Aphonopelma icenoglei Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 112-120

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/5D5AC92B-291D-4902-B7F1-918BD05B331D

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:5D5AC92B-291D-4902-B7F1-918BD05B331D

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Aphonopelma icenoglei Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond
status

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma icenoglei Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond  sp. n. Figures 56, 57, 58, 59, 60

Aphonopelma mojave  Prentice, 1997 (in part): 161.

Types.

Male holotype (APH_2396) collected 7.5 miles north of Pipes Canyon Rd., San Bernardino Co., California, 34.303363 -116.440492 5, elev. 3133ft., 14.iv.1991, coll. T.R. Prentice; deposited in AMNH. Paratype female (APH_1562) from 0.6 miles S Hwy- 62 on La Contenta Rd., San Bernardino Co., California, 34.126565 -116.368852 1, elev. 3170ft., 25.x.2012, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype male (AUMS_2643) from near junction of Main Rd. and past Cottonwood Road by Eagle Mtn. mine, 33.828312 -115.756448 5, elev. 2476ft., xii.1999, coll. unknown; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype female (APH_2393) from Apple Valley, 2 miles south of Highway 18, Milpas Dr., San Bernardino Co., California, 34.53717 -117.103251 4, elev. 3140ft., 5.v.1992, coll. T.R. Prentice; deposited in AMNH.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is a patronym in recognition of Wendell Icenogle, an arachnologist and prolific collector of North American mygalomorph spiders. This work benefitted substantially from his help collecting specimens and his wealth of knowledge concerning tarantulas in the United States.

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma icenoglei  (Fig. 56) is a member of the paloma  species group and can be distinguished by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA identifies Aphonopelma icenoglei  as a strongly supported monophyletic lineage (Figs 7-8) that is a sister lineage to Aphonopelma mojave  , Aphonopelma atomicum  sp. n., Aphonopelma prenticei  sp. n., and Aphonopelma joshua  . Aphonopelma icenoglei  can easily be differentiated from Aphonopelma iodius  by its smaller size and limited extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV, and from Aphonopelma atomicum  and Aphonopelma prenticei  by locality. The most significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma icenoglei  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are F3 and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Male Aphonopelma icenoglei  can be distinguished by possessing a larger F3L/W (≥3.51; 3.51-3.90) than Aphonopelma atomicum  (≤3.40; 2.92-3.40) and Aphonopelma prenticei  (≤3.27; 2.76-3.27); a larger PTl/F3 (≥0.67; 0.67-0.71) than Aphonopelma joshua  (≤0.61; 0.55-0.61) and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  sp. n. (≤0.63; 0.59-0.63); and a smaller L4 scopulation extent (31%-46%) than Aphonopelma iodius  (62%- 88 %). There are no significant measurements that separate male Aphonopelma icenoglei  from Aphonopelma mojave  . The most significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma icenoglei  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are M4 and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma icenoglei  can be distinguished by possessing a larger F1/M4 (≥1.07; 1.07-1.23) than Aphonopelma joshua  (≤1.04; 0.98-1.04); a larger A3/M4 (≥0.63; 0.63-0.70) than Aphonopelma atomicum  (≤0.58; 0.57-0.58) and Aphonopelma joshua  (≤0.59; 0.50-0.59); a smaller Cl/F1 (≤1.16; 1.07-1.16) than Aphonopelma prenticei  (≥1.17; 1.17-1.33); and a smaller L4 scopulation extent (27%-42%) than Aphonopelma iodius  (59%-83%). There are no significant measurements that separate female Aphonopelma icenoglei  from Aphonopelma mojave  . Aphonopelma icenoglei  is most similar (morphologically and geographically) to Aphonopelma mojave  but these two species are phylogenetically distinct and probably are not sister taxa (Figs 7, 8).

Description of male holotype

(APH_2396; Fig. 57). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen originally collected from burrow and preserved in unknown percentage of ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. No tissue for DNA. General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 8.228 mm long, 6.965 mm wide; densely clothed with faded pubescence, appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface, hirsute appearance; foveal groove medium deep and straight; pars cephalica region rises very gradually from foveal groove on a straight plane towards the ocular area; AER very slightly procurved, PER recurved; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus extends slightly on a curve; LBl 1.051, LBw 1.468; sternum hirsute, clothed with faded, densely packed, short setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - smaller and distinct from large species. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in faded pubescence. Metatarsus I straight. F1 7.605; F1w 1.786; P1 2.994; T1 6.779; M1 5.848; A1 4.17; F3 7.202; F3w 1.851; P3 2.613; T3 5.625; M3 6.742; A3 4.464; F4 8.432; F4w 1.872; P4 2.869; T4 7.231; M4 8.368; A4 4.938; femur III is normal. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 62.6%; leg IV (SC4) = 35.1%. Two ventral spinose setae on metatarsus III; five ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV; one prolateral spinose seta on tibia I; one megaspine on the apex on the retrolateral branch of the tibial apophyses. Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta at the apical, prolateral femur and three prolateral spinose setae on the palpal tibia; PTl 4.938, PTw 1.77. When extended, embolus tapers with a curve to the retrolateral side; embolus slender, no keels; distinct dorsal and ventral transition from bulb to embolus.

