Tradescantia crassula Link & Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. [Link & Otto] 2: 13, pl. 7. 1828.

Pellegrini, Marco O. O., 2018, Wandering throughout South America: Taxonomic revision of Tradescantiasubg. Austrotradescantia (D. R. Hunt) M. Pell. (Commelinaceae), PhytoKeys 104, pp. 1-97: 15-18

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.104.28484

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/45E6288D-7621-A05A-5FE8-87389B163544

treatment provided by

PhytoKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Tradescantia crassula Link & Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. [Link & Otto] 2: 13, pl. 7. 1828.
status

 

4. Tradescantia crassula Link & Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. [Link & Otto] 2: 13, pl. 7. 1828.  Figs 14, 15

Tropitria crassula  (Link & Otto) Raf., Fl. Tell. 3: 68. 1837. Lectotype (designated by Funez et al. 2016). [Illustration] Original parchment plate of "Icones plantarum rariorum Horti Regii Botanici Berolinensis cum descriptionibus et colendi ratione" in the Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem and later published in Link & Otto, Icon. Pl. Rar. 2: 13, pl. 7. 1828.

Tradescantia schwirkowskiana  Funez et al., Phytotaxa 272 (1): 64. 2016. Holotype. BRAZIL. Santa Catarina: São Bento do Sul, borda da ferrovia às margens do Rio Banhados, fl., fr., 16 Nov 2015, L.A. Funez & P. Schwirkowski 5037 (FURB no. 50791!; isotypes: C n.v., HURB no. 20200!).

Tradescantia crassipes  Graham, Edinburgh New Philos. J. Jan.-March: 388. 1829, nom. nud.

Description.

Herbs ca. 10-50 cm tall, with a definite base, terrestrial, rupicolous or epiphytes. Stems erect, succulent, rarely to densely branched at the base, sometimes branching at the upper half; internodes (1.3 –)3.2–5.4(– 9.2) cm long at base, distally shorter, medium to dark green, glabrous, sometimes with a leaf-opposed longitudinal line of short, uniseriate, light brown to hyaline hairs in the terminal portion of the stems. Leaves distichously or spirally-alternate, sessile; ptyxis convolute; sheaths 0.6-2 cm long, light green, sometimes with green striations, glabrous, margin ciliate to setose, hairs hyaline; blades 4.4-12.8 × 1.4-2.8 cm, elliptic to broadly elliptic to ovate to broadly ovate to obovate, rarely lanceolate, falcate to complicate, succulent, glabrous on both sides, adaxially glossy light-green to green, sometimes glaucous, abaxially slightly lighter, turning olive-green to greyish-green to brown when dry, obtuse to truncate, rarely cuneate, margin green, glabrous or minutely ciliolate, slightly revolute, apex acute to obtuse, rarely acuminate; midvein conspicuous to inconspicuous, adaxially impressed to inconspicuous, secondary veins inconspicuous on both sides, sometimes adaxially conspicuous. Synflorescences terminal or axillar in the distal portion of the stems, composed of a solitary main florescence, 1 per leaf axis. Inflorescences (main florescences) consisting of a pedunculate double-cincinni fused back to back, sometimes reduced to a solitary cincinnus in axillary inflorescences; peduncles (0.3 –)1.4–3.6(– 7.3) cm long, green, the axillary ones sessile, glabrous, sometimes with a leaf-opposed longitudinal line of short, uniseriate, light brown to hyaline hairs; peduncle bracts absent; supernumerary bracts absent; cincinni bracts 1.2 –3.9(– 6) × 0.7-2.1 cm, leaf-like, rarely unequal or reduced in some axillary inflorescences, broadly ovate to ovate, leaf-like, glabrous, adaxially light to medium to dark green, abaxially light to medium green, base cordate to obtuse, not saccate, margin glabrous to minutely ciliolate, sparsely setose at base, slightly revolute, apex acute; main florescence 8-28-flowered. Flowers 0.8-1.2 cm diam., pedicels 0.7-1.5 cm long, green to vinaceous, glabrous, rarely sparsely glandular-pubescent; floral buds broadly ovoid; sepals 4.6-7.5 × 2.7-4.4 mm, dorsally keeled, green, rarely vinaceous, setose, with long hyaline hairs along the keel; petals 6-7.3 × 4.7-5.2 mm, flat, white; filaments 5.1-6.6 mm long, anthers 0.6-0.8 × 1.1-1.3 mm; ovary 1.7-1.9 × 1.5-1.7 cm, style 4.2-5 cm long; pistil longer than the stamens. Capsules 3.6-4.2 × 2.1-2.7 mm. Seeds 1.2-1.8 × 1.1-1.6 mm, testa grey to greyish-brown, cleft towards the embryotega, costate; hilum longer than ½ the length of the seed.

