Aphonopelma prenticei Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond

Hamilton, Chris A., Hendrixson, Brent E. & Bond, Jason E., 2016, Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States, ZooKeys 560, pp. 1-340: 216-226

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.560.6264

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F4C1691C-1358-4FA9-A031-E305DEE2B6A2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/320D8826-1CCD-46EE-9248-34ABDB9C9B26

taxon LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:act:320D8826-1CCD-46EE-9248-34ABDB9C9B26

treatment provided by

ZooKeys by Pensoft

scientific name

Aphonopelma prenticei Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond
status

sp. n.

Taxon classification Animalia Araneae Theraphosidae

Aphonopelma prenticei Hamilton, Hendrixson & Bond  sp. n. Figures 124, 125, 126, 127, 128

Aphonopelma mojave  Prentice, 1997 (in part): 161.

Types.

Male holotype (AUMS_2557) collected Alamo Rd., off I-40 and Yucca, 0.4 miles SE of campsite, Mohave Co., Arizona, 34.604435 -113.751233 4, elev. 3300ft., 13.x.1993, coll. T.R. Prentice; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype female (APH_0319) from 0.4 miles S of Kelso Dunes Rd on Kelbaker Rd, San Bernardino Co., California, 34.89574 -115.65016 1, elev. 2825ft., 6.v.2008, coll. Brent E. Hendrixson and Zach Valois; deposited in AUMNH. Paratype male (APH_0415) from Mojave National Preserve, San Bernardino Co., California, 35.173875 -115.609553 1, elev. 4130ft., 25.x.2008, coll. Anette Pillau; deposited in AMNH. Paratype female (AUMS_2554) from Chicken Springs Rd., 2 miles N of Alamo rd. crossing, Mohave Co., Arizona, 34.609856 -113.77401 5, elev. 3250ft., 20.ix.1992, coll. T.R. Prentice; deposited in AMNH.

Etymology.

The specific epithet is a patronym in recognition of arachnologist Thomas R. Prentice for his work on the genus Aphonopelma  . Prentice’s (1993, 1997) studies inspired our interest in the genus and greatly influenced the way we approached this revision. This project benefited tremendously from his help collecting specimens, donating his personal collection to the AUMNH, and sharing his encyclopedic knowledge of North American Aphonopelma  .

Diagnosis.

Aphonopelma prenticei  (Fig. 124) is a member of the paloma  species group and can be distinguished by a combination of morphological, molecular, and geographic characteristics. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA identifies Aphonopelma prenticei  as a strongly supported monophyletic lineage (Figs 7-8) that is the sister lineage to Aphonopelma atomicum  sp. n., Aphonopelma icenoglei  sp. n., Aphonopelma mojave  , and Aphonopelma joshua  . Aphonopelma prenticei  can easily be differentiated from syntopic populations of Aphonopelma iodius  and Aphonopelma chalcodes  due to their smaller size and limited extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Aphonopelma prenticei  can also be differentiated from other turret-building members of the paloma  species group by locality. The most significant measurements that distinguish male Aphonopelma prenticei  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are F3 and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Male Aphonopelma prenticei  can be distinguished by possessing a larger PTl/F3 (≥0.63; 0.63-0.73) than Aphonopelma joshua  (≤0.61; 0.55-0.61) and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  sp. n. (≤0.63; 0.59-0.63); a larger A1/F3 (≥0.58; 0.58-0.65) than Aphonopelma atomicum  (≤0.56; 0.53-0.56); a smaller F3L/W (≤3.27; 2.76-3.27) than Aphonopelma icenoglei  (≥3.51; 3.51-3.90); and a smaller L4 scopulation extent (30%-42%) than Aphonopelma iodius  (62%-88%) and Aphonopelma chalcodes  (42%-76%). There are no significant measurements that separate male Aphonopelma prenticei  from Aphonopelma mojave  , although Aphonopelma mojave  males do not possess a swollen femur III (as seen in Aphonopelma atomicum  and Aphonopelma prenticei  ). The most significant measurements that distinguish female Aphonopelma prenticei  from its closely related phylogenetic and syntopic species are Cl, M4, and the extent of scopulation on metatarsus IV. Female Aphonopelma prenticei  can be distinguished by possessing a larger Cl/M4 (≥1.31; 1.31-1.52) than Aphonopelma atomicum  (≤1.28; 1.21-1.28); a larger P4/M4 (≥0.46; 0.46-0.58) than Aphonopelma mojave  (≤0.45; 0.39-0.45) and Aphonopelma joshua  (≤0.43; 0.37-0.43); a larger Cl/F1 (≥1.17; 1.17-1.33) than Aphonopelma icenoglei  (≤1.16; 1.07-1.16); and a smaller L4 scopulation extent (27%-38%) than Aphonopelma chalcodes  (56%-81%) and Aphonopelma iodius  (59%-83%).

