’’ S), São Gonçalo do Amarante municipality, Ceará state, Brazil, UFBA 1702. Scale bars: 0.5 mm.

Elasmopus pachacuteci  sp. nov. (Fig 23–27)

Etymology. The species name refers to the Pachacútec, the fifth King of Inca civilization, who was the most powerful emperor of them.

Type locality. Pecém Harbor , São Gonçalo do Amarante municipality, Ceará State, Brazil. 

Examined material. Holotype. Adult Male (dissected and drawn) 5.1 mm, Pecém Harbor (39º50’00’’ W, 3º30’00’’ S), São Gonçalo do Amarante municipality, Ceará state, Brazil, 4 May 2012, coll. Pachelle, P.P.G., UFBA 1701.GoogleMaps 

FIGURE. 23. Elasmopus pachacuteci  sp. nov.: Holotype, male, 5.1 mm, Pecém Harbor (39º50’00’’ W, 3º30’00’’ S), São Gonçalo do Amarante municipality, Ceará state, Brazil, UFBA 1701. Scale bars: 1.0 mm.

Paratypes. Adult Male 8.1 mm, Pacheco Beach, Caucaia municipality, Ceará state, Brazil, July 2012, coll. Alves, J., UFBA 1705  . Adult Female 6.0 mm, Pacheco Beach, Caucaia municipality, Ceará state, Brazil, July 2012, coll. Alves. J., UFBA 1706  .

Diagnosis. Antenna 1 accessory flagellum 2-articulate. Male gnathopod 1 ischium facially densely setose. Male gnathopod 2 propodus subpyriform, with densely ventral plumose setae and 7 anterior sets of setae; palm not defined, with a subquadrate tubercle near hinge of the dactylus. Posterior margin of pereopod 5 basis slightly concave. Posterior margin of pereopod 6 basis convex, 75% castelloserrate, posteroventral corner not produced and acute. Pereopod 7 basis posterior margin well developed, rounded, minutely castelloserrate, beset with very small setae. Telson deeply cleft.

Description. Based on male holotype, 5.3 mm. Head with big length eyes, ovate, with distinct ommatidia; lateral cephalic lobes broad, truncated, with anteroventral notch. Antenna 1 longer than antenna 2, peduncular article 1, subequal in length to article 2, with 2 robust setae on posterior margin; flagellum shorter than peduncle with 21 articles; accessory flagellum 2-articulate. Antenna 2 setose, reaching the end of peduncle of antenna 1; peduncular article 2 reaching half of the article 3; peduncular article 4 subequal in length to article 5; flagellum with 11 articles. Second article of mandibular palp about 2.3 times longer than wide, slightly shorter than article 3; article 3 falcate, densely setose along the concave margin, with 5 apical setae; mandible molar well developed with plumose seta. Maxilla 1 inner plate rounded with 2 apical plumose setae; outer plate distal margin truncated with 5 cuspidate setae; palp 2-articulate, article 2 apically setose. Maxilla 2 outer and inner plate with slender setae. Upper lip with 2 apical rows of setae. Lower lip outer and inner plates with apical setae. Maxilliped inner plate with 12 apical plumose setae; outer plate with 16 stout setae.

