Hemimycale oxeata

Huguenin, Larissa, Salani, Sula, Lopes, Maira F., Albano, Rodolpho M., Hajdu, Eduardo & Esteves, Eduardo Leal, 2018, Integrative taxonomy of Hemimycale (Hymedesmiidae: Poecilosclerida: Demospongiae) from Southeastern Brazil, with the description of two new species, Zootaxa 4442 (1), pp. 137-152: 140-143

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4442.1.7

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:74524311-AEF6-479C-A56A-BDA0127C2DE2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/442B5771-F878-FF8B-FF70-84B26A0FCD95

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hemimycale oxeata
status

sp. nov.

Hemimycale oxeata  sp. nov.

( FIgURES 2 View Figure , 3 View Figure ; TAbLES 1, 3)

Synonymy: Hemimycale Sp., Muricy et al., 1991: 5  .

Diagnosis. ThIS IS ThE ONLY SPEcIES IN ThE gENUS wITh OXEOTE LIkE TORNOTE mEgAScLERES IN AddITION TO ThE TYPIcAL (SUbTYLO-)STRONgYLES. MIcROScLERES AbSENT.

Material examined. Holotype MNRJ 21302View Materials  , GURIRI ISLET (23° 10’ 24.21”S, 44° 05’ 32.54”W), OFF ILhA GRANdE, ANgRA dOS REIS, SOUThERN RIO dE JANEIRO STATE, 10 m dEPTh, cOLL. E. LGoogleMaps  . ESTEVES, APRIL 5, 2013; SLIdES OF cROSS SEcTIONS ANd dISSOcIATEd SPIcULES FROm ThE hOLOTYPE ARE dEPOSITEd UNdER UERJPOR 85. Paratypes: MNRJ 276, ITAçUcê ISLET (23° 49’ 54.06”S, 45° 26’ 36.04”W, BAREqUEçAbA bEAch), SãO SEbASTIãO, SãO PAULO STATE, 6 m dEPTh, cOLL. E. HAjdU, JANUARY 23, 1996GoogleMaps  ; MNRJ 3989, FORNO hARbOUR (22° 58’ 12”S, 42° 00’ 36” W), ARRAIAL dO CAbO, RIO dE JANEIRO STATE, 4‒8 m dEPTh, cOLLS. E. HAjdU & EGoogleMaps  . VILLANOVA, APRIL 11, 2001; MNRJ 14651, ARVOREdO ISLANd (27° 17’ 00”S, 48° 22’ 00”W), OFF BOmbINhAS, SANTA CATARINA, 15 m dEPTh, cOLL. C. PAScELLI, JANUARY 29, 2013GoogleMaps  ; MNRJ 15582, ALcATRAzES ARchIPELAgO (24° 06.333’S, 45° 42.127’W), OFF SãO SEbASTIãO, SãO PAULO STATE, 8.5 m dEPTh, cOLL. S. SALANI & E. HAjdU, JULY 28, 2012GoogleMaps  ; MNRJ 15590, ALcATRAzES ARchIPELAgO (24° 05’ 44.6”S, 45° 41’ 32.4”W), OFF SãO SEbASTIãO, SãO PAULO STATE, 10.4 m dEPTh, cOLLS. S. SALANI & E. HAjdU, JULY 29, 2012; UERJPOR 105 ANd 110 (SAmE dATA AS FORAbout FOR ThE hOLOTYPE).GoogleMaps 

Etymology. ThE NAmE “ oxeata  ” IS A REmINdER OF ThE PRESENcE OF OXEAS IN ThE NEw SPEcIES.

Description. ThINLY TO ThIckLY ENcRUSTINg (4.5‒8.7 cm wIdE, 0.8‒3.0 mm ThIck). ORANgE cOLOR IN LIFE, EXTERNALLY ANd INTERNALLY, ANd bEIgE AFTER FIXATION IN EThANOL. EcTOSOmE LIghTER cOLOREd ThAN ThE chOANOSOmE. OScULES cIRcULAR, wITh A PRONOUNcEd PERIOScULAR mEmbRANE (1.2‒3.7 mm wIdE). SUbdERmAL chANNELS cONSPIcUOUS (0.2‒0.7 mm wIdE), cONFLUENT TO OScULES. AREOLATEd POREAbout PORE SIEVES cIRcULAR TO IRREgULAR, LARgE (1.6‒12 mm wIdE), wITh A SLIghTLY ELEVATEd RIm (1 mm hIgh), cONSPIcUOUS ANd cLOSELY SPAcEd ON ThE SURFAcE. SURFAcE EVEN, SmOOTh. CONSISTENcY SOFT, ELASTIc ANd FRIAbLE.

INTERNAL ANATOmY: EcTOSOmAL SkELETON UNdIFFERENTIATEd FROm ThE chOANOSOmE. AREOLATEd POREAbout PORE SIEVES STRENgThENEd bY EVENLY SPAcEd (79‒170 µm), PERPENdIcULARLY ARRANgEd, dENSE chOANOSOmAL mULTISPIcULAR TRAcTS OF (SUbTYLO-)STRONgYLES, SPLITTINg OUTAbout OUT IN FANAbout FAN ShAPEd TUFTS SUPPORTINg ThE AREOLAE wALL. CRIbRIPORAL mEmbRANE 11 ‒ 12 µm ThIck. SUbEcTOSOmAL LAcUNAE EVIdENT (78 ‒ 291 µm wIdE). ChOANOSOmAL SkELETON PLUmOSE, cOmPOSEd bY SINUOUS, AScENdINg, mULTISPIcULAR TRAcTS OF STRONgYLES ANd OXEAS (11‒18 SPIcULES wIdE, UP TO 58 µm ThIck) ENdINg IN SUbEcTOSOmAL TUFTS OF STRONgYLES, SOmETImES wITh POINTS PROjEcTEd bEYONd ThE EcTOSOmE ON ThE SURFAcE. ISOLATEd STRONgYLES ANd OXEAS ALSO cOmmONLY FOUNd ScATTEREd IN ThE INNER PARTS OF ThE chOANOSOmE.