Specimens seen.

ARGENTINA. Misiones: Cainguás, pequeño campo a la entrada del Salto Golondrina, sobre Arroyo Guiray, fl., fr., 8 Nov 2000, M.E. Múlgura de Romero et al. 2470 (CORD, CTES, SI); General Manuel Belgrano, ruta nacional 101, 8 km de Bernardo de Irigoyen hacia San Antonio, Salto Andrecito, fl., 15 Oct 1996, O. Morrone et al. 1393 (CORD, CTES, SI). BRAZIL. Without province: Brasil australis, fl., s.dat., s.leg. s.n. (L barcode L1432960); cultivé en Hort. Bot. Parisiense, fl., 1834, Houller s.n. (P barcode P02173930); fl., Apr 1829, R. Graham s.n. (K, P barcode P02173931). Minas Gerais: Araponga, Salazar de Cima, fl., 16 Sep 2003, A.F. Carvalho 391 (IPA); Extrema, trilha para a Pedra das Flores, fl., 24 Oct 2009, G.H. Shimizu 226 (RB, UEC); Jesuânia, fl., fr., Nov 1919, D. Vincent s.n. (L barcode L1432976). Paraná: Adrianópolis, rio Itapeva, fl., 19 Feb 1981, G. Hatschbach 43622a (ASU, INPA, MBM, MO); Bocaiúva do Sul, arredores de Bocaiúva do Sul, fl., 5 Dec 1978, G. Hatschbach 41924 (MBM, US); Campo Largo, fl., 15 Dec 1967, L.T. Dombrowski 2744 (MBM, P, US); Carambeí, Catanduva de Fora, fl., 15 Oct 2013, M.E. Engels 1776 (MBM); estrada para o rio São João, Alto Carambeí, fl., 2 Nov 2013, E.D. Lozano & M.E. Engels 1716 (FLOR, HCF, MBM); Caxias do Sul, Ana Rech, Faxinal, fl., fr., 8 Nov 2002, L. Scur 961 (FUEL, HUCS); Cerro Azul, cabeceira do Ribeirão do Tigre, fl., 18 Jul 1984, G. Hatschbach 48100 (MBM); fl., 24 Apr 1987, G. Hatschbach et al. 51236 (MBM, US); Curitiba, estrada para São Paulo, km 14, fl., 6 Nov 1960, E.A. Moreira 70 (MBM, US); Jardim Botânico de Curitiba, fl., 24 Sep 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 408 (RB); Parque Municipal Capão da Embuia, fl., fr., Nov 1974, L.T. Dombrowski 5392 (K, MBM); fl., 8 Nov 2001, M. Borgo 828 (UPCB); fl., 25 Sep 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 411 (RB); Pinheirinho, fl., Nov 1966, L.T. Drombowski et al. 2067 (MBM, US); Guarapuava, Guará, fl., 5 Dec 1968, G. Hatschbach 20490 (MBM); Ipiranga, 29 km de Ipiranga, fl., fr., Nov 1984, J. Mattos & N. Silveira 26566 (HAS); Lapa, rio Passa Dois, fl., 5 Oct 1958, G. Hatschbach 5139 (MBM, UPCB); fl., 1 Oct 1969, G. Hatschbach 22307 (K, MBM, MO, US); Palmas, fl., 20 Oct 1990, G. Hatschbach 54807 (HUEFS, MBM, US); rodovia BR-449, km 5-10, fl., fr., 16 Nov 1998, G. Hatschbach 68709 UPCB); Piraquara, Fazenda Experimental de Agronomia, 13 Oct 1969, N. Imaguire 1258 (MBM); 13 Nov 1973, N. Imaguire 3399 (MBM); Quatro Barras, Morro Anhangava, 25 Sep 1998, A. Dunaiski Jr. & W. Amaral 761 (MBM); Rio Branco do Sul, Serra do Caetê, 10 Jan 1978, G. Hatschbach 40703 (MBM); São José dos Pinhais, Aeroporto Afonso Pena, 26 Nov 2009, R. Ristow et al. 231 (MBM); Caminho do Vinho, área de plantação de agrião, fl., fr., 25 Sep 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 414 (RB); São Mateus do Sul, Fazenda do Durgo, 19 Sep 1986, W.S. Souza et al. 334 (MBM, UEC, UPCB); Sapopema, fl., fr., 27 Sep 1997, C. Medri et al. 436 (FUEL); fl., fr., 31 Oct 1998, C. Medri et al. 731 (FUEL); Tibagí, fl., 9 Apr 1999, D.C. Rocha s.n. (BOTU no. 22991); Tunas do Paraná, Parque Estadual de Campinhos, 21 Oct 2008, G. Weiss 86 (MBM). Rio Grande do Sul: Arroio dos Ratos, Fazenda Faxinal, ca. 15 km SW da cidade, fl., Sep 1982, N. Silveira 400 (HAS); fl., 8 Oct 1982, K. Hagelund 14026 (ICN); Augusto Pena, fl., 22 Oct 1953, P.J. Pivetta 964 (HRCB, PACA); Bocaina do Sul, Pessegueiros, fl., 8 Nov 2010, G.A. Dettke 477 (ICN); Caçapava do Sul, Guaritas, estrada para as Minas do Camaquã, fl., 9 Oct 2002, J.R. Stehmann et al. 3189 (BHCB); Cachoeira do Sul, rodovia Porto Alegre-Uruguaiana, km 145, fl., Oct 1984, N. Silveira & J. Mattos 7042 (HAS); Canguçu, fl., Nov 1986, N. Silveira 8967 (HAS); Caxias do Sul, Vila Oliva, fl., fr., 5 Jan 1946, B. Rambo 31069 (PACA); Esmeralda, fl., Nov 1982, L.A. Cestaro s.n. (HAS no. 28715); Farroupilha, fl., 25 Nov 1956, O.R. Camargo 1024 (PACA); Parque dos Pinheiros, fl., Nov 1978, L. Aguiar s.n. (Has no. 8926); Garibaldi, fl., 29 Oct 1957, O.R. Camargo 2304 (PACA); Guaíba, Fazenda Maximiano, BR-116, km 308, fl., 20 Aug 2006, L.F. Lima s.n. (ICN no. 151445); Ijuí, Dr. Pestana, fl., 5 Nov 1953, J. Pivetta 963 (PACA); Lages, UAP2/UAL2, fl., 11 Nov 2013, E.D. Santos et al. 319 (FLOR); UAP5/UAL2, fl., 10 Nov 2013, E.D. Santos et al. 265 (FLOR); Lavras do Sul, capoeira 1 km N de Lavras do Sul, fl., Oct 1971, B.E. Irgang & J.C. Lindeman 1416 (EFC, HAS); Montenegro, Campestre, fl., fr., 18 Oct 1950, A. Sehnem s.n. (PACA no. 51067); Pareci, fl., 1944, B. Rambo 26664 (PACA); Morro Reuter, fl., 17 Nov 1971, R.A. Wasum 204 (HUCS, PACA); Nova Petrópolis, fl., 15 Dec 1974, K. Hagelund 8754 (ICN); Palmares do Sul, Fazenda do Martin, fl., 24 Sep 2012, E. Valduga 442 (FLOR, FUEL, HUCS); Porto Alegre, Barra do Ribeiro, fl., 14 Nov 1948, B. Rambo 38309 (PACA); fl., 2 Nov 1957, O.R. Camargo 2453 (PACA); Morro São Pedro, Econsciência Espaço de Conservação, fl., 18 Sep 2005, R. Setubal & G. Seger 344 (ICN); fl., 12 Oct 2006, R. Setubal et al. 858 (ICN); Vila Manresa, fl., 22 Oct 1955, B. Rambo 57077 (HBR, PACA); Rio Grande, Estação Ecológica do Taim, fl., Sep 1986, J.L. Aechter 2216 (HAS); Santana da Boa Vista, Arroio Vargas, fl., 23 Sep 1998, C. Mondin 1483 (PACA); São Francisco de Paula, Cam bara, fl., fr., Feb 1948, B. Rambo 36589 (PACA); 29 km em direção à Bom Jesus, fl., fr., Nov 1986, M. Neves 772 (HAS); São Leopoldo, fl., 1941, S.J. Orth s.n. (PACA no. 34066); fl., 6 Nov 1941, B. Rambo 10725 (PACA); fl., 11 Sep 1946, Ritter s.n. (PACA no. 35382); São Marcos, rodovia Porto Alegre-Vacaria, km 138, fl., Nov 1978, J. Mattos 20353 (HAS); São Martinho da Serra, fl., 12 Oct 2011, G.A. Dettke & J. Durigon 977 (ICN); Sapucaia do Sul, fl., 17 Oct 1949, B. Rambo 43939 (PACA); Torres, fl., 19 Jan 1975, K. Hagelund 8716 (ICN); Morro da Itapeva, próximo à praia, fl., Jun 1984, N. Silveira et al. 1451 (HAS); Vale Vêneto, fl., 9 Sep 1961, P.J. Pivetta s.n. (HRCB no. 46373); Viamão, Morro Grande, fl., 