Dissomphalus

Azevedo, Celso O., 2017, Review of Dissomphalus Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Bethylidae) from Panama, with key to the Central American species, Zootaxa 4335 (1), pp. 1-72: 7-10

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4335.1.1

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persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/3B3687C0-7C75-9B2D-FF67-F3AB9AF9FAA3

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scientific name

Dissomphalus
status

 

Key to Dissomphalus  from Central America 

1. Tergal process absent................................................................................... 2

- Tergal process present.................................................................................. 5

2. Mandible with four distal teeth; median clypeal lobe ill-defined................................................ 4

- Mandible with two or three distal teeth; median clypeal lobe trapezoidal.......................................... 3

3. Mandible with three distal teeth; anterior margin of pronotal disc ecarinate; posterior hypopygeal margin sinuous ( Fig. 66View FIGURES 64 – 75); aedeagal ventral ramus shorter than aedeagal dorsal body, inner margin straight, apex crenulate slightly curved outward ( Fig. 104View FIGURES 95 – 106)................................................................................. D. asfartus  sp. nov.

- Mandible with two distal teeth; anterior margin of pronotal disc coarse; posterior hypopygeal margin weakly concave ( Fig. 80View FIGURES 76 – 87); aedeagal ventral ramus higher than aedeagal dorsal body, inner margin excavated, apex simple and parallel ( Fig. 170View FIGURES 163 – 173)........................................................................................ D. raziogus  sp. nov.

4. Posterior hypopygeal margin sinuous ( Fig. 65View FIGURES 64 – 75); paramere with dorsal margin straight; aedeagal dorsal body with apical margin acute ( Fig. 101View FIGURES 95 – 106); aedeagal ventral ramus abruptly narrowing apicad ( Fig.102View FIGURES 95 – 106)....................... D. azagus  sp. nov.

- Posterior hypopygeal margin straight or nearly so ( Fig. 67View FIGURES 64 – 75); paramere with dorsal margin sinuous; aedeagal dorsal body with apical margin rounded ( Fig. 105View FIGURES 95 – 106); aedeagal ventral ramus progressively narrowing apicad ( Fig. 106View FIGURES 95 – 106)...... D. iozus  sp. nov.

5. Tergal process median................................................................................. 6

- Tergal process lateral or sublateral....................................................................... 22

6. Tergal process with circular depression, with densely tuft of setae, always without tubercle; aedeagal ventral ramus wide... 7

- Tergal process and aedeagal ventral ramus not as above...................................................... 10

7. Tergal process with depression very small and two small tufts of setae............................ D. altivolans Evans 

- Tergal process with very large depression and large tufts of setae............................................... 8

8. Tergal process with pair of tuft of long setae posterad, fused; paramere as long as basiparamere......... D. unitus Azevedo 

- Tergal process with pair of tuft of short setae, variable direction and distinctly separated; paramere much long than basi- paramere............................................................................................ 9

9. Median clypeal lobe ill-defined ( Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 12) with high keel, median carina very high in profile; gena with spine ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 12); dorsal margin of paramere sinuous ( Fig. 99View FIGURES 95 – 106); aedeagal ventral ramus bifid ( Fig. 100View FIGURES 95 – 106)........................ D. isteus  sp. nov.

- Median clypeal lobe tridentate, without such keel, median carina not as above; gena without spine; dorsal margin of paramere straight; aedeagal ventral ramus simple ( Figs 97, 98View FIGURES 95 – 106)...................................... D. subdeformis Azevedo 

10. Tergal process with median depression, transverse, elliptical with pair of tubercles directed each other................. 11

- Tergal process not as above............................................................................. 12

11. Aedeagal dorsal ramus shorter than aedeagal dorsal body with subapical dilation ( Fig. 196View FIGURES 184 – 197)........... D. dilatatus Azevedo 

- Aedeagal dorsal ramus nearly as long as aedeagal dorsal body, margin smooth ( Fig. 199View FIGURES 198 – 210)............... D. vallensis Evans 

12. Depression of tergal process extremely shallow, much wider than long, occupying nearly two median thirds of tergite width..................................................................................................... 13