SPIcULES ( TAbLES 1, 3): MEgAScLERES, STRONgYLES VARYINg TO SUbTYLOTES OR SUbTYLOSTRONgYLES, SmOOTh, STRAIghT, SLIghTLY cURVEd OR SINUOUS ( FIg. 3E‒F View Figure ); OXEAS SmOOTh, STRAIgTh, wITh mUcRONATE OR TELEScOPEd ENdS ( FIg. 3G‒H View Figure ). MIcROScLERES AbSENT.

Ecology. Hemimycale oxeata  sp. nov. OccURS IN ShALLOw wATERS (dOwN TO 19 m dEEP), ENcRUSTINg VERTIcAL ROckY wALLS, EXPOSEd TO hIgh SPEEd cURRENTS, OR IN ScIOPhILOUS hAbITATS. COLLEcTEd SPEcImENS wERE OVERgROwINg ROdOLIThS, mUSSELS, bARNAcLES ANd AzOOXANThELATE hARd cORALS. POLYchAETE wORmS cAN bE ASSOcIATEd wITh ThE NEw SPEcIES.

Distribution. ( FIg. 1 View Figure ) SOUThEASTERN BRAzIL EcOREgION: RIO dE JANEIRO (MURIcY et al., 1991 AS Hemimycale SP.  ), SãO PAULO ANd SANTA CATARINA STATES ( FIRST REcORd IN ThE PRESENT STUdY).

Remarks. Hemimycale oxeata  sp. nov. IS ThE ONLY SPEcIES IN ThE gENUS wITh OXEAS IN AddITION TO (SUbTYLO-)STRONgYLES AS mEgAScLERES. ThE OXEAS EXhIbITEd bY ThE NEw SPEcIES ARE AcTUALLY OXEOTE-LIkE TORNOTES, PRObAbLY dERIVEd FROm STRONgYLES, wITh TELEScOPEd OR mUcRONATE ENdS, ANd A STRAIghT AXIS.

Hemimycale oxeata  sp. nov. IS SImILAR TO H. columella  ANd H. insularis  . ThEY ShARE A SALmON ORANgE cOLOR IN LIFE, A ThINLY ENcRUSTINg gROwTh FORm, ANd IRREgULARLY OUTLINEd, SLIghTLY RAISEd PORE SIEVES. ThIS IS PARTIcULARLY SO wITh ThE LATTER SPEcIES (FIg PAgES 138‒139; MORAES, 2011). HOwEVER, IN AddITION TO ThE PRESENcE OF EXcLUSIVE OXEAS, H. oxeata  sp. nov. hAS SmALLER (SUbTYLO-)STRONgYLES ThAN ThOSE ObSERVEd IN H. columella  ANd H. insularis  ( TAbLE 3), ANd STYLES ARE ENTIRELY AbSENT (PRESENT IN H. columella  ; BOwERbANk, 1874 AS Desmacidon columella  ; VAcELET et al., 1987; VAN SOEST, 2002A; URIz et al., 2017).

AddITIONAL SPEcIES IN Hemimycale  ARE ALSO cLEARLY dIFFERENT FROm ThE NEw SPEcIES. Hemimycale arabica  IS dARk gREENISh-bLUE whEN ALIVE, hAS ShORTER ANd ThINNER STRONgYLES ( TAbLE 3), ANd SImILARLY TO H. columella  mAY hAVE STYLES IN AddITION TO STRONgYLES AS mEgAScLERES ( ILAN et al., 2004), whIch ARE cOmPLETELY AbSENT IN ThE NEw SPEcIES. Hemimycale rhodus  cAN bE dIFFERENTIATEd FROm H. oxeata  sp. nov. bY ITS LONgER (SUbTYLO-)STRONgYLES ( TAbLE 3). Hemimycale mediterranea  hAS A bROwNISh cOLOR dUE TO ITS ASSOcIATION wITh cYANObAcTERIA (URIz et al., 2017), ANd hIghER ANd NARROwER POREAbout PORE SIEVES (1.5‒2 mm hIgh; 3 mm wIdE). IN AddITION, ThEIR STRONgYLES SEEm TO POSSESS mORE REgULAR ENdINgS ( FIg. 4A‒E View Figure ; URIz et al., 2017) ThAN ThOSE OF ThE NEw SPEcIES, whIch FREqUENTLY VARY TO SUbTYLOTES OR SUbTYLOSTRONgYLES ( FIg. 3E‒F View Figure ).

HENcE, H. oxeata  sp. nov. cAN bE cLEARLY SET APART FROm OThER SPEcIES IN ThE gENUS bY ITS SALmON ORANgE cOLOR IN LIFE, ANd OXEOTE-LIkE TORNOTES IN AddITION TO ThE TYPIcAL (SUbTYLO-)STRONgYLES OFTEN SEEN IN ThE gENUS. SPEcImENS IdENTIFIEd bY MURIcY et al. (1991) AS Hemimycale SP.  FROm ARRAIAL dO CAbO (RIO dE JANEIRO STATE) bELONg TO ThIS NEw SPEcIES.

FOR

Forssa Museum of Natural History

PORE

Point Reyes National Seashore

OUT

Department of Biotechnology

FAN

Museum of Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve