Amphineurus (Rhamphoneurus), Rhamphoneurus Alexander, 1929 a

Santos, Daubian, Santos, Rodrigo dos Reis & Ribeiro, Guilherme Cunha, 2022, Systematics of Amphineurus (Rhamphoneurus Alexander) (Diptera: Tipuloidea: Limoniidae), Arthropod Systematics & amp; Phylogeny 80, pp. 439-494 : 439

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Amphineurus (Rhamphoneurus)


3.2. Subgenus Rhamphoneurus Alexander, 1929a

A. (Rhamphoneurus) Alexander, 1929a: 186. Type-species: A. (R.) nothofagetorum Alexander, 1929a.


This subgenus is distinguished by the rostrum at least as long as the remainder of the head. Cell M2 open.


Habitus of representative species of the subgenus A. (Rhamphoneurus) is shown in Fig. 3 View Figure 3 . Head as long as wide in lateral view (Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ). Two ventral cervical sclerites of same proportions, longer than wide, while sclerite in middle of neck nearly horizontal; sclerite near head more vertically orientated (Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ). Neck approximately 2.5 × shorter than head. Rostrum as long as remainder of head. In some specimens, dorsal concentration of setae at end of rostrum. End of rostrum with sclerotized bifurcated tips (Fig. 4B View Figure 4 ) of variable sizes and shapes. Antenna 16-segmented, ca. twice length of head. Scape cylindrical, 2 × longer than wide. Pedicel rounded, as long as wide. Pedicel approximately as long as scape. First flagellomere ca. 1.2 × longer than pedicel. Pedicel ca. 1.5 × wider than first flagellomere. Flagellomeres ca. 2 × longer than wide. Flagellomeres vary in pilosity. Terminal flagellomere may be expanded. Palpus with 4 segments and large auxiliary segment at base (Fig. 4A View Figure 4 ). Palpus ca. 1.4 × longer than rostrum. Length of palpal segments variable, but all cylindrical and similar in width. Wings 3-3.5 × longer than wide, bearing typical distinctive hairs. Wing veins run mostly in parallel (Fig. 5 View Figure 5. A ), especially in radial sector. Vein Sc complete. Crossvein sc-r near origin of Rs. R2 complete or faded. Tip of R1 complete or faded. Insertion of m-cu variable: proximal to fork of bM, in fork of bM, or M3+4. Discal cell open. Wing markings in shades of brown important taxonomically. Thorax ca. 1.5 × longer than wide in lateral view. Tibial spurs absent. Empodium pulviliform. Two tarsal claws present. Abdomen ca. 2 × longer than thorax, 3 × longer than head. Male terminalia inverted. Male terminalia with posterior margin of tergite IX usually with median notch (Fig. 23G View Figure 23 ); posterior margin may bear medial sclerotized projection (Fig. 28G View Figure 28 ); darkened in most species (Fig. 20F View Figure 20 ). Gonocoxite bifid (Fig. 6 View Figure 6 ) with long ventral branch and short dorsal branch; additional branch of gonocoxite (= mesal lobe) present in majority of species (Fig. 6 View Figure 6 ), very variable, including asymmetry. If asymmetrical, right and left mesal lobes drawn in corresponding position on plates. Gonostylus bifid (Fig. 6 View Figure 6 ) with medial and lateral branches. Clasper of gonostylus very variable. Lobe of gonostylus ca. as long as clasper. Lobe of gonostylus bifid, smaller pigmented branch termed lobule (Fig. 6 View Figure 6 ). Sheath of aedeagus variable, as in other Chioneinae , projecting ventrally to aedeagus and almost detached form aedeagus. Female terminalia with curved cercus. Hypogynial valve blade-shaped, variable in length. Genital fork (Fig. 7B View Figure 7. A ) without membranous area, posterior region concave similar to other Chioneinae such as Erioptera Meigen. Two oval-shaped spermathecae present, longer than wide (Fig. 7A View Figure 7. A ).

3.3. Species descriptions