Digitonthophagus viridicollis Génier

Génier, François & Moretto, Philippe, 2017, Digitonthophagus Balthasar, 1959: taxonomy, systematics, and morphological phylogeny of the genus revealing an African species complex (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae), Zootaxa 4248 (1), pp. 1-110: 54-56

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.439444

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:71F0AC03-C1FB-40AB-8532-99A638FC91E9

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/3D5987B7-074A-FFA4-FF17-A0730484F8BA

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Digitonthophagus viridicollis Génier
status

new species

Digitonthophagus viridicollis Génier  , new species

http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:11622669-B240-4DF1-AF7B-0757 A 587 DCEF ( Figs. 16View FIGURES 15 – 18, 41–42View FIGURES 39 – 46. 39, 41, 43, 45, 64View FIGURES 63 – 70, 80View FIGURES 79 – 86, 105–106, 128, 162–164, 186; Map 11)

Type locality. Moanda, Zaïre [= Democratic Republic of the Congo]. 

Diagnosis. Pronotum rather glossy ( Fig. 64View FIGURES 63 – 70); FLP sclerite subapicodorsal lobe short anteriorly ( Figs. 162– 163View FIGURES 159 – 170); right lateral fold produced into a longitudinal spoon-shape process with apical portion open ventrally, ventral edge with minute villi ( Fig. 186View FIGURES 183 – 190 A), with a well-sclerotized projection on apicoventral edge ( Fig. 186View FIGURES 183 – 190 B); axial sclerite shorter than subaxial sclerite, acute apically ( Fig. 163View FIGURES 159 – 170); subaxial sclerite short and robust ( Fig. 163View FIGURES 159 – 170).

Description. Holotype ♂ ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 15 – 18). Measurements. Length 12.5 mm, width 7.0 mm. Head ( Figs. 41–42View FIGURES 39 – 46. 39, 41, 43, 45). Anterior clypeal edge straight on median fourth in dorsal view; clypeofrontal carina broadly arcuate and interrupted at gena; vertex lacking median tubercle, surface with punctures fine to small, separated by one to four diameters. Horns rather short, slightly divergent in frontal view, parallel sided on basal three-fourth and abruptly tapering externally and narrower on apical fifth; posterointernal edge with a distinct low angular projection basally; apicointernal surface lacking granules, with few scabrous punctures; genal edge upturned and bluntly angulate on anterior third, forming a broad angle with clypeal edge. Pronotum ( Fig. 64View FIGURES 63 – 70). Surface with granulate punctures extending on a short distance on posterior half with distinct, finely granulate, simple punctures on posterior half of disc; punctures scattered and smaller posterolaterally with distinct, minute punctures throughout. Anteromedian tubercle atrophied, simply round in lateral view; median longitudinal sulcus weakly-defined and shallow; surface behind the eyes with a simple, round, rather deep depression; surface of anterior angles slightly concave; anterior half of lateral edge arcuate in dorsal and lateral view; posterior angles unmodified and simply arcuate in dorsal view. Anterior hypomeral ridge arcuate anteriorly, anterior hypomeral depression surface slightly darker in color medially. Elytra ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 15 – 18). Intervals 2 and 4 with the odd fine granules on apical declivity. Legs. Protibial apicointernal tooth enlarged, with dorsal ridge extending to apex. Aedeagus ( Fig. 128View FIGURES 119 – 134). Parameres with dorsal and ventral edges slightly diverging toward apex in lateral view. Internal sac sclerites ( Figs. 162–164View FIGURES 159 – 170). Axial sclerite broadly arcuate, with apex acute. Subaxial sclerite, gradually tapering from base to apex, extending straight approximately in line with apex of right lateral fold, with a brush of villi on apical fourth. Frontolateral peripheral sclerite basoventral apophysis moderately developed; lacking medioventral carinae; right lateral fold produced into a rather large everted and open internally conical process with irregular apical edge, always with a well-sclerotized projection on apicoventral edge, ventral edge bordered with minute villi; left lateral lobe membranous, slightly developed; subapicodorsal lobe membranous, not reaching anterior edge, apex set medially in dorsal view; apical lobe round and directed obliquely on left side, left edge emarginate, apical villi regular in shape; subapicoventral lobe round and interrupted in line with apical lobe, with few villi along apical edge only.

