Avicularia diversipes Avicularia diversipes , Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009
Bertani, ROGÉRIO & Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri, 2009, Description of two new species of Avicularia Lamarck 1818 and redescription of Avicularia diversipes (C. L. Koch 1842) (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) - three possibly threatened Brazi, Zootaxa 2223, pp. 25-47: 26-43
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|Avicularia diversipes Avicularia diversipes|
Avicularia diversipes (C. L. Koch 1842)
(Figs 1─4, 13─15, 17; Appendix I, Figs A 1─ A 6)
Mygale diversipes C. L. Koch 1842: 65, pl. CCCX, f. 731.
Eurypelma diversipes C. L. Koch 1850: 73; Simon 1864: 67, 1892: 172; Ausserer 1871: 202; Roewer 1942: 239; Roewer 1955: 1595; Bonnet 1955: 1831; 1957: 2990.
Avicularia diversipes F. O. P.-Cambridge 1896: 744; Platnick 2008.
Diagnosis: The female differs from those of all the other Avicularia species by the two very long, strongly curved spermathecae, resembling a “M”, with its distal portion almost reaching the spermathecal base (Fig. 4). The male resembles those of A. sooretama sp. nov. and A. gamba sp. nov. by lacking a tibial apophysis on leg I; it is distinguished by the embolus being more than four times longer than the tegulum, with a strong curvature (Figs 1─3). Additionally, the male and female have distinct orange longitudinal stripes over the tarsi and metatarsi dorsum and a blue sheen on prolateral and retrolateral areas of the legs (Figs A 1 ─ A 3).
Material examined: Female lectotype, 1 immature paralectotype (here designated), Brazil, State of Bahia, Freir. leg., ( ZMB ─ 2043); female, Brazil, State of Bahia, Ilheus , CEPLAC [14°46' S, 39°13' W], R. Bertani & G. Puorto col., March 1991 ( IBSP 11754);GoogleMaps male, Brazil, State of Bahia, Ilheus , CEPLAC [14°46' S, 39°13' W], R. Bertani & G. Puorto col., March 1991 ( IBSP 119271 reference 64.583).GoogleMaps
Additional material examined: BRAZIL: Bahia: Elisio Medrado, RPPN Jequitiba (12°52'3.20'' S, 39 °28'9.09" W), 1 female, R. Bertani, C.S. Fukushima and R.H. Nagahama, 7 October 2007 ( MZSP 29073);GoogleMaps Ilheus , CEPLAC [14°46' S, 39°13' W], CEPLAC 86, T 71, 1 female, 1 immature male, U. Caramaschi, 10-13 March 1986 ( MNRJ 12927);GoogleMaps 1 female, R. Bertani and G. Puorto, March 1991 ( IBSP 11754); 2 immatures, same data and collectors ( IBSP 119271 ref. 64583); 1 female, R. Bertani and G. Puorto, February 1991 ( IBSP 7886); 1 female, R. Bertani, January 1992, ( IBSP 119272 ref. 67365); 1 female, R. Bertani, 24 April 1998, ( IBSP 9531); Jussari, RPPN Serra do Teimoso [15°12' S, 39°29' W], 1 female found on bush at night, R. Bertani and A.D. Brescovit, 9 April 1998 ( IBSP 7921);GoogleMaps Lomanto Júnior [14°47' S, 39°27' W], Fazenda Sao Jose , R 2429, 1 female, 9 immatures, 4 November 1968 ( MNRJ 12944);GoogleMaps Uruçuca [14 º35’ S, 39°17' W], Itabuna zone, CEPLAC, R 3001, 1 female, 2 immatures, N. Tingarine ( MNRJ 13761).GoogleMaps
Redescription: Female IBSP 11754. Carapace 15.6 long, 15.2 wide, chelicerae 6.3. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 12.0, 7.4, 9.2, 9.4, 5.1, 43.1. II: 11.6, 7.4, 9.1, 8.4, 4.6, 41.1. III: 10.4, 6.0, 7.5, 8.0, 4.3, 36.2. IV: 12.8, 6.6, 10.5, 11.6, 4.2, 45.7. Palp: 8.9, 5.6, 5.6, -, 5.9, 26.0. Midwidths: femora I - IV=2.4, 2.7, 2.8, 2.4, palp=2.5; patellae I–IV =2.8, 2.7, 2.9, 2.7, palp=2.4; tibiae I–IV =2.6, 2.3, 2.5, 2.5, palp=2.4; metatarsi I–IV =2.2, 2.2, 2.0, 1.7; tarsi I–IV =2.5, 2.3, 2.2, 2.2, palp=2.6. Abdomen 17.0 long, 11.1 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.8 long, 0.8 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 1.7 basal, 1.7 middle, 1.7 distal; midwidths 1.2, 1.4, 0.9, respectively.