15 Sep 1997, S.C. Müller 2 (ICN); Parque Estadual de Itapuã, Morro do Araçá, fl., 1 Oct 2003, M. Pinheiro 425 (ICN); fl., 4 Oct 2002, M. Pinheiro 552 (ICN). Santa Catarina: Araranguá, Sombrio, fl., 19 Sep 1945, R. Reitz s.n. (PACA no. 31883); Bom Retiro, between Fazenda Santo Antônio and Fazenda Campo dos Padres, fl., fr., 24 Jan 1957, L.B. Smith & R. Reitz 10392 (HBR, R); estrada para Urubici, fl., fr., 3 Dec 2014, M.O.O. Pellegrini et al. 432 (RB); Campo Belo do Sul, Fazenda Gateados, fr., 15 Jul 2008, M. Verdi et al. 2028 (FURB, RB); Coronel Domingos Soares, Fazenda Nossa Senhora de Fátima, fl., fr., 24 Nov 2013, S. Campestrini et al. 688 (FLOR); Curitibanos, Capão, fl., 28 Oct 1963, R.M. Klein 4047 (HBR); Imbituba, Praia Boa Esperança, fl., 21 Aug 1992, G. Hatschbach & M. Hatschbach 57897 (ASU, FLOR, MBM, US); Jaborá, Linha Pinhal, fl., 19 Nov 2016, H.F. Uller 926 (FURB); Laguna, fl., 23 Jan 1982, A. Krapovickas et al. 37740 (CTES, MBM); margem leste da BR-101, ca. 5 km N da cidade, fl., 2 Oct 1993, D.B. Falkenberg 6243 (FLOR); Palmares, Campos Novos, Pinhal, fl., 28 Oct 1963, R.M. Klein 4104 (HBR); fl., 29 Oct 1963, R.M. Klein 4205 (HBR); São Bento do Sul, Floresta Ombrófila Mista, fl., fr., 31 Dec 2013, P. Schwirkowski 197 (FURB, MBM); Serra Alta, Vila Pilz, estrada de Ferro, fl., 30 Oct 2016, P. Schwirkowski 2003 (FURB, MBM); São Joaquim, fl., Feb 1954, J. Mattos 1037 (HAS); Bom Jardim da Serra, Fazenda da Laranja, fl., 10 Dec 1958, R. Reitz & R.M. Klein 7708 (HBR); fl., fr., 13 Dec 1958, R. Reitz & R.M. Klein 7882 (HBR); Fazenda do Sr. Antônio Carvalho, fl., Jan 1956, J. Mattos 3254 (HAS); Invernadinha, fl., Jan 1956, J. Mattos 2816 (HAS); Taperinha, Portinho, fl., Jan 1956, J. Mattos 3322 (HAS); Tipitinga, Campos Novos, fl., fr., 29 Oct 1963, R. Klein 4249 (HBR); Urubici, Morro da Igreja, 9 Nov 2001, G. Hatschbach et al. 72486 (MBM); fl., 9 Nov 2010, G.A. Dettke 475 (ICN). São Paulo: s.loc., fl., 1827, W.J. Burchell 4730 (K, L); Bonsucesso de Itararé, Fazenda Ibiti (Ripasa), beira da estrada Itararé-Bonsucesso, fl., fr., 30 Oct 1993, V.C. Souza et al. 4531 (ESA, RB); Cunha, estrada Cunha-Paraty, fl., fr., 8 Nov 1976, P.E. Gibbs 3431 (MBM, UEC); Jundiaí, Serra do Japi, fl., fr., 25 May 1994, J. Semir et al. 31648 (UEC); Trilha do Mirante, fl., fr., 18 Jul 1995, R. Mello-Silva et al. 1074 (SPF); Serra do Jundiaí, ca. 10km SW de Jundiaí, fl., fr., 8 Oct 1976, H.F. Leitão Filho et al. 3172 (UEC); sentido bairro Eloy Chaves, próximo à represa do DAE, fl., 23 Jan 1998, E.R. Pansarin 136 (SP, UEC); Trilha para a antena da TV Cultura, fl., 18 Aug 2015, T.L. Vieira et al. 266 (SP); São Paulo, Cidade Jardim, fl., fr., 11 Mar 1932, W. Hoehne s.n. (IPA 69219, SPF 17149); Horto da Faculdade de Farmácia, fl., fr., Aug 1938, W. Hoehne s.n. (K barcode K001248113, SP no. 10555). URUGAUY. Without province: Banda Oriental del Uruguay, fl., 1816-1821, A. Saint-Hilaire C2 1881 (P). Cerro Largo: Sierra de los Ríos, fl., fr., 16 Oct 1910, M.B. Berro 5958 (K).