Variation. Measurements (170 ♂♂, 112 ♀♀). Length: male 7.0–13.0 mm (9.8 ± 1.0 mm), female 8.0– 11.5 mm (9.7 ± 0.8 mm). Female allotype. Cephalic outline in dorsal view as in Fig. 80View FIGURES 79 – 86; vertex with a straight transverse carina, dorsal edge broadly arcuate in frontal view, lateral portion round and gradually sloping down posteriorly; anterior pronotal tubercles moderately developed, external lateral edges strongly divergent toward apex, anterolateral surface slightly concave, anterosuperior edge slightly arcuate in dorsal view (Fig. 105), lateral portion of anterosuperior edge strongly upturned (Fig. 106). Protibia short, with external teeth more robust.

Primary type data. Holotype ♂ (CMNC): [Moanda / (Zaïre) 30.iv.1979] partly handwritten; [WORLD / SCARAB. / DATABASE / WSD00032092] barcode label; [HOLOTYPE ♂ / Digitonthophagus  / viridicollis  n.sp. / des. F. Génier, 2016] red card.

MAP 11. Distribution of Digitonthophagus viridicollis  .

Material examined (183 ♂♂, 115 ♀♀), distribution (Map 11): ANGOLA: [unspecified locality], [no date], [anonymous]  —2 ♂♂ (2 paratypes) (BMNH); [unspecified locality], [no date], Monteiro— 3 ♂♂ (3 paratypes) ( BMNH); BENGUELA, Benguela (12°35'S, 13°25'E)GoogleMaps  , iv.1981, L. Hilburger—2 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂ (5 paratypes) (OUMNH); CABINDA, Cabinda (5°34'S, 12°11'E), 1885, Hesse— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( SMFAbout SMF)GoogleMaps  ; CUANZA SUL, Cossoço [= Coçoço ] (11°24'S, 14°1'E), iii.2005, [anonymous]GoogleMaps  —2 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂ (5 paratypes) (PMOC); Cossoço [=Coçoço] (11°24'S, 14°1'E), 3–13.iii.2005, M. Hansson & Th. Bouyer—1 ♂ (paratype) (PMOC); [unspecified locality], ii –iii.1999, T. Bouyer & M. Hasson—2 ♀♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) (PMOC); CUNENE, 10 km N Humbe (16°35'49''S, 14°54'24''E), 3.xi.2011, G. Werner— 2 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂ (6 paratypes) ( FGICAbout FGIC, GWPC)GoogleMaps  ; Near Categuero (17°45.765'S, 14°29.411'E)GoogleMaps  , 11.xii.2012, S. Rojkoff—1 ♂ (paratype) (CMD); Roçadas (16°45'S, 14°59'E), 19– 22.ii.1972, Southern Africa Expedition— 3 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂ (6 paratypes) ( BMNH)  ; HUILA, 26 km S Cahila (16°6'18.3''S, 14°14'7.6''E)GoogleMaps  , 2.xii.2015, G. Werner—1 ♂ (paratype) (GWPC); 5 mi. NE Negola (14°8'S, 14°30'E), 25.iii.1972, Southern Africa Expedition— 2 ♀♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( BMNH); João de Almeida [=Chibia] (15°11'S, 13°42'E)GoogleMaps  , 29.iii.1972, [anonymous] (A 41)— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( BMNH)  ; LUANDA, Luanda (8°50'S, 13°17'E), [no date], Welwitch— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Luanda (8°50'S, 13°17'E), [no date], [anonymous]— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; UIGE, 3 mi. N Santa Clara (7°22'S, 14°44'E)GoogleMaps  , 3.iii –1.iv.1972, Southern Africa Expedition— 3 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ (5 paratypes) ( BMNH)  ; CONGO: BRAZZAVILLE, Environs de Brazzaville (4°15'S, 15°16'E), 1907, E. Roubaud & A Weiss— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( MNHNAbout MNHN)GoogleMaps  ; DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO: BAS- CONGO, Banana (5°59'53''S, 12°23'56''E), [no date], F. Busschodts— 2 ♂♂ (2 paratypes) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Banana (5°59'53''S, 12°23'56''E)GoogleMaps  , iii.1885, Hesse—3 ♀♀, 8 ♂♂ (11 paratypes) (SMF); Banana (5°59'53''S, 12°23'56''E), v.1886, Hesse—4 ♂♂ (4 paratypes) (SMF); Banana-Boma (5°50'S, 12°43'E), 1891, M. Tschoffen— 4 ♂♂ (4 paratypes) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Boma (5°51'S, 13°3'E), [no date], P. Rolin— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Boma (5°51'S, 13°3'E), [no date], M. Tschoffen— 4 ♂♂ (4 paratypes) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Boma (5°51'S, 13°3'E), 3.i.1977, P. Walter— 8 ♀♀, 6 ♂♂ (14 paratypes) ( PHWC)GoogleMaps  ; Boma (5°51'S, 13°3'E), 4.i.1977, P. Walter— 16 ♀♀, 14 ♂♂ (30 paratypes) ( PHWC)GoogleMaps  ; Environs de Kangu, Mayumbé (5°17'S, 12°57'E), 6.i.1977, Yimi-di-Phambu— 18 ♀♀, 21 ♂♂ (39 paratypes) ( PHWC)GoogleMaps  ; Kwilu (5°30'S, 14°41'E), iv.1885, Hesse— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( SMFAbout SMF)GoogleMaps  ; Matadi (5°49'S, 13°28'E), [no date], [anonymous]GoogleMaps  —1 ♂ (paratype) (IRSNB); Muanda (5°56'S, 12°21'E), 30.iv.1979, P. Walter—1 ♀, 4 ♂♂ (holotype, allotype, 3 paratypes) (CMNC, PHWC); Vista [= Nsiamfumu ] (5°52'S, 12°17'E), [no date], V. Moerenhout— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Vivi (5°48'S, 13°27'E), [no date], [anonymous]— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Zambi (5°51'S, 12°52'E), [no date], M. Tschoffen— 2 ♀♀, 6 ♂♂ (8 paratypes) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Zambi (5°51'S, 12°52'E), [no date], C. Haas— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; NAMIBIA: ERONGO, Ameib Farm , 19 km NW Karibib (21°47'S, 15°38'E)GoogleMaps  , 31.i –2.ii.1972, Southern Africa Expedition— 2 ♀♀ (2 paratypes) ( BMNH)  ; Otjikoko Süd Farm, 33 mi. 