- Depression of tergal process not as above.................................................................. 14

13. Depression of tergal process very shallow, nearly imperceptible; aedeagal dorsal body bidentate, base of ventral margin with small tooth; aedeagal ventral ramus long with projection narrow and flat apical upward............ D. rasissimus Azevedo 

- Depression of tergal process not so shallow; aedeagal dorsal body simple and apex of ventral margin serrated ( Figs 171, 173View FIGURES 163 – 173); aedeagal ventral ramus short, wide with two conspicuous and laminar rami, ventral and apical margins serrated ( Fig. 172View FIGURES 163 – 173)...................................................................................... D. bilobatus Azevedo 

14. Tergal process with depression deep, wide and subtriangular, with base directed forward, lateral pit very large much arched inward medially, with many long setae mesad........................................... D. curvifoveatus Azevedo 

- Tergal process with depression not as above............................................................... 15

15. Aedeagal ventral ramus with apical portion as wide as median portion, basal portion of outer margin straight.................................................................................................... D. apertus Kieffer 

- Aedeagal ventral ramus with apex much narrower than median, basal portion of outer margin excavated or projected..... 16

16. Aedeagal ventral ramus with basal portion of outer margin projected, apex parallel or nearly so ( Fig. 220View FIGURES 211 – 222).. D. trisus  sp. nov.

- Aedeagal ventral ramus with basal portion of outer margin excavated, apex much arched outward..................... 17

17. Pronotal disc with anterior margin coarse.................................................................. 18

- Pronotal disc with anterior margin carinate................................................................ 18

18. Tergal process with shallow depression and small tubercle ( Fig. 37View FIGURES 33 – 44); apex of apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body acute (125); apex of aedeagal ventral ramus toothed ( Fig. 126View FIGURES 123 – 135).............................................. D. asitius  sp. nov.

- Tergal process with deep depression, without tubercle ( Fig. 39View FIGURES 33 – 44); apex of apical lobes of dorsal body rounded ( Fig. 129View FIGURES 123 – 135); apex of aedeagal ventral ramus smooth ( Fig. 130View FIGURES 123 – 135).................................................. D. tisinus  sp. nov.

19. Tergal process with shallow and subcircular depression, with very small tubercle or without tubercle; apical portion of aedea- gal ventral ramus divergent and long..................................................................... 20

- Tergal process with deep and large depression; apical portion divergent of aedeagal ventral ramus very short............ 21

20. Tergal process with tubercle ( Fig. 38View FIGURES 33 – 44); posterior hypopygeal margin weakly concave ( Fig. 69View FIGURES 64 – 75); outer lobe of aedeagal dorsal body long ( Fig. 127View FIGURES 123 – 135); basal inner margin of aedeagal ventral ramus straight ( Fig. 128View FIGURES 123 – 135)................. D. ibocius  sp. nov.

- Tergal process without tubercle ( Fig. 55View FIGURES 45 – 56); posterior hypopygeal margin straight ( Fig. 86View FIGURES 76 – 87); outer lobe of aedeagal dorsal body very long ( Fig. 188View FIGURES 184 – 197); basal inner margin of aedeagal ventral ramus sinuous ( Fig. 189View FIGURES 184 – 197)................. D. terbius  sp. nov.

21. Mandible with three distal teeth; posterior hypopygeal margin straight; apex of paramere with four projections............................................................................................... D. angulatus Azevedo 

- Mandible with two distal teeth; posterior hypopygeal margin convex; apex of paramere with one projection;.................................................................................................. D. bifoveatus Kieffer 

22. Tergal process sublateral, usually with dense tuft of setae posterad, tubercle absent................................. 23

- Tergal process lateral, with tuft of setae not as above, tubercle usually present..................................... 31

23. Mandible with three distal teeth; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body with crown-like structure, aedeagal ventral ramus thick................................................................................................... 24

- Mandible with two teeth; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body not as above, aedeagal ventral ramus slender.................................................................................................. D. punctatus (Kieffer) 

