Xosopsaltria vitripennis, Sanborn, Allen F. & Villet, Martin H., 2016

Sanborn, Allen F. & Villet, Martin H., 2016, Two new species of Xosopsaltria Kirkaldy, 1904, with a key to the species of South African pygmy bladder cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Tettigomyiini), Zootaxa 4092 (2), pp. 195-206 : 201-205

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Xosopsaltria vitripennis

n. sp.

Xosopsaltria vitripennis n. sp.

( Figs 3–5 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 )

Type material. Holotype. SOUTH AFRICA “E of Kenton / EC RSA / 33 ° 24 ’ 41 ”S 26 ° 43 ’ 58 ”E / 20 DEC 2002 / M.H. Villet”, “tissue sample MHV0137” male (AMGS). Paratypes. Same data as holotype, 7 males (AMGS); “ SOUTH AFRICA E. Cape Prov. / R 72 east of Kenton-on-Sea / 33 ° 38.41 ’ S 26 ° 43.05 ’ E / 16 Dec 2002 / A. Sanborn, M. Villet coll.” 4 males (AFSC); “ SOUTH AFRICA E. Cape Prov. / R 72 east of Kenton-on-Sea / 33 ° 38.41 ’ S 26 ° 43.05 ’ E / 16 Dec 2002 / M. Villet, A. Sanborn coll.” 2 males (AFSC); “ SOUTH AFRICA E. Cape Prov. / R 72 east of Kenton-on-Sea / 33 ° 38.41 ’ S 26 ° 43.05 ’ E / 20 Dec 2002 / A. Sanborn, M. Villet coll.” 5 males (AFSC); “ SOUTH AFRICA E. Cape Prov. / R 72 east of Kenton-on-Sea / 33 ° 38.41 ’ S 26 ° 43.05 ’ E / 20 Dec 2002 / M. Villet, A. Sanborn coll.” 3 males (AFSC); “E of Kenton / EC RSA / 33 ° 24 ’ 41 ”S 26 ° 43 ’ 58 ”E / 16 DEC 2002 / M.H. Villet” 3 males (AMGS); “Port Alfred / EC RSA / 33 ° 34 ’ 53 ”S 26 ° 55 ’00”E / 30 DEC 2000 / M.H. Villet”, “tissue sample MHV0105” 3 males, (AMGS); “Waters Meeting N.R. / EC RSA / 33 ° 32 ’ 31 ”S 26 ° 47 ’ 16 ”E / 24 DEC 2006 / M.H. Villet” 7 males, 1 female (AMGS).

Etymology. The species is named for the clear fore wings of the species. It is the only known Xosopsaltria without apical infuscation in the fore wings.

Measurements (mm). N = 14 males, mean (range). Length of body: 20.23 (18.9–21.3); length of fore wing: 18.01 (17.2–18.8); width of fore wing: 7.15 (6.5–7.7); length of head: 2.26 (2.1–2.3); width of head including eyes: 3.42 (3.3–3.6); width of pronotum including suprahumeral plates: 5.15 (4.8–5.6); width of mesonotum: 4.43 (4.1– 4.8). Female, N = 1, Length of body: 15.7; length of fore wing: 13.6; width of fore wing: 4.9; length of head: 1.5; width of head including eyes: 3.0; width of pronotum including suprahumeral plates: 4.1; width of mesonotum: 3.8.

Diagnosis. All other known species of Xosopsaltria have infuscation on the venation of the fore wings. The hyaline fore wings of the new species lacking apical infuscation make it easy to distinguish from the known species of the genus.

Description. Male ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ). Ground color tawny, markings black and ochraceous.

Head: Head narrower than mesonotum; tawny with black fascia extending from median eye angle to posterior head medial to posterior cranial depression connecting laterally to black posterior to eye, mark extends anteriorly in some paratypes along median eye and medially to lateral portion of lateral ocelli in some paratypes; black medial margin of supra-antennal plate along postclypeus, mark extending into anterior arm of epicranial suture in some paratypes. Ocelli rosaceous; eyes tawny. Covered with short golden pile dorsally, longer silvery pile posterior to eye and on ventral head. Gena tawny lateral to supra-antennal plate, tapering posteriorly along eye, with remaining portion of gena black. Lorum ochraceous, posterolateral margin tawny, black mark along posterior postclypeus. Postclypeus ochraceous, transverse ridges and lateral margin lighter; centrally sulcate, with twelve transverse grooves; transverse grooves with sparse, short silvery pile, denser on lateral postclypeus. Anteclypeus tawny, posterior margin marked with black on anterior midline; covered with short golden and longer silvery pile. Mentum ochraceous, labium ochraceous with castaneous tip reaching to mesotrochanters. Antennae black except for ochraceous scape and annulus on distal pedicle.

Thorax: Dorsal thorax tawny. Pronotal scutes dark ochraceous with small, irregular black spots; collar tawny; anterior margin of lateral angle with black marks. Mesonotum tawny, darker on either side of ochraceous parapsidal suture and on lateral margin, ochraceous between anterior arms of cruciform elevation; in medial wing groove, mark extending onto lateral cruciform elevation between anterior and posterior arms; cruciform elevation black, tawny with black on anterior between anterior arms and posterior margin medially in some paratypes. Metanotum tawny, lighter medially; posterior midline with black transverse mark. Thoracic sterna ochraceous laterally, tawny medially, with black marks on anterior and posterior basisternum 2, trochantin 2, epimeron 2, basisternum 3, and trochantin 3; reddish ochraceous around coxae. Black reduced or more expansive in some paratypes. Pile short and golden generally, but longer, denser and silvery in wing groove, between arms of cruciform elevation, and on posterior metanotum and sterna.