Distribution and habitat.

Tradescantia crassula  occurs in Argentina, Brazil (in the states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul) and Uruguay; in the Atlantic Forest, Cerrado and Pampa domains (Fig. 15). It is commonly found growing in rocky outcrops, grasslands and open areas, under full sunlight, as rupicolous or terrestrial. It is also found on roadsides and within the understorey of open forests, as terrestrial or, more rarely, as an epiphyte ( Pellegrini et al. 2017).

Phenology.

It was found in bloom and fruit throughout the year but peaking during the rainy season and being less commonly in bloom during the dry season.

Etymology.

The epithet “crassula” makes reference to the extremely succulent vegetative parts characteristic of this species.

Conservation status.

As stated by Pellegrini et al. (2017), T. crassula  possesses a wide EOO (here expanded to ca. 627,243.259 km2), thus following the IUCN recommendations ( IUCN 2001), it should be considered Least Concern (LC).

Comments.

Tradescantia crassula  is very plastic in plant stature, leaf shape and flower size. Few vegetative characters were observed to be constant in the T. crassula  group and thus are of little taxonomic relevance. Nonetheless, all studied individuals of T. crassula  always present glabrous leaves (Fig. 14G), sepals with long hairs along the keel (Fig. 14 H–J) and white petals (Fig. 14J). Added to that, most of the known variation can be related to ecological conditions. Furthermore, species in this subgenus are morphologically variable and, when kept in cultivation or growing in shaded areas, they can change their vegetative morphology quite drastically, changing between the different morphs (more or less succulent plants, smaller or taller plants, plants with different leaf shapes). Thus, I agree with Pellegrini et al. (2017) in treating T. schwirkowskiana  as a mere synonym of T. crassula  . Detailed comments on the morphological similarities between T. crassula  and closely related species and the species morphological variation are presented by Pellegrini et al. (2017), while Pellegrini (2017) discusses its systematic affinities.

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Liliopsida

Order

ORDO

Family

FAMILIA

Genus

Tradescantia