Carapace: ratio of length to width. 1.02; cephalic area moderately raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous. Fovea: shallow, straight, 2.49 wide. Covered by short, slender setae and some long scattered setae mainly in cephalic region.
Eyes: tubercle high, length 2.7, width 3.4. Clypeus 0.3 wide. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior slightly recurved. Eyes sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.75, ALE 0.85, PME 0.37, PLE 0.73, AME–AME 0.60, AME–ALE 0.52, AME–PME 0.24, ALE–ALE 2.34, ALE–PME 0.42, PME–PME 2.05, PME–PLE 0.11, PLE–PLE 2.48, ALE–PLE 0.52, AME–PLE 0.63. Ratio of eye group width to length 2.10.
Maxillae: length to width: 1.62. Cuspules: 100─200 spread over ventral inner heel. Lyra absent. Labium: length 1.7, width 3.2, with 98 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third centrally. Labio-sternal groove shallow, flat, with two slightly separate, large sigilla.
Chelicerae: rastellum absent; basal segments with eight teeth decreasing in size from distal area and row of small teeth on promargin.
Sternum length 8.5, width 6.8. Posterior angle sharp, but not separating coxae IV. Sigilla: three pairs, posterior ellipsoidal, set at 45° angle, and 1.5 diameters from margin; middle fusiform, more than one diameter from margin; anterior not visible.
Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Clavate trichobothria on distal 2/3 of tarsi I–IV. Leg coxae: with sparse soft setae; stridulatory or modified setae lacking. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate, IV with few sparse setae. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III for distal 2/3; IV, 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by three wide rows of setae. Scopula hairs longest at lateral areas of tarsi and metatarsi, giving spatulate aspect to articles. Spines: absent on all legs and palp. Claws: ITC absent; STC without teeth.
Urticating hairs: Type II on abdomen dorsum.
Genitalia: Two very long strongly curved, weakly sclerotized spermathecae, resembling an “M” with distal portion near spermathecal base (Fig. 4).
Color pattern: Carapace brown with golden hairs. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae black; trochantera to tarsi ventrally brown. Prolateral and retrolateral femora, patellae, tibiae and metatarsi of legs and palpi brown with metallic green/blue iridescence (Fig. A 2). Dorso-medial conspicuous orange stripe along all tarsi and sinuous on metatarsi (Figs A 1─ A 2). Orange rings on distal tibiae and metatarsi (Fig. A 1). Abdomen black with brownish anterolateral areas, with some long red hairs (Fig. A 1).