Wings: Fore and hind wings hyaline, with eight and six apical cells, respectively. Venation ochraceous proximally, becoming black distally; costal margin tawny; black mark along medial anal vein 2 + 3, reduced or expanded medially in some paratypes. Anterior basal cell, medial clavus and medial half of pterostigma lightly infuscated. Apex of fore wings lacking infuscation along veins. Basal membrane of fore wing grayish, tinged with red. Venation of hind wing similarly colored except anal vein 3 black. Anal cell 3 and anal cell 2 along anal vein 3 and proximal half of anal cell 1 grayish.

Legs: Legs tawny, lighter anteriorly, distal segments darker. Fore coxae with black lines on sides. Fore femur with darker fasciae on sides in some paratypes; primary and secondary spines connected with black; primary spine oblique, tip black; secondary spine largest, upright, tip black; tertiary spine black, upright; apical spine very small, upright. Distal fore tarsus and fore tarsal claws darker. Tibial spurs and comb tawny.

Operculum: Male operculum triangular, posterior apex rounded, not reaching to posterior of sternite II, medial margin extending to median meracanthus; tawny with an ochraceous base; covered with short silvery pile at base and short golden pile on triangular surface. Meracanthus pointed, tawny with angled black mark near base, lateral margins of point ochraceous.

Abdomen: Abdominal tergites tawny, anterior and posterior margins ochraceous, tergites 3–7 with lateral ochraceous spots. Tergite 1 dark, darker spot on midline, reducing in size but expanding transversely posteriorly in posterior tergites. Tergites covered with short golden pile. Epipleurites light tawny, margins and center ochraceous. Sternite I tawny, lighter posterolaterally. Sternite II ochraceous. Sternites III–VI tawny, anterior and posterior margins ochraceous. Sternites VII–VIII tawny, anterior margin ochraceous. Sternites with short golden pile, longer and denser on sternite VIII. Timbal cover absent. Timbal white with three variably-sized ribs and a black spot. Timbal ribs and timbal plate gray.

Genitalia: Male pygofer light tawny, posterior margin and base darker; mark along posterior margin expanded in some paratypes; distal shoulder curved, reaching to transverse posterior margin; dorsal beak lacking; basal lobes flattened laterally, rounded at apex; anal styles tawny with long golden pile. Uncus lobes very short, tawny, with long golden pile radiating dorsally. Claspers light tawny, arching dorsally, bent at approximately right angle at median uncus, terminus rounded forming a small notch at midline for light tawny aedeagus.

Female ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ). Ground color pale green; head, pronotum, abdominal tergites and legs with fine black setae. Females of Xosopsaltria species are generally pale green after eclosion, and become ochraceous as they age. Both sexes of the closely related species Bavea concolor (Walker, 1850) undergo a similar process (Villet 1993). Similarly-distributed, fine black setae also occur in the tettigomyiine genus Stagira Stål, 1861 (Villet 1997) .

Head: Head distinctly narrower than mesonotum; pale green. Ocelli greenish; eyes rosaceous. Gena and lorum pale green with long silvery pile. Postclypeus moderately bulbous; medially sulcate on dorsal and ventral surfaces; with ten transverse grooves housing fine black setae. Anteclypeus and mentum pale green. Labium reaching to metacoxae; pale green, blackening apically. Antennae green.

Thorax: Dorsal thorax pale green. Pronotal coloration fairly uniform except for slightly darker lines running parallel to median sulcus. Mesonotum pale green; a castaneous spot on anterior face of cruciform elevation and neighboring part of anteriad depression. Metanotum pale green. Thoracic sterna pale green, blackened around lateral margins of coxal cavities. Thoracic pleura pale green with long, dense silvery pile forming a silvery stripe between wing bases and coxal cavities. Sparse silvery pile in wing groove, between arms of cruciform elevation, and on sterna.

Wings: Fore wing hyaline, with eight apical cells; hind wings hyaline, with five apical cells; Venation of left and right wings sometimes asymmetrical; pale green, darker on costal vein. Basal membrane of fore wing grayish. Anal cell 3, anal cell 2 along anal vein 3, and proximal half of anal cell 1 grayish.

Legs: Legs pale green. Coxae blackish with pale green distal margin. Trochanters pale green. Femora pale green proximally, tawny distally; fore femur with black-tipped, pointed ventral spines; primary spine oblique; secondary spine upright; tertiary spine oblique; apical spine very small, oblique. Tibial spurs and comb with tawny tips. Tarsi tawny.

Operculum: Female operculum reduced, not reaching to posterior of tympanal cavity; angular in ventral view, posterolateral margin straight; medial margin extending to middle of posterior coxa; pale green; covered with sparse silvery pile. Meracanthus very short, slightly pointed, darker basally and paler apically.

Abdomen: Abdominal tergites pale green, each with a small, central, median ochraceous spot; tergite 9 with blackened lateral margins with long silvery pile; all tergites with short, dark setae. Sternites pale green; sternite I with posterior margin dark; sternite II–IV fuscous on lateral third; fuscous patch on sternite VI with an oblique pale green stripe through it.

Genitalia: Ovipositor valves extending slightly beyond tip of abdomen; pale green, ventral margins blackened, apex tawny. Ovipositor olivaceous brown; apices not visible within valves.

Distribution. The species is known from along the Sunshine Coast around Port Alfred and Kenton-On-Sea, South Africa ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ).

Notes on the biology of the species. The species was collected in the Kowie Thicket vegetation type of the Albany Thicket biome (Mucina & Rutherford 2006). Like its congeners, the species called from grasses and weedy plants between bushclumps. However, the species also called from understory plants and several were collected from the trunks of trees.