24. Pronotal disc with anterior margin carinate............................................................... 25

- Pronotal disc ecarinate................................................................................ 30

25. Posterior hypopygeal margin straight..................................................................... 26

- Posterior hypopygeal margin convex..................................................................... 29

26. Aedeagal dorsal body with crown-process long or very long................................................... 27

- Aedeagal dorsal body with crown-process small............................................................ 28

27. Median clypeal lobe trapezoidal; crown-process with apex dorsad; aedeagal ventral ramus entirely wide with acute apex................................................................................. D. sinatus Alencar & Azevedo 

- Median clypeal lobe subtrapezoidal ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 13 – 24); crown-process with apex laterad ( Fig. 157View FIGURES 148 – 162); aedeagal ventral ramus with median half wide narrowing apicad ( Fig. 158View FIGURES 148 – 162)....................................................... D. afestus  sp.nov.

28. Median clypeal carina strongly developed in profile; aedeagal ventral ramus with apical portion with strongly concavity, apex rounded and wide............................................................ D. galeatus Alencar & Azevedo 

- Median clypeal carina not developed in profile; aedeagal ventral ramus with apical portion without concavity, apex acute and narrow................................................................... D. declinatus Alencar & Azevedo 

29. Apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body long; base of paramere developed; cuspis with apex acute; aedeagal ventral ramus short than aedeagal dorsal body...................................................... D. ramosus Alencar & Azevedo 

- Apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body short; base of paramere not as above; cuspis with rounded apex; aedeagal ventral ramus much shorter than dorsal aedeagal dorsal body.................................... D. corontaus Alencar & Azevedo 

30. Paramere longer than basiparamere; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body very long; inner margin of aedeagal ventral ramus serrated with apex straight dorsad............................................... D. culteratus Alencar & Azevedo 

- Paramere as long as basiparamere; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body regular sized; aedeagal ventral ramus smooth with apex folded laterad............................................................ D. pronus Alencar & Azevedo 

31. Tergal processes with pair conspicuous tubercles with high rim or nearly so and tuft of dense setae.................... 32

- Tergal processes with pair of small tubercles or even absent, never as main modification of processes.................. 39

32. Mandible with three distal teeth; median clypeal lobe ill-defined, with one angulate very large tooth ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 1 – 12); basiparamere narrower than paramere ( Fig. 140View FIGURES 136 – 147)......................................................... D. ibrastus  sp. nov.

- Mandible with two distal teeth; median clypeal lobe trapezoidal, with tooth no so large; basiparamere as narrow as paramere or much wide.......................................................................................... 33

33. Basiparamere very wide basally ( Fig. 145View FIGURES 136 – 147); aedeagal ventral ramus much higher than aedeagal dorsal body ( Fig. 146View FIGURES 136 – 147)............................................................................................. D. teraus  sp. nov.

- Basiparamere entirely narrow; aedeagal ventral ramus as long as or shorter than aedeagal dorsal body.................. 33

34. Paramere much long than basiparamere; apex of aedeagal dorsal body translucent................................. 35

- Paramere as long as basiparamere; apex of aedeagal dorsal body not translucent................................... 36

35. Tergal process with very shallow depression; aedeagal ventral ramus with median portion as wide as basal region, apical por- tion with inner margin serrated ( Fig. 132View FIGURES 123 – 135)................................................. D. cervoides Azevedo 

- Tergal process without depression ( Fig. 42View FIGURES 33 – 44); aedeagal ventral ramus with median portion wider than basal region, apical por- tion with inner margin smooth ( Fig. 139View FIGURES 136 – 147)....................................................... D. ettus  sp. nov.

36. Aedeagal dorsal body narrowing abruptly apicad............................................................ 37

- Aedeagal dorsal body narrowing slightly apicad............................................................ 38

37. Tergal process with small depression ( Fig. 46View FIGURES 45 – 56); inner margin of aedeagal ventral ramus smooth, apex rounded ( Fig. 155View FIGURES 148 – 162)........................................................................................... D. urazius  sp. nov.