Description: Male IBSP 119271, reference 64.583. Carapace 13.1 long, 12.9 wide, chelicerae 5.8. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 13.4, 6.7, 10.6, 11.0, 6.1, 47.8. II: 12.2, 6.6, 10.1, 10.3, 5.9, 45.1. III: 11.4, 5.6, 9.2, 9.6, 4.6, 40.4. IV: 13.7, 6.1, 11 .4, 14.4, 5.0, 50.6. Palp: 7.8, 4.7, 6.9, -, 3.1, 22.5. Midwidths: femora I -IV=2.3, 2.4, 2.6, 2.2, palp=1.7; patellae I–IV =2.3, 2.2, 2.4, 2.3, palp=1.9; tibiae I– IV=2.0, 1.7, 1.9, 1.9, palp=2.2; metatarsi I–IV =1.3, 1.3, 1.2, 1.3; tarsi I–IV =1.4, 1.4, 1.3, 1.4, palp=1.8. Abdomen 12.6 long, 7.2 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.1 long, 0.6 wide, 0.1 apart; PLS, 1.6 basal, 1.2 middle, 1.8 distal; midwidths 1.2, 1.0, 0.7, respectively.
As in female, except:
Carapace: length to width 1.01; cephalic area not raised. Fovea 0.96 wide. Carapace covered by short, slender setae and many longer scattered hairs. Row of very long setae from eye tubercle to fovea.
Eyes: tubercle length 2.1, width 2.6. Clypeus absent. Posterior eye row recurved. Sizes and inter-distances: AME 0.68, ALE 0.65, PME 0.24, PLE 0.49, AME–AME 0.40, AME–ALE 0.36, AME–PME 0.15, ALE–ALE 1.52, ALE–PME 0.61, PME–PME 1.71, PME–PLE 0.02, PLE–PLE 2.18, ALE–PLE 0.47, AME– PLE 0.36. Ratio of eye group width to length 1.82.
Maxillae: length to width: 1.92. Cuspules: ca. 80 spread over ventral inner heel. Lyra absent. Labium: length 2.2, width 1.4, with 38 cuspules spaced by more than one diameter from each other on anterior third centrally. Labio-sternal groove with two separated large sigilla.
Chelicerae: basal segments with three well developed teeth, six medium teeth, one small tooth and row of small teeth on promargin.
Sternum: length 6.84, width 5.92. Sigilla: three pairs, posterior ellipsoidal, set at 45° angle, one diameter from margin; middle fusiform, more than one diameter from margin; anterior not visible.
Legs. Clavate trichobothria: on distal 2/3 of tarsi I and II; distal 3/4 of tarsi III and IV. Scopula: tarsi I–IV fully scopulate, without dividing or sparse setae; metatarsi I–II fully scopulate; III for distal 2/3; IV, 2/5 distally scopulate; IV divided by a three-setae-wide row. Tibial apophysis absent, distal prolateral area of tibia I with concentration of stiff setae.
Palp: embolus slender, more than 3 times longer than tegulum, strongly curved at base by more than 180° to retrolateral side (Figs 1─3). Cymbium: two subequal lobes; prolateral one triangular in shape, with short spiniform process on apex.
Color pattern ontogeny: As happens with other aviculariines, the color pattern of these spiders changes during their development. After leaving the eggsac, the spiderlings have an overall metallic green color; the abdomen dorsum has a central longitudinal darker green stripe with zigzag edges in which lies a long spot with the same color of the lateral abdomen (light yellowish green). Four darker green transverse stripes connecting to the central longitudinal stripe can be noted on each side. The carapace center is also dark green, which contrasts with the lighter lateral area (Fig. A 4). In larger stadia, the legs and central carapace are still metallic green but the central longitudinal dark green stripe with zigzag edge on dorsal abdomen becomes black. At the same time, the long spot on abdomen becomes a vivid red (Fig. A 5). As the individuals grow, they become brownish. The tarsi and metatarsi gain a vivid orange stripe. The legs show an intense blue metallic sheen and the central long spot on the abdomen remains red (Fig. A 3). Adult males and females have the carapace and legs brown whereas a metallic blue/green sheen will remain in the prolateral and retrolateral areas of the legs (Figs A 1─ A 2). The orange marks on dorsal tarsi and metatarsi are normally conspicuous (Figs A 1─ A 2). The abdominal longitudinal central spot fades completely becoming almost completely black. Little of the juvenile abdominal color pattern remains in the adult as the anterolateral brownish spots on abdomen. Recently molted specimens have more vivid colors and more distinguishable patterns as observed in other theraphosids. In premolting individuals, the general pattern is more difficult to distinguish.