ENE Omaruru (21°10'S, 16°22'E), 10–13.ii.1972, Southern Africa Expedition— 3 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂ (6 paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; KUNENE, Kamanjab (19°38'S, 14°51'E), 9.iv.2005, W. Schawaller— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( SMNSAbout SMNS)GoogleMaps  ; Ongongo (18°8'S, 13°22'E), 17–18.iv.2005, W. Schawaller— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( SMNSAbout SMNS)GoogleMaps  ; Otjitambi farm, 27 mi. ESE Kamanjab (19°49'S, 15°10'E), 13–15.ii.1972, Southern Africa Expedition— 1 ♀, 2 ♂♂ (3 paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Outjo (20°7'S, 16°10'E), i –ii.1998, Forti, Gzeppel & Giannatelli— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( FETC)GoogleMaps  ; Purros ( Hoaruzsib Valley ) (18°46'S, 12°57'E), 15–16.iv.2005, W. Schawaller— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( SMNSAbout SMNS)GoogleMaps  ; OHANGWENA, Oshikango (17°24'S, 15°53'E), 19.ii.1972GoogleMaps  , Southern Africa Expedition— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( BMNH)  ; OMAHEKE, Kuzikus Wildlife Reserve (23°14'17''S, 18°23'28''E), 30.iii –11.iv.2011, J. Constant— 3 ♂♂ (3 paratypes) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Kuzikus Wildlife Reserve (23°14'17''S, 18°23'28''E), 3–10.iv.2011, J. Constant— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; OMUSATI, 2 km E Renostervlei (19°9'59''S, 14°33'12''E), 26.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Narawandu road, Etosha National Park (18°51'4''S, 15°32'55''E), 24.xii.1999, Mann, Marais & Newman— 2 ♀♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Narawandu road, Etosha National Park (18°51'4''S, 15°32'55''E), 24–25.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Narawandu road, Etosha National Park (18°51'4''S, 15°32'55''E), 24.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Narawandu road, Etosha National Park (18°51'4''S, 15°32'55''E), 25– 26.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; OSHANA, Oshakati (17°52'30''S, 15°22'30''E), 15.vii.1975, R. Venter— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; OSHIKOTO, Andoni road (18°45'37''S, 16°54'24''E), 20.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 6 ♀♀, 6 ♂♂ (12 paratypes) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Etosha National Park (19°2'S, 16°28'E), i – ii.1998, Czeppel, Forti, & Giannatelli— 1 ♀ (paratype) ( FETC)GoogleMaps  ; Etosha National Park (19°2'S, 16°28'E), 13.ii.1998, Forti— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( SMNSAbout SMNS)GoogleMaps  ; Mushara area , sandy road (18°36'24''S, 16°53'23''E), 21.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 5 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂ (9 paratypes) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Mushara Waterhole (18°35'19''S, 16°55'11''E), 22–23.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 2 ♂♂ (2 paratypes) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Mushara Waterhole (18°35'19''S, 16°55'11''E), 23.xii.1999, Mann & Marais— 3 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂ (5 paratypes) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  ; North Tsintsabis (18°46'S, 17°58'E), 1.i.2007, R. Perissinoto & L. Clennell— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( PMOC)GoogleMaps  ; Okaukuejo, Etosha National Park , 1113 m (19°10'S, 15°55'E), i.2007, M. Forti— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( SMNSAbout