Paraleucilla crosslandi ( Row, 1909 )

Van, Rob W. M. & De, Nicole J., 2018, Calcareous sponges of the Western Indian Ocean and Red Sea, Zootaxa 4426 (1), pp. 1-160: 132-134

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Paraleucilla crosslandi ( Row, 1909 )


Paraleucilla crosslandi ( Row, 1909) 

Figs 82a– hView FIGURE 82

Leucilla crosslandi Row, 1909: 207  , fig. 6.

Leucandra innominata Dendy & Row, 1913: 774  .

Paraleucilla crosslandi  ; Borojević et al. 2002: 1180.

Material examined. ZMAAbout ZMA Por. 13439. Israel, Gulf of Aqaba , Red Sea, depth 7 m, scuba, coll. M. Wunsch, field nr. AQ 7, 30 June 1998. 

Description. Fragment of a short, squat, tube ( Fig. 82aView FIGURE 82), white in life and in alcohol. Size 9 mm high, 6 mm in diameter, terminal oscule 3 mm. Consistency firm.

Aquiferous system. Leuconoid.

Skeleton. ( Fig 82bView FIGURE 82) In cross section of the wall there is a cortical skeleton of triactines and the unpaired and paired actines of cortical tetractines. The subcortical skeleton is inarticulate consisting of the apical actines of the cortical tetractines and the unpaired actines of ‘subatrial’ tetractines, which have a position in the middle of the wall. The mid-skeletal and subatrial region contains a confused mass of smaller tetractines, carried by a layer of smaller triactines lining the atrial cavity.

Spicules. ( Figs 82c–hView FIGURE 82) Cortical triactines, giant tetractines, choanosomal triactines, subatrial tetractines, atrial triactines.

Large triactines, cortical ( Fig. 82cView FIGURE 82) and mid-skeleton ( Fig. 89eView FIGURE 89), which are indistinguishable morphologically; regular or slightly sagittal, actines 198–273–336 x 10 – 17.9 –27 µm.

Giant tetractines ( Fig. 82dView FIGURE 82), cortical, and mid-skeleton tetractines (these are not easily distinguishable morphologically), sagittal to irregular, often with arched paired actines and opposing unpaired and apical actines; unpaired actines 204– 481 –720 x 23 – 76.7 –98 µm, paired actines 540– 722 –920 x 21 – 56.3 –88 µm, apical actines 233– 718 –1030 x 39 – 70.1 –78 µm.

Small tetractines of the subatrial skeleton ( Fig. 82fView FIGURE 82), sagittal, upaired actines 80– 155 –211 x 8 – 10.2 –11 µm, paired actines 120–191–282 x 8 – 10.4 –11 µm, apical actines 24– 35 – 48 x 7 – 8.2 –9 µm.

Small triactines of the atrial skeleton ( Fig. 82gView FIGURE 82), 63– 118 –200 x 8 – 10.3 –14 µm.

Distribution and ecology. Red Sea, shallow depth.

Remarks. The present specimen conforms closely with Row’s description. However, descriptions by Haeckel (1872, p. 156–157), of Leucaltis bathybia var. perimina  (from a depth of 615 m) and L. b. var. arabica  (shallow depth) from the Red Sea remind of the present species. Various authors assigned these names to different genera: Leucaltis  , Leuconia  , Leucilla  and Sycettusa  . There are insufficient details in Haeckel’s decriptions to decide whether Leucaltis bathybia  is a senior synonym of Paraleucilla crosslandi  . Burton (1952) reported L. bathybia  (as Leuconia  ) from the Gulf of Aqaba giving measurements of the giant tetractines only, ranginging from 400–960 x 32 –90 µm. Given these large sizes it is possible that Burton’s specimens conform to P. crosslandi  , but in the absence of further spicule measurements this cannot be ascertained. Remarkably, Burton did not discuss Row’s species. Unfortunately, also Lévi (1965) when reporting this species (as Leuconia bathybia  ) failed to give a description.

Dendy & Row’s (1913) new name Leucandra innominata  , erected to remove the junior secondary homonymy of Row’s Leucilla crosslandi  with Thacker’s (1908) Leucandra crosslandi  , is no longer necessary because the homonymy of the two species names involved has been removed as they are reassigned to different genera. Because the replacement name Leucandra innominata  was only used once in Burton’s (1963: 546) listing under the alleged senior synonym Amphoriscus saccharata  (along with Leucilla crosslandi  ), which does not count as ‘use’ in the sense of ICZN art. 59.3, the name Paraleucilla crosslandi ( Row, 1909)  is reinstated.

Unfortunately, we were unable to obtain a partial 28S sequence for this species.


Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum














Paraleucilla crosslandi ( Row, 1909 )

Van, Rob W. M. & De, Nicole J. 2018


Leucilla crosslandi

Row, 1909 : 207


Leucandra innominata

Dendy & Row, 1913 : 774