Distribution: Southern State of Bahia, Brazil (Fig. 17).
Natural History: Spiders in Ilhéus ( CEPLAC) were found mainly in a forested area occupied formerly by cocoa plantation and now regenerating over 30 years ( Argôlo 2004). They make retreats on the vegetation, which are constructed in a similar way to those in Iridopelma spp. specimens, with two leaves connected with silk (Fig. 14). Many individuals were seen lying on broad leaves of Heliconiacea (Fig. 13). Some individuals were found in bromeliad leaves (Fig. 15) and others walking on tree trunks. The population in this forested area is the densest we have seen, with one to two dozen individuals seen each night. Collections in experimental cocoa crops near this area yielded a few specimens. However, only a single specimen was taken in a one day collection in a primary forest area (Jussari). Therefore, the relation between area types (forest vs cocoa crops) and the specimen density is not clear, since the difference on the number of observed individuals can be influenced by other variables such as the season of the year and period of day in which the observations were made. Thus, since there were no systematic collect efforts to estimate and compare the populations, it is not possible to affirm if there are population differences between the two area types.
Avicularia diversipes (C. L. Koch 1842)
Order Araneae . Family Theraphosidae .
Common names: english: Amazon Sapphire Pink Toe, Bahia purple-blue bird-eater.
Scientific synonyms: Avicularia fasciculata (misidentification).
Size (adult): ca. 9 cm / 3.5 in, with outstretched legs.
Coloration (adult): Carapace brown with golden hairs. The last two articles of the legs with conspicuous orange stripe (Figs A 1- A 2, orange arrow). Abdomen black with lateral brownish areas (Fig. A 1, white arrow). Legs brown with metallic green/blue iridescence on their lateral (Fig. A 2, blue arrow)
Coloration (juvenile): Larger juveniles have overall coloration brownish and the two last articles of the legs with a vivid orange stripe (Fig. A 3). Spiderlings have an overall metallic green color; abdomen with a central longitudinal darker green stripe bearing a long light yellowish green spot (Fig. A 4, yellow arrow) and with four transversal stripes connecting to the longitudinal stripe (Fig. A 4). Larger individuals have abdomen with central longitudinal black stripe with zigzag edges bearing a long central orange spot and four well-defined transversal stripes connecting to the longitudinal stripe (Fig. A 5, red arrow).
Distribution: Brazilian Atlantic rainforest, State of Bahia, Brazil (Fig. A 6, red area on map).
Wild population: Few populations known in a very restricted area in Southern Bahia, Brazil.
Captive population: No data available, but specimens are maintained as pets in many countries.
Trade: Traded in all stages alive (adults, juveniles, spiderlings and inside eggsacs) for the pet market.
Similar species: Regardless of its very distinctive appearance, it can be misidentified as another Avicularia species (Fig. A 7) or as Iridopelma and Pachistopelma species. Due to its orange marked legs, it can be confused with some Psalmopoeus species (Fig. A 8). However, Psalmopoeus species have different body pattern in adults and juveniles individuals (Fig. A 8). Avicularia diversipes juveniles can be also confused with Poecilotheria individuals (Fig. A 9) but can be distinguished from them by the different body pattern (Fig. A 9).
Germany, Berlin, Museum fuer Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universitaet
Brazil,Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Instituto Butantan
Brazil, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo
Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Cristovao, Universidade do Rio Janeiro, Museu Nacional
USA, Florida, Gainesville, University of Florida, Florida Museum of Natural History, Allyn Museum
Comissão Executiva de Planejamento da Lavoura Cacaueira, Brazil
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