- Tergal process with large depression ( Fig. 44View FIGURES 33 – 44); inner margin of aedeagal ventral ramus serrated, apex truncate with rounded projection ( Fig. 143View FIGURES 136 – 147).................................................................... D. racarus  sp. nov.

38. Tergal process with shallow and small depression ( Fig. 40View FIGURES 33 – 44); apex of aedeagal ventral ramus truncate and wide, inner margin strongly sinuous and smooth ( Fig. 134View FIGURES 123 – 135).................................................... D. ardonius  sp. nov.

- Tergal process with deep and large depression ( Fig. 41View FIGURES 33 – 44); apex aedeagal ventral ramus rounded and narrow, inner margin slightly sinuous and crenulate ( Fig. 137View FIGURES 136 – 147)..................................................... D. arteus  sp. nov.

39. Tergal process composed of tubercle with wide fovea and thick setae on border of each depression.................... 40

- Tergal process not as above............................................................................. 45

40. Mandible with four distal teeth.......................................................................... 41

- Mandible with two distal teeth.......................................................................... 42

41. Median clypeal lobe ill-defined ( Fig. 20View FIGURES 13 – 24); apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body very short (180); aedeagal ventral ramus simple ( Fig.181View FIGURES 174 – 183)............................................................................. D. aretisus  sp. nov.

- Median clypeal lobe tridentate; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body regular sized; aedeagal ventral ramus with three long and conspicuous apical horns................................................................... D. politus Kieffer 

42. Median clypeal carina very high in profile ( Fig. 21View FIGURES 13 – 24); anterior margin of pronotal disc carinate; aedeagal ventral ramus with slender and long ventral projection ( Fig. 183View FIGURES 174 – 183)................................................... D. citus  sp. nov.

- Median clypeal carina low in profile; anterior margin of pronotal disc ecarinate or coarse; aedeagal ventral ramus without slen- der and long ventral projection.......................................................................... 43

43. Tergal process with dense tuft of setae on tubercle; posterior hypopygeal margin straight; dorsal body entirely wide or nearly so; aedeagal ventral ramus with not translucent apex......................................................... 44

- Tergal process with short and sparse tuft of setae on tubercle ( Fig. 50View FIGURES 45 – 56); posterior hypopygeal margin concave ( Fig. 81View FIGURES 76 – 87); aedea- gal dorsal body entirely narrow ( Fig. 178View FIGURES 174 – 183); aedeagal ventral ramus with translucent apex ( Fig. 179View FIGURES 174 – 183)........ D. areius  sp. nov.

44. Tergal process with high tubercle and small pit ( Fig. 53View FIGURES 45 – 56); aedeagal dorsal body with slightly constriction near apical lobe ( Fig. 184View FIGURES 184 – 197); apex of aedeagal ventral ramus toothed ( Fig.185View FIGURES 184 – 197).......................................... D. sartus  sp. nov.

- Tergal process with low tubercle and large pit ( Fig. 54View FIGURES 45 – 56); aedeagal dorsal body with abruptly constriction near apical lobe ( Fig. 186View FIGURES 184 – 197); apex of aedeagal ventral ramus smooth ( Fig. 187View FIGURES 184 – 197)......................................... D. teobus  sp. nov.

45. Metasoma with pair of lateral and anterior depressions large, usually more than half of median length of tergite II........ 46

- Metasoma with pair of lateral depressions not bigger than half lenght of tergite II.................................. 55

46. Inner margin of basivolsella toothed...................................................................... 47

- Inner margin of basivolsella not toothed................................................................... 48

47. Basivolsella with tooth in apical portion; base of digitus produced; apex of aedeagal ventral ramus bidentate ( Fig. 108View FIGURES 107 – 122); apex of outer pair of apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body acute ( Figs 107, 109View FIGURES 107 – 122)......................... D. geniculatus Azevedo 

- Basivolsella with tooth in medial portion; base of digitus not produced; apex of aedeagal ventral ramus smooth; apex of outer pair of apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body truncate........................................... D. octavus Azevedo 

48. Apex of aedeagal ventral ramus with two teeth, resembling fish tale in lateral view ( Fig. 117View FIGURES 107 – 122)....... D. piscicercus Azevedo 

