Clytia gracilis (M. Sars, 1850)

Otto M. P. Oliveira, Thaís P. Miranda, Enilma M. Araujo, Patricia Ayón, Cristina M. Cedeño-Posso, Amancay A. Cepeda-Mercado, Pab, 2016, Census of Cnidaria (Medusozoa) and Ctenophora from South American marine waters, Zootaxa 4194 (1), pp. 1-256: 162-163

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4194.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C21A07A7-3AD9-4AA2-8426-EAB08BA396E6

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/3F6387A9-FF4C-E2EB-85D8-FCCCDEF964F9

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Clytia gracilis (M. Sars, 1850)
status

 

Clytia gracilis (M. Sars, 1850) 

Synonyms in the area:? Gonothyraea gracilis  —Hartlaub 1905 p. 583–586; Nutting 1915 p. 70–71 [polyp]; Laomedea cylindrica  —Leloup 1937; Clytia attenuata  —Fraser 1938a; Vannucci Mendes 1946; Vannucci 1949, 1951a; Calder et al. 2003 [polyp]; Clytia cylindrica  —Fraser 1938a, 1938b, 1939, 1948; Wedler 1975; Calder et al. 2003 [polyp]; Gonothyraea gracilis  —Fraser 1938a, 1938b, 1939, 1947, 1948; Blanco 1967a; Calder et al. 2003 [polyp];? Thaumantias raridentata  —Vannucci 1951a, 1951b, 1954 [polyp]; Clytia paulensis  —Blanco 1968, 1994a [non Clytia paulensis (Vanhöffen, 1910)  ] [polyp]; Clytia hemisphaerica  —Haddad 1992; Grohmann 1997, 2006, 2007; Grohmann et al. 1997; Nogueira et al. 1997; Rosso & Marques 1997; Haddad & Chiaverini 2000; Marques & Migotto 2003; Shimabukuro 2007 [polyp] [non Clytia hemisphaerica (Linnaeus, 1767)  ]; Clytia pelagica  —Wedler 1975 [polyp]; Clytia elsaeoswaldae  —Shimabukuro, 2007; Amaral et al. 2009 [polyp].

Remarks: a common species with difficult taxonomy. A list of the different forms is in Lindner (2000) and Migotto et al. (2002). The record by Hartlaub (1905) of Thaumantias inconspicua Forbes 1948  from Cabulco, Chile, may represent this species, but the name given by Forbes (1948) is included in the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology (Opinion 1465) (Calder 1991), and most of their medusae were assigned to C. hemisphaerica  or C. gracilis  . However, we prefer to keep this specimen under the synonymy of C. gracilis  until more data is available.

Distribution in South America: polyp—Pacific Ocean, Colombia, at 5.99°N 77.36°W in Port Utria, at 2.99°N 78.19°W in Gorgona Island, Ecuador, from 0.3°N to 1.5°S in Galápagos Archipelago, at 0.56°N 80.01°W in San Francisco Bay, at 1.28°S 81.07°W in Isla La Plata, at 2.18°S 80.90°W in La Libertad, Peru, at 12.01°S 77.21°W in Callao, at 14.25°S 76.17°W in Bahia Independencia, at 15.25°S 75.24°W in Bahia San Nicolás (Fraser 1938a, 1938b, 1939, 1948; Calder et al. 2003); Chile, from 33.67°S to 55°S (Hartlaub 1905 p. 583–586; Nutting 1915 p. 70–71; Galea et al. 2009b p. 23); Atlantic Ocean, Colombia, from Santa Marta to Cabo de la Vela coast, Venezuela, at Isla Coche, Brazil to Argentina, from 3°S to 4°S, at 8.71°S 35°W, at 9.80°S 35.80°W, from 11.25°S to 47°S (Leloup 1937; Vannucci Mendes 1946; Fraser 1947; Vannucci 1949, 1951a, 1951b, 1954; Blanco 1967a, 1968, 1994a; Wedler 1975; Genzano et al. 1991, 2002, 2009a, 2011; Haddad 1992; Genzano 1994a, 1994b, 1998; Genzano & Zamponi 1997; Grohmann 1997, 2006, 2007, abstract; Grohmann et al. 1997, 2003, 2011; Nogueira et al. 1997; Rosso & Marques 1997; Calder & Maÿal 1998; Genzano & Rodriguez 1998; Haddad & Chiaverini 2000, abstract; Migotto et al. 2001, 2002, 2004; Kelmo & Attril 2003; Marques & Migotto 2003; Oliveira 2003; Marques et al. 2006; Miranda  & Marques 2006, abstract; Oliveira et al. 2006; Shimabukuro & Marques 2006a, abstract; Bornancin 2008; Oliveira & Marques 2007, 2011; Shimabukuro 2007; Maronna et al. 2008, abstract; Amaral et al. 2009; Cangussu et al. 2010; Cunha & Jacobucci 2010; Brandini & Silva 2011; Miranda  et al. 2011, 2015; Silveira & Morandini 2011; Flynn & Valèrio-Berardo 2012; Marques et al. 2013; Fernandez et al. 2014, 2015; Meretta & Genzano 2015); medusa—Atlantic Ocean, Argentina, from 36ºS to 42.84ºS (Genzano et al. 2008a; Guerrero et al.

2013).

Habitat: polyp—in estuarine regions and rocky shores, from intertidal zone to 164m, on algae, ascidians, barnacles, bryozoans, barnacles, corals, mussels, gastropods, hydroids, mud, polychaete tubes, Rhizophora mangle  roots, rocks, sand, shells, spines of Eucidaris  sp., spongesfouling, wood (Fraser 1938a, 1938b, 1948; Haddad 1992; Calder & Maÿal 1998; Genzano 1998; Genzano & Rodriguez 1998; Haddad & Chiaverini 2000; Migotto et al. 2001; Genzano et al. 2002, 2009a; Calder et al. 2003; Kelmo & Attril 2003; Marques & Migotto 2003; Oliveira 2003; Marques et al. 2006; Oliveira et al. 2006; Shimabukuro & Marques 2006a; Bornancin 2008; Grohmann 2007; Oliveira & Marques 2007, 2011; Shimabukuro 2007; Galea et al. 2009b p. 23; Cunha & Jacobucci 2010; Miranda  et al. 2011; Fernandez et al. 2014, 2015; Meretta & Genzano 2015).