Syngenes scholtzi

Mansell, Mervyn W., 2018, Antlions of southern Africa: Syngenes Kolbe, 1897, with descriptions of two new species and comments on extra-limital taxa (Neuroptera: Myrmeleontidae: Acanthaclisini), Zootaxa 4497 (3), pp. 346-380: 362-368

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4497.3.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F847993D-11E7-41A9-8E57-08C64450D1A3

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/43176C01-3123-FF92-EAA2-FA1652DAF97D

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Syngenes scholtzi
status

sp. nov.

Syngenes scholtzi  sp. nov.

Figs 44–65View FIGURES 44–45View FIGURES 46–47View FIGURES 48–51, 67View FIGURES 66–68, 71View FIGURES 69–71, 72View FIGURE 72.

Etymology. Named for Clarke H. Scholtz, Professor and Head of the Department of Entomology, University of Pretoria, for years of support and encouragement. Also, in recognition of his significant contribution to Entomology as a teacher, mentor and prolific scientific writer in the field of Scarabaeoidea taxonomy and biology, and especially for his contributions to the Lacewing project.

Description. Based on male holotype, 2 male and 17 female paratypes.

Diagnosis. Medium-sized black antlions with yellow markings ( Figs 44–47View FIGURES 44–45View FIGURES 46–47). Antennae long, clavate, narrowly annulated with black and yellow. Prothorax with black lateral margins. Abdomen mainly black, with a chevron-like pattern on T2 and T3 ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 48–51). Wings narrow relative to other Syngenes  species, with posterior margin of forewings slightly undulating; alternating pale and light brown markings on wing veins, with a distinct curved mark in distal region of forewing, often with one large spot at posterior margin of forewing (11 of 20 specimens). Forewing with characteristic irregular biaereolate cells or bifurcate veins in the costal area, biaereolate cells extending from before Rs to pterostigma. Legs with relatively slender strongly curved tibial spurs bearing a very slight flange on inner surface ( Figs 49, 50View FIGURES 48–51).

Head: wider than prothorax, vertex slightly raised, rounded. Antennae long, clavate, longer than twice head width, toruli less than scape diameter apart, scape almost touching eyes, scape, pedicel yellow with a brown spot on dorsal surface, sparse long white setae ventrally. Flagellomeres short, annulated with black and yellow, but yellow ventrally in proximal region, covered in short black setae. Eyes large, greater than hemispherical, sparse ocular setae usually present. Maxillary and labial palps short, much less than head width, yellow, terminal labial palpomere spindle-shaped with long acute apex, palpimacula slit-shaped ( Fig. 57View FIGURES 54–57). Frons and vertex black with short white recumbent setae, vertex with two large laterally elongated embossed orange spots, often two smaller spots in between, also with irregular black and yellow markings, occiput with three distinct embossed orange spots. Face below antennae, clypeus, genae and labrum uniformly yellow, with long, sparse, pale setae.

Thorax: yellow, mostly covered with heavy black markings, sparsely pilose. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, tapering anteriorly, bearing sparse long white and black forwardly-curved setae laterally, short black bristles present along anterior raised margin, sides of pronotum uniformly black, two curved black streaks on each side of midline at posterior margin, central pronotum with distinct dots and circular black mark centrally, posterior margin with long curved black setae. Mesothorax: mesoprescutum yellow, black anteriorly, a large diffuse black mark on either side of midline, anterior margin with long curved black setae; mesoscutum largely black (not striped) on either side above wing bases and sparse black setae; mesoscutellum yellow with two black central stripes and two larger diffuse black spots posterior to central stripes. Metathorax: metaprescutum mostly black with pale central mark, metanotum with two velvety spots surrounded by yellow on each side, black laterally above wing bases, long curved white setae laterally; metascutum black with pale central mark, sparse long white setae laterally. Pleurites below wings largely black, sternites mainly black, dense long white setae present on pleurites and sternites.

