Arturia Azevedo et al., 2017

Van, Rob W. M. & De, Nicole J., 2018, Calcareous sponges of the Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea, Zootaxa 4426 (1), pp. 1-160: 22

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Arturia Azevedo et al., 2017


Genus Arturia Azevedo et al., 2017 

Remarks. Our Calcinea phylogeny ( Figs 2, 2A, 2C View Figure ) shows a peculiar discrepancy in the affiliation of the two species of Arturia  we found in our collection of Calcarea from the Western Indian Ocean. A. sueziana ( Klautau & Valentine, 2003)  is grouped on its own in Figs 2 and 2C View Figure outside any of the Calcinean genus and family clades, whereas A. adusta ( Wörheide & Hooper, 1999)  ended up close to the main group of Clathrina  species. We investigated which of the two species is closest to the type species of Arturia  , i.e. A. hirsuta ( Klautau & Valentine, 2003)  , by downloading the available GenBank 18S sequences of Arturia  species, because apart from Voigt et al. ’s (2017) 28S rRNA sequences and our own, there are no other Arturia  sequences of that gene in GenBank. The 18S sequences of the type species (accession numbers KC843431 & KC985143), of A. sueziana  (KY366410), of Clathrina adusta  (AM 180962), of two additional unnamed Arturia  species (KC985141 & KC985142), of Ernstia tetractina, of Clathrina sinusarabica Klautau & Valentine, 2003  (KY366407), and of Leucetta floridana Haeckel, 1872  (KC843456) were analyzed with the MEGA package.The result (not shown) clearly confirmed that A. sueziana  is close to the type species A. hirsuta  and the two unnamed Arturia  , near Leucetta floridana  , and that Clathrina adusta  did not group with these, but ended up separately and nearer to Clathrina sinusarabica  and Ernstia tetractina. In our Fig. 2A View Figure it is demonstrated that Arturia adusta  is joined by the Indonesian Arturia tubuloreticulosa Van Soest & De Voogd, 2015  and Arturia angusta (Van Soest & De Voogd, 2015)  (transferred here, but originally as Ascaltis  ). We are not proposing a new genus for this second Arturia  group, but we confirm Voigt et al. ’s (2017) suggestion that the Ernstia - Arturia  relationships need to be analyzed further, not only molecularly, but also morphologically. The morphological characters provided by Klautau et al. (2013) fail to give sufficient support for recognition of three Clathrina  -like generic taxa with tetractines, Ernstia, Arturia  s.s. and ‘ Arturia  ’.