Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882

Smith-Vaniz, William F., Tornabene, Luke & Macieira, Raphael M., 2018, Review of Brazilian jawfishes of the genus Opistognathus with descriptions of two new species (Teleostei, Opistognathidae), ZooKeys 794, pp. 95-133: 113

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.794.26789

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:80EA18A3-6FAD-433E-9E10-C6E3B3EED39A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/417745E9-7BAB-A45A-739C-E400FCB698E3

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scientific name

Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882
status

 

Opistognathus lonchurus Jordan & Gilbert, 1882  Figures 4C, 5C, 16; Tables 1, 2

Opisthognathus  [sic] lonchurus  Jordan & Gilbert, 1882: 290 (original description; snapper banks off Pensacola, Florida: holotype USNM 30864); Böhlke and Thomas 1961: 514-515, Table 2.

Opistognathus lonchurus  : Floeter and Gasparini 1999: 58 (Brazil occurrence); Carvalho-Filho 1999: 194 (abbreviated description).

Abbreviated description.

A species of Opistognathus  with the following combination of characters: anterior nostril a short tube without a cirrus on posterior rim; posterior end of maxilla rigid, not produced as a thin flexible lamina; supramaxilla present; subopercle without a broad, fan-like flap; most of nape without sensory pores (Figure 4C); dorsal fin XI, 12-13, with spines thin and flexible, usually curved distally, tips without pale, slightly swollen tabs, and anterior 5-8 soft rays unbranched; dorsal fin sexually dimorphic, fin rays distinctly higher in large males; anal fin III, 12, with 7-10 anterior rays unbranched; outermost segmented pelvic-fin ray tightly bound to adjacent ray and interradial membrane not incised distally; body with 63-87 oblique scales in longitudinal series; vertebrae 10+16; supraneurals 1; gill rakers 13 –17+22–28=35– 45; dentary without large canines (Figure 5C). Head and body brown to greenish-tan; upper lip blue; body with two narrow blue stripes on side; distal margins of dorsal and anal fins with narrow blue stripe; outer margin of caudal fin and outer ray of pelvic fin blue.

Material examined.

3 specimens (75.3-81.2 mm SL) from Brazil and 46 specimens (27-122 mm SL) from the Caribbean. Brazil: CIUFES 1426 (1, 75.3), Ilhas Rasas, Guarapari, Espírito Santo, 20°40'S, 40°21'W, 26 February 2000, D.A. Jório and J.L. Gasparini; CIUFES 2361 (1, 81.2), gravid female, Ilhas Escalvada, Guarapari, Espírito Santo, 20°41'S, 40°24'W, 23 m, 30 February 2012, R.M. Macieira and J.-C. Joyeux; ZUEC 3160 (1), Mar do Bom Nome, Espírito Santo, 21°09'S, 40°30'W, 30 m, 8 December 1996, J.L. Gasparini. Caribbean, only abbreviated localities, standard lengths and depths given: ANSP 83680 (1, 88), Haiti; ANSP 126637 (1, 75 C&S), off Mobile, Alabama, 35 m; ANSP 134237 (1, 96), Puerto Rico, 49 m; ANSP 138138 (1, 86), Puerto Rico, 52 m; ANSP 138362 (1, 93), Puerto Rico, 52 m; ANSP 140955 (5, 77-97), Puerto Rico, 50 m; ANSP 142700 (1, 107), Puerto Rico; 14 m; ANSP 174157 (1, 83), Gulf of Mexico, 74 m; ANSP 177885 (2, 82-97), Gulf of Mexico, 63 m; ANSP 136545 (1, 92), off South Carolina, 60 m; CAS 1863 (1, 84), CAS 29250 (1, 84) and CAS 36683 (1, 95), Pensacola, Florida; FSBC 1706 (2, 85.5-94), 32°01'N, 79°24'W, R/V Silver Bay sta. 1788, 64-82 m; FMNH 79582 (1, 76), off Guyana, 49-55 m; FSBC 3314 (1, 107), off St. Petersburg, Florida, 47 m; FSBC 3324 (1, 93), Gulf of Mexico, 37 m; FSBC 12575 (1, 99), Florida Keys, 76-80 m; MCZ 52103 (2, 112-122), 55 m; Dry Tortugas, 55 m; SIO 70-186 (2, 77-97), Florida Keys, 40 m; SIO 70-186 (2, 76-96), Florida Keys, 40 m; SIO 70-224 (1, 47), Florida Keys, 38 m; UF 186218 (1, 80), Gulf of Mexico; UF 186226 (1, 89), Gulf of Mexico, 61 m; UF 186239 (1, 102), Gulf of Mexico; UF 218742 (1, 28), Florida, 38 m; UF 203991 (1, 90), off Guyana, 55-60 m; UF 219018 (1, 35), Florida, 40 m; UF 238298 (1, 196), Gulf of Mexico; USNM 31903 (1, 64), Pensacola, Florida; USNM 34976 (1, 69), holotype of Gnathypops mystacinus  ), Pensacola, Florida; USNM 117035 (1, 27), Dry Tortugas; USNM 217802 (1, 96), off Colombia, 73 m; USNM 217083 (1, 106) off Colombia, 84 m; USNM 30712 (1, 104), Pensacola, Florida; USNM 358160 (1, 68), Gulf of Mexico, 62 m; USNM 358161 (1, 73), Gulf of Mexico, 67 m.

Distribution, habitat, and natural history.

South Carolina, Gulf of Mexico, Greater Antilles and northern South America to Brazil (Figures 6, 17) in about 15-90 m. In the Brazilian Province known from the northern coast to Espírito Santo State but absent from oceanic islands. Occur in depths of 10-91 meters, in rubble-sand bottoms near coral reefs and rocky areas. It has been observed in burrows or resting on the bottom.

Conservation.

The conservation status of this species was assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and listed as Lease Concern ( Smith-Vaniz et al. 2015). The conservation status of this species was also assessed by the Ministério do Meio Ambiente/Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação de Biodiversidade (MMA/ICMBio - Brazil) and listed as Least Concern.