Balanophyllia (Eupsammia) stimpsonii (Verrill, 1865)

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T., 2021, Azooxanthellate Scleractinia (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) from South Africa, ZooKeys 1066, pp. 1-198 : 1

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Balanophyllia (Eupsammia) stimpsonii (Verrill, 1865)


Balanophyllia (Eupsammia) stimpsonii (Verrill, 1865)

Fig. 8E, F View Figure 8

Eupsammia stimpsonii Verrill, 1865: 150.

Eupsammia stimpsoniana .- Verrill 1866: 29, pl. 2, figs 3, 3a.

Rhodopsammia socialis Semper, 1872: 260-261, pl. 20, figs 1-4. -Faustino 1927: 229, pl. 75, figs 9-12.- Alcock 1893: 147.

Rhodopsammia affinis Semper, 1872: 261-262, pl. 19, fig. 7A, B.

Rhodopsammia incerta Semper, 1872: 264, pl. 19, fig. 8A, B.- Faustino 1927: 231, pl. 75, figs 3, 4.

Leptopsammia conica van der Horst, 1922: 68-69, pl. 8, figs 14, 15.

Balanophyllia affinis . -Faustino 1927: 228-232, pl. 75, figs 1, 2. -van der Horst 1922: 62. -van der Horst 1931:10. - Gardiner and Waugh 1939: 240.

Balanophyllia stimpsonii . -Zibrowius 1985: 234-235, figs 1-14. - Zibrowius and Grygier 1985: 126-127. - Cairns and Keller 1993: 274. - Cairns and Zibrowius 1997: 176-177. -Cairns 2004a: 313.

Balanophyllia (Eupsammia) stimpsoni . - Cairns 2001: 19. - Kitahara and Cairns 2021: 289-290, figs 142, 152H-J.

Type locality.

North China Sea; depth unknown ( Verrill 1865).

Type material.

Two syntypes are deposited at the YPM (Zibrowius 1985; Cairns 2004a).

Material examined.

SAMC_A073157 (2 specimens): Eastern margin, 10 km from Port Edward / 24 km off Bilanhlolo Estuary, 31°05'48.11"S, 30°18'47.88"E; 140 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H3196 (1 specimen): Eastern margin, 9 km from Shaka’s Rock / 2 km off Tongati Estuary, 29°34'00.00"S, 31°10'59.99"E; 66 m. GoogleMaps SAM_H3831 (1 specimen): Southern margin, 16 km from Cape Point / 18 km off Buffels Oos Estuary, 34°23'17.99"S, 18°39'24.00"E; 97-99 m. GoogleMaps


Corallum ceratoid, slightly curved, unattached. Calice circular to slightly elliptical (GCD:LCD = 1.0-1.1), with serrate calicular margin. Largest specimen examined (SAM_H3831) 10.2 × 9.4 mm in CD, and 21.5 mm in H. Theca well developed. Upper theca porous, and lower theca more solid (epitheca). Costae poorly developed near calicular margin, becoming distinctively visible towards base, and covered with fine pointed granules. Epitheca irregularly banded. Intercostal striae thin and porous. Corallum creamy.

Septa hexamerally arranged in four complete cycles according to the formula: S1 > S2 > S4 > S3 (48 septa). S1-2 most exsert, with straight axial margins. S1 independent and extend towards columella. S2 slightly less wide than S1. Higher cycle septa (S3-4) progressively less exsert, and bear laciniate axial margins. S31/3 the width of S2. In complete half-systems a pair of S4 fuses before S3 and extend to columella as one septum. All septa eventually join columella deep in fossa. Septal faces granular, with granules arranged perpendicular to septal margin. Fossa of moderate depth, containing a low, slender, and elongated spongy columella.


Regional: Southern to eastern margins of South Africa, off Cape Point extending towards Shaka’s Rock; 66-99 m. Elsewhere: Philippines; Indonesia ( Cairns and Zibrowius 1997); Australia (Cairns 2004a); New Caledonia ( Kitahara and Cairns 2021); Chesterfield Islands ( Cairns and Zibrowius 1997); Somalia; Mozambique ( Zibrowius and Grygier 1985); Seychelles; Reunion (Zibrowius 1985); Gulf of Oman ( Zibrowius and Grygier 1985); Sri Lanka (van der Horst 1926; Gardiner and Waugh 1939); Gulf of Manaar (Bourne 1905); Maldives ( Gardiner and Waugh 1939); Andaman Sea ( Alcock 1893); Mergui Archipelago; Myanmar (Harisson and Poole 1909); 18-95 m.


Balanophyllia (E.) stimpsonii resembles B. carinata (Semper, 1872) amongst the other four Recent unattached congeners ( B. caribbeana Cairns, 1977a, B. imperialis Kent, 1871, B. pittieri Vaughan, 1919, and B. regalis (Alcock, 1983) in its septal arrangement in four cycles (in contrast to five incomplete ones). As stated by Cairns and Zibrowius (1997), Balanophyllia (E.) stimpsonii differs from B. carinata in having a less compressed corallum, lack of keeled thecal edges, and S1 > S2. Balanophyllia (E.) stimpsonii is also known to be a host for an ascothoracidan barnacle species ( Zibrowius and Grygier 1985). Balanophyllia (E.) stimpsonii is common shallow water Indo-Pacific species, which was previously reported off False Bay and Natal (Zibrowius 1985).














Balanophyllia (Eupsammia) stimpsonii (Verrill, 1865)

Filander, Zoleka N., Kitahara, Marcelo V., Cairns, Stephen D., Sink, Kerry J. & Lombard, Amanda T. 2021

Leptopsammia conica

van der Horst 1922

Rhodopsammia socialis

Semper 1872

Rhodopsammia affinis

Semper 1872

Rhodopsammia incerta

Semper 1872

Balanophyllia affinis

Semper 1872

Eupsammia stimpsoniana

Verrill 1866

Eupsammia stimpsonii

Verrill 1865