Wings: forewings longer, broader than hind wings, apices sub-acute, membrane hyaline, veins with alternating sections of pale and black, bearing short curved sparse black setae. Forewings broad with slightly undulating posterior margin, apices rounded with sub-acute tip, with distinct curved mark in distal part of forewings, usually with one spot at posterior margin (11 of 17); axillary protuberance at base of forewing orange with long white and black setae. Costa alternating pale and black with tuft of short black bristles at base, costal area narrow at base, broadening then narrowing slightly towards pterostigma. Veins in costal area irregularly biaereolate ranging from 0–9 cells and usually 2 (0–4) bifurcate veins before Rs, becoming irregularly biareolate distally beyond Rs. Pterostigma hardly discernible. Apical margins of wings with densely arranged narrowly forked veins Hypostigmatic cell elongate. Sc and R with yellow and black chevron-like pattern extending onto membrane between Sc and R, Rs arises well beyond CuA fork, with Rs2 at or beyond first fork of Rs, 9–12 presectoral veins. Mp2 (oblique vein) arising just beyond CuA fork, CuP arises close beyond basal crossvein, curving downwards to unite with A 1, A 2 fused basally with A 1, then curving sharply towards A 3 (crossvein-like). Membrane at posterior base with long soft white setae, posterior margin with dense short white and black setae. Hind wings narrower than forewings, lanceolate, with faint black streak in apico-posterior region, axillary protuberance pale yellow with long dense white setae. Costa mainly yellow with tuft of long white recumbent setae at base, short dense curved black setae along length, costal area uniareolate, veins unbranched, Sc and R marked with black and white, membrane unmarked. Pterostigma pale, hardly discernible. Hypostigmatic cell long. Usually 7, rarely 6–8 presectoral crossveins. Rs arises beyond Mp2 fork, Cu fused with posterior branch of Mp2 fork; anterior banksian line visible in distal portion of wing. Pilula axillaris in males conspicuous with densely packed short brown recumbent setae, females with long white setae in this position.

Legs: forelegs strongly developed with short stout spines. Coxa, trochanter yellow with long white pubescence. Femur yellow with two brown marks separated by yellow dorsally, femur not as stout as in S. longicornis  , two femoral sense hairs present near base, ventral surface with two rows of strong short black bristles accommodating the tibia on closure, long white setae laterally, black towards apex, with pad of dense brush-like bristles anterolaterally. Tibia slender, yellow with four black stripes at femoral articulation and two black annulations proximally; lateral surfaces with long white setae, black setae dorsally, with dense pad of short black setae ventrally that fits between the two rows of black bristles on femur. A dense facial brush of short golden pubescence present on interior apical surface, extremity of tibia black. Tibial spurs ( Figs 49, 50View FIGURES 48–51) curved with low flange, not as prominent as S. longicornis  . Tarsus with TA5 longer than TA1–TA4 combined, TA1 pale, Ta2– TA4 black, covered in short black bristles, TA5 long, yellow, black apically, covered with short black bristles; preapical claws dark reddishbrown, slender, evenly curved. Middle legs shorter, more slender than forelegs, entirely yellow. Coxa, trochanter shorter than in foreleg, yellow with long white pubescence. Femur yellow with one sensory seta proximally, two rows of black bristles ventrally as in foreleg, with brown patch dorsally, covered with long white setae and sparse patch of long black bristles dorso-apically. Tibia, tarsus as in forelegs but lacking facial brush, preapical claws distinctly shorter stouter strongly curved. Hind legs long slender, yellow, lacking femoral sense hair. Coxa, trochanter as in middle leg; femur with brown lateral stripe and brown patch dorsally, dorsal surface with short black setae, laterally with long black curved setae, long white setae proximally, ventral surface with two rows of short black bristles. Tibia long, slender, with four black stripes at articulation, brown annulation distally, with row of black setae dorsally, tibial spurs slender evenly curved. Tarsi and preapical claws as in middle leg.