SMNS)GoogleMaps  ; Oluconda (17°59'7''S, 16°1'24''E), 1901, Schinz— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( SMFAbout SMF)GoogleMaps  ; Onguma Farm , 55 mi. NW Tsumeb (18°44'S, 17°3'E), 17–19.ii.1972, Southern Africa Expedition— 7 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂ (11 paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Otjikata [= Otjikoto ] Lake (19°11'S, 17°33'E), 16.xi.1933, K. Jordan— 7 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂ (11 paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; OTJOZONDJUPA, 12 mi. E Otavi (19°39'S, 17°31'E), 17.ii.1972GoogleMaps  , Southern Africa Expedition— 3 ♀♀, 5 ♂♂ (8 paratypes) ( BMNH)  ; Epupa Falls , 660 m (17°0'3''S, 13°14'36''E), 11–12.iv.2005, W. Schawaller— 5 ♂♂ (5 paratypes) ( SMNSAbout SMNS)GoogleMaps  ; Hohenfels (20°41.928'S, 16°50.498'E), 7.i.2011, G. Werner— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( FGICAbout FGIC)GoogleMaps  ; Okahandja (21°59'S, 16°55'E), 11.xi.1909, G. Fock— 2 ♀♀, 3 ♂♂ (5 paratypes) ( IRSNBAbout IRSNB)GoogleMaps  ; Okahandja (21°59'S, 16°55'E), 2–18.iii.1922, R.E. Turner— 2 ♂♂ (2 paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Okahandja (21°59'S, 16°55'E), 1–12.i.1928, R.E. Turner— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Okahandja (21°59'S, 16°55'E), 3–9.ii.1928, R.E. Turner— 2 ♂♂ (2 paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Otavi (19°39'S, 17°20'E), 8.i.1934, J. Ogilvie— 1 ♀ (paratype) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Otavifontein (19°39'S, 17°24'E), 21.xi.1933, K. Jordan— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Otjawarongo (20°27'S, 16°40'E), 1909, Külz— 1 ♀, 4 ♂♂ (5 paratypes) ( SMFAbout SMF)GoogleMaps  ; Otjawarongo (20°27'S, 16°40'E), 13.i.1934, J. Ogilvie— 1 ♀, 1 ♂ (paratypes) ( BMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Otjawarongo (20°27'S, 16°40'E), 4.i.2004, R. Perissinoto & L. Clennell— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( PMOC)GoogleMaps  ; Swakop River, 3 mi. S Okahandja (22°2'S, 16°56'E), 7.iv.1972GoogleMaps  , Southern Africa Expedition— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( BMNH)  ; Grootfontein District, Okaputa 334 at: campsite (20°7'26''S, 16°57'54''E), 12.xii.1999, Mann, Marais & Newman— 1 ♂ (paratype) ( OUMNH)GoogleMaps  .

Etymology. Viridicollis  , a Latin adjective pertaining to the metallic green coloration of the pronotum typical for this species.

Natural history. The material examined shows a Kalahari xeric savanna and Angolan scarp savanna and woodland centered distribution. The only specimens with habitat data were collected in pastures. Some specimens collected at light traps and cow, elephant, and zebra dung. A few specimens collected in pitfall traps baited with giraffe, zebra, or human dung.

Remarks. This species is very closely related to D. gazella  . Despite the relative high number of individuals examined, no intermediates were found for the character of the shape of the right lateral fold (see diagnosis). Large females of D. viridicollis  also have very characteristic strongly upturned anterosuperior edges of the anterior pronotal tubercles. The green metallic tinge of the dorsum is also characteristic of most specimens.

SMF

Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg

FGIC

Francois Genier

IRSNB

Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

SMNS

Staatliches Museum fuer Naturkund Stuttgart