Gnathopod 1 subchelate; coxa ventral corner rounded, ventral margin with slender setae; basis posterior margin without setae; ischium facially setose; merus distally setose, 0.4 times longer than wide; propodus with long marginal setae dorsally and ventrally, palm convex defined by stout seta; dactylus reaching the palmar corner. Gnathopod 2 subchelated; coxa ventral margin with small setae; basis posterior margin with 3 small setae and 2 long setae; merus posteroventral corner with long setae; carpus wider than long, ventral margin densely setose; propodus subpyriform, with numerous long plumose setae; palm with a subquadrate tubercle near base of the dactylus and a stout and truncated seta; dactylus elongated and curved, minutely setose. Pereopod 3 coxa about 1.6 times longer than large, with lateral and ventral setae; basis with 3 long setae on posterior margin; merus subequal in length to carpus; propodus 1.5 times longer than carpus, with sparse setae on anterior margin; dactylus short, about 0.3 times of the propodus length, nail present. Pereopod 4 similar to pereopod 3, but coxa 1.3 times longer than wide, with posterior margin slightly excavate. Pereopod 5 coxa wider than long, ventrally excavated; basis posterior margin slightly concave smooth with row of simple setae; posteroventral corner weakly produced, rounded; merus 1.5 times longer than carpus, 1.25 times longer than wide, with lateral stout setae; carpus about 1.5 times longer than large; propodus posterior margin with 5 sets of stout setae; dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 6 coxa wider than long; basis posterior margin convex, 75% castelloserrate, posteroventral corner acute; carpus and merus longer than wide; propodus with sets of stout setae; dactylus short, nail present. Pereopod 7 coxa wider than long, ventrally excavated; basis posterior margin rounded and well produced, minutely castelloserrate with small simple setae; merus and carpus longer than wide, subequal in length; propodus with long setae; dactylus nail present. Epimeral plate 1 posteroventral corner acute, ventral margin with small setae. Epimeral plate 2 posteroventral corner crenulated, ventral margin with some small setae. Epimeral plate 3 posteroventral corner crenulated, ventral margin with scarce setae.

Uropod 1 peduncle with basofacial stout setae without dorsoventral spur, outer margin with 5 robust setae; rami subequal in length; inner ramus slightly slenderer than outer rami, apical margin truncated, with 6 setae; outer ramus with 3 apical robust setae and 4 lateral slender setae. Uropod 3, peduncle with 3 setae on dorsodistal corner; inner rami lightly shorter than outer ramus, with 5 lateral setae; outer ramus with 4 lateral setae and 4 apical setae. Uropod 3 peduncle, 1.2 times longer than large, with two stout setae in each corner; outer ramus apically truncated, longer than peduncle, with 6 apical setae; inner ramus shorter than outer ramus, apically truncated, with 5 apical setae. Telson deeply cleft, about 67%, each lobe with small apicolateral cusp, lateral stout seta, and with 2 apical long setae and small apical seta.

Remarks. Elasmopus pachacuteci  sp. nov. is closely related to the Pacific species E. pectenicrus  , sharing shape of male propodus of gnathopod 2 and the castelloserrate basis of the pereopod 6. Elasmopus pachacuteci  is unique by having: (1) accessory flagellum 2-articulate; (2) gnathopod 2 with a subquadrate process near hinge of the dactylus, with a stout and truncated setae; (3) pereopod 6 basis posterior margin convex and 75% castelloserrate; (4) pereopod 7 basis posterior margin produced and rounded with small setae, (5) Epimeral plate 3 rounded and notched, with setae. Elasmopus pectenicrus ( Bate, 1862)  is a poorly defined species with circuntropical distribution, its original description presents only general characters, like gnathopod 2 propodus palm with long curved setae and acute tubercle near dactylus and pereopod 6 posterior margin of the basis castelloserrate. The drawing plates in the original description of E. pectenicrus  show some unique characters like (1) gnathopod 2 dactylus very enlarged; (2) pereopod 6 posterior margin distally castelloserrate and concave; (3) epimeral plate 3 acute. The E. pectenicrus  species recorded from Turkey and described by Karaman (1982) from New Guinea presents the gnathopod 2 propodus subpyriform, with numerous long simple setae on palm very oblique, with tubercle provided with 2–3 spines near base of dactylus; pereopod 6 basis with posterior margin distally castelloserrate and concave; pereopod 7 posterior margin basis weakly serrated ( Sezgin e t al. 2007). The E. pectenicrus  species reported from Mauritius presents gnathopod 2 propodus palm with more than 2 rows of plumose setae; pereopod 6 basis posterior margin castelloserrate distally with posteroventral corner produced and rounded; pereopod 7 basis posterior margin weakly castelloserrate ( Appadoo & Myers 2003). Therefore the definition of E. pectenicrus  is quite obscure and vague, Vader & Krapp-Schickel (2012) suggest that the species is a complex. Consequently, as E. pectenicrus  is considered a species of E. rapax  complex, it becomes a complex within a complex.

Distribution. The new species is known from the type locality, Pecém Harbor (39º50’00’’ W, 3º30’00’’ S), São Gonçalo do Amarante municipality and Pacheco Beach, Caucaia municipality, Ceará state, Brazil.