Variation (5).Cl 7.326-8.228 (7.831 ± 0.15), Cw 6.609-7.307 (6.976 ± 0.11), LBl 1.031-1.069 (1.046 ± 0.01), LBw 1.092-1.475 (1.271 ± 0.08), F1 7.605-8.996 (8.292 ± 0.24), F1w 1.703-1.938 (1.821 ± 0.05), P1 2.909-3.301 (3.067 ± 0.07), T1 6.679-7.727 (7.204 ± 0.21), M1 5.848-7.032 (6.459 ± 0.22), A1 4.012-4.818 (4.338 ± 0.14), L1 length 27.396-31.441 (29.36 ± 0.78), F3 6.881-7.558 (7.203 ± 0.14), F 3w 1.763-2.145 (1.963 ± 0.08), P3 2.477-2.771 (2.579 ± 0.05), T3 5.625-6.187 (5.88 ± 0.12), M3 6.742-7.609 (6.986 ± 0.16), A3 4.448-4.952 (4.569 ± 0.1), L3 length 26.376-28.76 (27.216 ± 0.48), F4 7.919-9.094 (8.46 ± 0.22), F4w 1.691-1.902 (1.836 ± 0.04), P4 2.549-2.869 (2.77 ± 0.06), T4 6.914-7.825 (7.283 ± 0.16), M4 8.368-9.267 (8.657 ± 0.17), A4 4.702-5.595 (5.036 ± 0.16), L4 length 30.775-33.887 (32.205 ± 0.65), PTl 4.758-5.115 (4.953 ± 0.07), PTw 1.548-1.77 (1.684 ± 0.04), SC3 ratio 0.626-0.788 (0.704 ± 0.03), SC4 ratio 0.312-0.456 (0.376 ± 0.02), Coxa I setae = very thin tapered, F3 condition = normal.

Description of female paratype

(APH_1562; Figs 58-59). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right legs III & IV removed for DNA and stored at -80°C in the AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 7.943 mm long, 6.522 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with short faded black/brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in slightly longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and slightly procurved; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER slightly procurved, PER very slightly recurved; chelicerae robust, clypeus extends forward on a curve; LBl 1.353, LBw 1.435; sternum hirsute, clothed with short faded setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short faded black setae with longer, lighter setae (generally red or orange in situ) focused near the urticating patch; dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - smaller and distinct from large species. Spermathecae: Paired and separate, with capitate bulbs widening towards the bases; not fused. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in short faded black/brown pubescence; F1 6.983; F1w 1.974; P1 2.993; T1 5.757; M1 4.266; A1 3.976; F3 5.884; F3w 1.834; P3 2.608; T3 4.443; M3 4.682; A3 4.092; F4 7.463; F4w 1.906; P4 2.765; T4 5.853; M4 6.269; A4 4.678. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 63.5%; leg IV (SC4) = 27.1%. One ventral and one prolateral spinose seta on metatarsus III; four ventral spinose setae and one prolateral spinose seta on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by very thin tapered and fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur, four prolateral (two at the apical, prolateral border with the tarsus) spinose setae and one ventral spinose seta on the tibia.

Variation (5).Cl 7.424-8.188 (7.89 ± 0.13), Cw 6.522-7.385 (6.993 ± 0.16), LBl 1.285-1.353 (1.322 ± 0.01), LBw 1.368-1.615 (1.453 ± 0.05), F1 6.565-7.644 (6.966 ± 0.18), F1w 1.974-2.131 (2.049 ± 0.03), P1 2.716-3.161 (2.988 ± 0.08), T1 5.185-6.381 (5.695 ± 0.2), M1 4.163-4.72 (4.406 ± 0.1), A1 3.568-3.976 (3.708 ± 0.08), L1 length 22.432-25.667 (23.763 ± 0.54), F3 5.362-6.315 (5.807 ± 0.16), F3w 1.766-1.979 (1.849 ± 0.04), P3 2.217-2.711 (2.47 ± 0.1), T3 3.995-4.755 (4.305 ± 0.13), M3 4.216-4.864 (4.54 ± 0.11), A3 3.90-4.389 (4.041 ± 0.09), L3 length 20.101-22.92 (21.164 ± 0.51), F4 6.84-8.227 (7.376 ± 0.24), F4w 1.766-1.967 (1.897 ± 0.03), P 4 2.625-3.112 (2.836 ± 0.09), T4 5.477-6.325 (5.799 ± 0.14), M4 5.589-6.77 (6.14 ± 0.19), A4 4.174-4.678 (4.436 ± 0.1), L4 length 25.043-28.961 (26.587 ± 0.68), SC3 ratio 0.636-0.726 (0.691 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.272-0.419 (0.365 ± 0.03), Coxa I setae = very thin tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 59.

Material examined.

United States: California: Los Angeles: 0.66 miles N Ft Tejon Rd on Valyermo Rd, 34.468812 -117.860377 1, 3532ft., [APH_0756-0757, 4/10/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.67 miles S Hwy-18 on 263rd St, 34.48904 -117.661058 1, 3461ft., [APH_1202, 30/7/2010, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 1.15 miles N of Valyermo, Bobs Gap Rd, 34.448937 -117.82921 4, 3920ft., [AUMS_2511, 4/10/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Piñon Hills off Hwy 138, 34.448134 -117.668735 5, 4002ft., [AUMS_2515, 1993, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Valyermo, 34.446108 -117.852286 5, 4403ft., [APH_2400, 28/10/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Riverside: Eagle Mountain area, 2 miles E of Cottonwood Springs, 33.733266 -115.784522 5, 3485ft., [AUMS_2464, 4/4/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Joshua Tree National Park, 33.82491 -115.720588 6, 2423ft., [APH_0885, 2007, 1♀, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; near junction of Main Rd. and past Cottonwood Road by Eagle Mt. mine, 33.828312 -115.756448 5, 2476ft., [AUMS_2643, 12/1999, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; San Bernardino: 0.5 miles SE Mikiska Blvd along Hwy-247 (NW of Landers), 34.319594 -116.48102 1, 3406ft., [APH_0761-0762, 5/10/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.6 miles S Hwy-62 on La Contenta Rd, 34.126565 -116.368852 1, 3170ft., [APH_1562, 25/10/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 1 miles W Ft. Irwin Rd on Irwin Rd, 34.998665 -116.945203 1, 2658ft., [APH_1320, 30/7/2011, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; 1.1 miles NE Lucerne Valley Cutoff along Hwy-247 (Barstow Rd), 34.614513 -116.968992 1, 3239ft., [APH_0760, 5/10/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 12.2 miles west of junction of 177 and Highway 62, 34.046346 -115.432997 4, 2205ft., [APH_2391, 12/11/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; [APH_2398, 24/11/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; [APH_2402, 24/11/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; 2.6 miles S Phelan Rd on Baldy Mesa Rd, 34.389404 -117.454546 1, 3904ft., [APH_1577-1578, 6/11/2012, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 3.7 miles north of Pipes Canyon Rd. Highway 247 Access Rd., 34.243922 -116.440137 4, 3484ft., [APH_2395, 18/4/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; 7.5 miles north of Pipes Canyon Rd., 34.303363 -116.440492 5, 3133ft., [APH_2396, 14/4/1991, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; along Hwy-62, west of Coxcomb Mtns, 34.090719 -115.424593 1, 1767ft., [APH_1584-1585, 7/11/2012, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Apple Valley, 2 miles south of Highway 18, Milpas Dr., 34.53717 -117.103251 4, 3140ft., [APH_2393, 5/5/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Cadiz Valley, 34.03779 -115.238314 5, 1247ft., [APH_2389, 24/11/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Coxcomb Mtns, Highway 177 and Highway 62 - 12.2 miles west of junction, 34.026317 -115.431625 5, 2743ft., [APH_2397, 31/1/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; E of Apple Valley, High Rd and Castle Rock Rd, 34.40636 -117.033581 1, 3551ft., [APH_1201, 30/7/2010, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Hondo Rd. between Pipes canyon Rd. and New Dixie Mine Rd., 1 mile west of highway 247, 34.244106 -116.456685 5, 3681ft., [APH_2392, 14/4/1990, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Hwy 177 and 62 Jct, 12.2 miles west, 34.105603 -115.45904 5, 2100ft., [AUMS_2541, 31/1/1991, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Joshua Tree National Park, northeast corner west of Coxcomb Mtns, off Highway 62, 34.026111 -115.404444 5, 2940ft., [APH_2401, 2/11/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Kramer Junction (near jct. Hwy-58 and Hwy-395), 34.999749 -117.528159 1, 2443ft., [APH_1321-1322, 30/7/2011, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; N of Lucerne Valley, off Hwy 247 (Barstow Rd.), 34.5345 -116.943833 1, 2864ft., [APH_3117-3118, 3/12/2012, 1♀, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Jason Bond, AUMNH]; North Lucerne Valley, Highway 247, 34.573636 -116.970782 5, 3077ft., [APH_2419, 26/10/1991, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; North Lucerne Valley, Highway 247, 20 miles south of Barstow, 34.598835 -116.966024 5, 3130ft., [APH_2394, 16/10/1990, 1♂, S. Kutcher, AMNH]; [APH_2417, 16/10/1990, 1♂, S. Kutcher, AMNH]; North of pipes Canyon Rd., Hondo Rd., 34.244106 -116.456685 5, 3681ft., [APH_2399, 14/4/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; off Hwy 247, N of Lucerne Valley, 34.53234 -116.93977 1, 2848ft., [APH_3146-3150, 10/11/2013, 4♀, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, Molly Taylor, AUMNH]; off Hwy 247, west side of road, S of La Brisa Dr. and N of Pipes Canyon Rd, 34.20272 -116.44434 1, 3585ft., [APH_3151-3153, 10/11/2013, 1♀, 2 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, Molly Taylor, AUMNH]; Rattlesnake Spring Rd., off highway 247 toward Rattlesnake Rd and Two Hole Spring, 34.367051 -116.652323 5, 3153ft., [APH_2416, 1/11/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; South of Apple Valley, up Coxey Rd. into San Bernardino Mtns, 34.338472 -117.065683 5, 5761ft., [APH_2418, 4/11/1989, 1♀, T.R. Pren tice, AMNH]; W side of La Contenta Rd, off Hwy 62, E of Yucca Valley, 34.126055 -116.368585 1, 3297ft., [APH_3154-3156, 10/11/2013, 2♀, 1 juv, Chris A. Hamilton, Brent E. Hendrixson, Molly Taylor, AUMNH]; Yucca Trail (Road), 3 miles east of Yucca Valley, 34.120528 -116.404976 5, 3301ft., [APH_2710, 2/8/1973, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; Yucca Valley - La Contenta - west side, 34.11243 -116.370359 5, 3481ft., [APH_2415, 2/11/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma icenoglei  is known from portions of the southern Mojave (Fig. 1 H) and northwestern Sonoran deserts (Colorado Desert subdivision) in California along the northern foothills of the San Gabriel and San Ber nardino Mountains, the southwestern quadrant of San Bernardino County, and east to the northeastern corner of Joshua Tree National Park near the Coxcomb Mountains (Fig. 60). Aphonopelma icenoglei  can be found inhabiting the Mojave Basin and Range Level III Ecoregion, and are likely restricted by the lower elevation Sonoran Basin and Range. The species distribution model suggests that suitable habitat for this species is present throughout the Mojave Desert (Fig. 60B) in areas already occupied by closely-related species; more extensive sampling along the bajadas of eastern Riverside County is required to determine the southern extent of this spider’s range in the Colorado Desert. Specimens have been collected at elevations between 545 and 1220 meters. Aphonopelma icenoglei  can be found in syntopy with Aphonopelma iodius  throughout much of its range, and may also co-occur with Aphonopelma mojave  near Kramer Junction and Aphonopelma joshua  in areas around Joshua Tree National Park. Burrow entrances are generally surrounded by a distinct mound or turret made of excavated soil and silk (Fig. 2 D–E). Mating occurs during daylight hours in autumn ( October–November).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma icenoglei  is not morphologically distinct from Aphonopelma mojave  but is genetically unique and should be considered important. The species is moderately common but may experience threats to some populations due to human encroachment and development in portions of the Mojave Desert closest to Los Angeles.

Remarks.

Other important ratios that distinguish Aphonopelma icenoglei  males: Aphonopelma icenoglei  possess a larger F1/M4 (≥0.90; 0.90-1.02) than Aphonopelma joshua  (≤0.84; 0.78-0.84) and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  (≤0.84; 0.80-0.84); important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma icenoglei  possess a larger A3/T4 (≥0.68; 0.68-0.71) than Aphonopelma atomicum  (≤0.63; 0.59-0.63) and Aphonopelma joshua  (≤0.63; 0.55-0.63). Certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no other are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional two-dimensional PCA morphospace and three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), males of Aphonopelma icenoglei  separate from Aphonopelma iodius  , Aphonopelma joshua  , and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma atomicum  , Aphonopelma mojave  , or Aphonopelma prenticei  . Female Aphonopelma icenoglei  do not separate from Aphonopelma iodius  or any other miniature species ( Aphonopelma atomicum  , Aphonopelma mojave  , or Aphonopelma prenticei  ) in two-dimensional morphological space, but do separate from iodius  in three-dimensional morphospace. There are no known female Aphonopelma xwalxwal  at this time to compare. PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥97% of the variation in all analyses.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Theraphosidae

Genus

Aphonopelma

Loc

Aphonopelma icenoglei Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E. 2016

2016
Loc

Aphonopelma mojave

Pocock 1901

1901