- Apex of aedeagal ventral ramus with rounded or acute apex not as above......................................... 49

49. Apex of aedeagal ventral ramus rounded.................................................................. 50

- Apex of aedeagal ventral ramus angulate or subangulate...................................................... 51

50. Aedeagal ventral ramus longer than aedeagal dorsal body, outer margin expanded on median portion; aedeagal dorsal body with four pairs of apical lobes........................................................ D. pedipalpoides Azevedo 

- Aedeagal ventral ramus much longer than aedeagal dorsal body, outer margin excavated on median portion; aedeagal dorsal body with three pairs of apical lobes......................................................... D. trogon Azevedo 

51. Aedeagal ventral ramus with inner margin of apex bifurcated.................................................. 52

- Aedeagal ventral ramus with inner margin of apex not bifurcated............................................... 53

52. Posterior hypopygeal margin concave, corners angulate; aedeagal ventral ramus longer than aedeagal dorsal body ( Fig. 121View FIGURES 107 – 122); aedeagal dorsal body with three pairs of apical lobes, apex as wide as median and basal portion ( Fig. 119View FIGURES 107 – 122).................................................................................................... D. strepsus Azevedo 

- Posterior hypopygeal margin straight, corners rounded; aedeagal ventral ramus shorter than aedeagal dorsal body ( Fig. 114View FIGURES 107 – 122); aedeagal dorsal body with two pairs apical lobes, apex narrower than median and basal portion ( Fig. 113View FIGURES 107 – 122).. D. latus Azevedo 

53. Posterior hypopygeal margin straight, with corners subangulate; aedeagal ventral ramus as long as aedeagal dorsal body or nearly so, apex straight................................................................................ 54

- Posterior hypopygeal margin concave with corners rounded; aedeagal ventral ramus shorter than aedeagal dorsal body, apex divergent ( Fig. 112View FIGURES 107 – 122)................................................................ D. intradentatus Azevedo 

54. Inner margin of paramere without pegs; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body elliptical; apex of aedeagal ventral ramus suban- gulate................................................................................ D. gladius Azevedo 

- Inner margin of paramere with four pegs; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body diamond-shaped; apex of aedeagal ventral ramus abruptly acute................................................................ D. alticarinatus Azevedo 

55. Aedeagal ventral ramus tubular; aedeagal dorsal body with pair of basal process tridentate........... D. brasiliensis Kieffer 

- Aedeagal ventral ramus laminar; aedeagal dorsal body not as above............................................. 56

56. Tergal process with tuft of setae with distinct long lateral setae................................................. 57

- Tergal process not as above............................................................................. 58

57. Median clypeal lobe with three small teeth; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body long and narrow, narrowing slightly apicad......................................................................................... D. gilvipes Evans 

- Median clypeal lobe with one angulate tooth ( Fig. 17View FIGURES 13 – 24); apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body short and wide but narrowing abruptly apicad ( Fig. 165View FIGURES 163 – 173)................................................................ D. arbeius  sp. nov.

58. Tergal process with pair of lateral drop-shaped pits, with elevated rim, sharp anteriorly and rounded posteriorly.................................................................................................. D. guttus Azevedo 

- Metasomal tergite not as above.......................................................................... 59

59. Tergal processes with pair inclined and linear depression..................................................... 60

- Tergal processes not as above........................................................................... 61

60. Aedeagal ventral ramus much shorter than aedeagal dorsal body, apical half evenly arched, apex sharp..... D. infissus Evans 

- Aedeagal ventral ramus as long as aedeagal dorsal body, apical half sinuous, apex narrow but rounded ( Fig. 175View FIGURES 174 – 183)............................................................................................... D. rufipalpis Kieffer 

61. Tergal process with tubercle............................................................................ 62

- Tergal process without tubercle.......................................................................... 69

62 Apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body mask-shaped ( Figs 202, 204–206View FIGURES 198 – 210)............. D. personatus Redighieri & Azevedo 

- Apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body without mask-shaped.................................................... 63