Abdomen: largely black with yellow markings imparting a chevron-like pattern on T3 and T4 ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 48–51), tergites with very sparse short black setae, sternites yellow with sparse short white setae but sternites 1–2 with long soft dense white pubescence. T1 yellow, black centrally, T2 yellow laterally black centrally. Male ( Figs 52–61) with black hair-pencils present between T6 and T7. T9 yellow divided dorsally, S9 black short rounded with pale central stripe and long black posteriorly directed setae Ectoprocts yellow with long postventral lobe, dorsal margin of ectoprocts with two black stripes, postventral lobes with long anteriorly-curved white and black setae becoming longer posteriorly. Gonarcus ( Figs 58–61View FIGURES 58–61) bears a prominent curved beak-shaped Mu; Pa ( Figs 58–61View FIGURES 58–61) sclerotized, articulating with Gs, terminating in upwardly curved sharply pointed extremities. Female ( Figs 62–65View FIGURES 62–64): T9 divided dorsally, Ga digitiform with long pale setae, Gl clavate bearing long stout, slightly curved black spines, Epr rounded, bearing slender, slightly curved setae. Spermatheca ( Fig. 65) sclerotized proximally becoming slender, coiled, tapering distally, with fine setae along distal extremity.

Larva. Unknown.

Distribution. Namibia and Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

Comments. This species is distinguished from its congeners by the relatively narrower wings and predominantly black body coloration, prothorax with uniformly black sides and the characteristic markings on T2 and T3. It is confined to Namibia and the Northern Cape Province of South Africa, which are drier than other areas in which Syngenes  species occur.

Type material examined. SOUTH AFRICA  , Northern Cape Province: Holotype ♂, Verwater Pass, Tswalu Kalahari Reserve, 27°19’41”S 22°31’22’E, 1285m, 10.i.2018, M.W.Mansell, J.B.Ball, H.de Klerk, NEUR12250 ( SANCAbout SANC)  . Paratypes: SOUTH AFRICA  , Northern Cape Province: 2♀, Groblershoop , 28°53’44”S 21°59’04”E, 868m, 1.iv.1980, C.G.E.Moolman, NEUR11821GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, same locality and collector, 8.iv.1982, NEUR11822GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Molopo Motel , 26°55’54”S 20°39’44”E, 890m, 25.x.1990, J.H.Hoffmann, V.C.Moran, NEUR05727GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Olifantshoek , 27°55’40”S 22°44’08”E, 1250m, 2.ii.1991, M.W.Mansell, NEUR11825GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Driekop Nature Reserve, Kenhardt, 29°24’23”S 21°06’18”E, 850m, 19.ii.1991, M.W.Mansell, NEUR11823.

NAMIBIA, 1 ♂, Ameib Ranch , 21°48’S 15°39’E, 1000m, 7.xii.1988, R.B.Miller, NEUR02168GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, same locality, 10.iii.1987, R.G.Oberprieler, NEUR00978GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, same locality, 22.ii.1988, M.W.Mansell, H.Rausch, NEUR01061GoogleMaps  ; 1♂, Ongombeanavita , 21°31’S 16°32’E, 14.i.1956, F.Gaerdes, NEUR11827GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Valencia Ranch , 23°08’38”S 16°28’42”E, 1627m, 15.ii.1970, A.C.Kemp, NEUR11824GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Helmeringhausen , 25°53’S 16°49’E, 1400m, 5.iii.1987, R.G.Oberprieler, NEUR11899GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, same locality, 17.ii.1988, M.W.Mansell, NEUR01005GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Ugab River near Onverwag , 19.iv.1991, E.Holm, S.Gussmann, NEUR11826  ; 1♀, Usakos , 22°00’15”S 15°35’08”E, 870m, 21.ii.1988, M.W.Mansell, NEUR01039GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Satco Farm , 27°55’S 18°43’E, 900m, 25.ii.1988, M.W.Mansell, NEUR01114GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Uis Mine , 21°13’S 14°52’E, 850m, 1.iii.1995, P.Bayliss NEUR02013GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, Namseb Ranch, Maltahöhe, 24°45’25”S 16°54’07”E, 1388m, 21.iii.2017, M.W.Mansell, C.H.Scholtz, H.de Klerk, NEUR12459. All in SANC.

SANC

Agricultural Research Council-Plant Protection Research Institute