Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815,

Low, Martyn E. Y., Sinniger, Frederic & Reimer, James Davis, 2016, The order Zoantharia Rafinesque, 1815 (Cnidaria, Anthozoa: Hexacorallia): supraspecific classification and nomenclature, ZooKeys 641, pp. 1-80: 6

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Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815


Zoanthidae Rafinesque, 1815 

Zoanthidae  (as “Zoanthia”) Rafinesque, 1815: 155.

Zoanthidae  Gray, 1832: 95.

Type genus.

Zoanthus  Lamarck, 1801.


Brachycnemic zoantharians with no or little sand/detritus encrustation. Continuous or divided marginal muscle, and zoanthinae  larvae ( Ryland and Lancaster 2003).


All members of this family are zooxanthellate (with endosymbiotic Symbiodinium  spp.), and are found in sub-tropical and tropical waters. Authorship of the family-group name Zoanthidae  should be attributed to Rafinesque (1815), and not Gray (1832, 1840) (see Low and Reimer 2012a). Three genera are currently assigned to Zoanthidae  Rafinesque, 1815.