63. Mandible with two distal teeth.......................................................................... 64

- Mandible with four distal teeth.......................................................................... 66

64. Hypopygeal margin straight or nearly so; paramere wide; aedeagal dorsal body triangular-shaped..................... 65

- Hypopygeal margin concave; paramere very wide; aedeagal dorsal body bottle-shaped......... D. pilus Alencar & Azevedo 

65. Tergal process with deep depression ( Fig. 61View FIGURES 57 – 63); apical margin of paramere truncate ( Fig. 217View FIGURES 211 – 222); aedeagal ventral ramus as long as dorsal body, long, simple, curved outward ( Fig. 218View FIGURES 211 – 222)............................................ D. isortus  sp. nov.

- Tergal process with shallow depression; apical margin of paramere convex; aedeagal ventral ramus shorter than aedeagal dor- sal body, wide, with apical margin inclined and straight, inner corner sharpened..................... D. strabus Azevedo 

66. Median clypeal tooth angulate and very short ( Fig. 29View FIGURES 25 – 32); tubercle of tergal process without pit on top ( Fig. 60View FIGURES 57 – 63); apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body connected to median portion of aedeagal body by four narrow projections ( Fig. 215View FIGURES 211 – 222)...................................................................................................... D. ilarius  sp. nov.

- Median clypeal tooth regular sized; tubercle of tergal process with pit on top; apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body not con- nected to median portion of aedeagal dorsal body as above.................................................... 67

67. Median clypeal carina angled in profile; basal margin of dorsal margin of paramere very projected ( Fig. 213View FIGURES 211 – 222); aedeagal ventral ramus with apical portion divergent ( Fig. 214View FIGURES 211 – 222)................................................ D. geortus  sp. nov.

- Median clypeal carina straight in profile; basal margin of dorsal margin of paramere not as above; aedeagal ventral ramus with apical portion parallel................................................................................. 68

68. Posterior hypopygeal margin slightly convex; apical portion of dorsal margin of paramere not excavated; apical lobes of aedea- gal dorsal body long................................................................... D. plaummani Evans 

- Posterior hypopygeal margin sinuous ( Fig. 89View FIGURES 88 – 94); apical portion of dorsal margin of paramere very excavated ( Fig. 211View FIGURES 211 – 222); apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body very short ( Fig. 212View FIGURES 211 – 222).............................................. D. borus  sp. nov.

69. Tergal process with deeply excavated depression covered by membrane ( Fig. 63View FIGURES 57 – 63); posterior hypopygeal margin strongly con- cave ( Fig. 94View FIGURES 88 – 94); dorsal margin of paramere very excavated ( Fig. 221View FIGURES 211 – 222).............................. D. ubracus  sp. nov.

- Tergal process not as above; posterior hypopygeal margin straight or slightly concave; dorsal margin of paramere not very excavated........................................................................................... 70

70. Depression of tergal processes large and somewhat triangular; aedeagal ventral ramus laminar with apical wing-like expansion ( Fig. 201View FIGURES 198 – 210)........................................................................... D. rettenmeyeri Evans 

- Tergal process without depression or with circular or subcircular depression, aedeagal ventral ramus not as above........ 71

71. Basipamere about 2.0 times as long as size of paramere ( Fig. 209View FIGURES 198 – 210); aedeagal dorsal body entirely narrow; aedeagal ventral ramus entirely very narrow ( Fig. 210View FIGURES 198 – 210)..................................................... D. arteobius  sp. nov.

- Basipamere as long as paramere or nearly so, aedeagal dorsal body entirely wide; aedeagal ventral ramus wide, at least on basal or/and medial portion............................................................................. 72

72. Apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body very short; aedeagal ventral ramus with inner margin concave at apical half with long median filament..................................................................... D. xanthopus Ashmead 

- Apical lobes of aedeagal dorsal body long ( Fig. 207View FIGURES 198 – 210); aedeagal ventral ramus with inner margin straight without apical fila- ment ( Fig. 208View FIGURES 198 – 210)......................................................................... D. abarus  sp. nov.