Description of male holotype

(AUMS_2557; Fig. 125). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen originally collected wandering and preserved in unknown percentage of ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and left pedipalp removed for measurements and photographs; stored in vial with specimen. No tissue for DNA. General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 7.177 mm long, 6.592 mm wide; densely clothed with faded pubescence, appressed to surface; fringe covered in long setae not closely appressed to surface, hirsute appearance; foveal groove medium deep and very slightly recurved; pars cephalica region rises very gradually from foveal groove on a straight plane towards the ocular area; AER very slightly procurved, PER mostly straight; normal sized chelicerae; clypeus mostly straight; LBl 0.948, LBw 0.933; sternum hirsute, clothed with faded, densely packed, short setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed in short black/brown pubescence with numerous longer, lighter setae interspersed (generally red or orange in situ); dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - smaller and distinct from large species. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in faded pubescence. Metatarsus I straight. F1 7.655; F1w 1.721; P1 3.184; T1 6.597; M1 5.7; A1 4.08; F3 6.623; F3w 2.298; P3 3.007; T3 5.36; M3 6.482; A3 4.205; F4 7.724; F4w 1.884; P4 2.909; T4 6.59; M4 8.022; A4 4.271; femur III is swollen. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 60.4%; leg IV (SC4) = 35.4%. Three ventral spinose setae and one retrolateral spinose seta on metatarsus III; eight ventral spinose setae and one retrolateral spinose seta on metatarsus IV; two prolateral spinose setae on tibia I; one megaspine present on the retrolateral tibia, at the apex of the mating clasper; one megaspine on the apex on the retrolateral branch of the tibial apophyses. Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Hirsute; densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs, with numerous longer ventral setae; one spinose seta at the apical, prolateral femur and three prolateral spinose setae on the palpal tibia; PTl 4.426, PTw 1.41. When extended, embolus tapers with a curve to the retrolateral side; embolus slender, no keels; distinct dorsal and ventral transition from bulb to embolus.

Variation (5).Cl 6.478-7.787 (7.244 ± 0.24), Cw 5.42-6.948 (6.448 ± 0.27), LBl 0.848-1.106 (0.992 ± 0.05), LBw 0.933-1.204 (1.058 ± 0.05), F1 6.693-8.289 (7.534 ± 0.27), F1w 1.547-1.883 (1.744 ± 0.06), P1 2.612-3.597 (3.022 ± 0.17), T1 6.131-6.931 (6.536 ± 0.17), M1 5.269-6.296 (5.817 ± 0.18), A1 3.654-4.532 (4.094 ± 0.14), L1 length 24.359-29.645 (27.003 ± 0.87), F3 5.915-7.23 (6.599 ± 0.22), F3w 1.806-2.612 (2.24 ± 0.13), P3 2.104-3.078 (2.612 ± 0.19), T3 4.631-5.693 (5.237 ± 0.17), M3 5.727-6.952 (6.322 ± 0.2), A3 3.64-4.396 (4.125 ± 0.13), L3 length 22.017-27.275 (24.896 ± 0.87), F4 6.814-8.616 (7.66 ± 0.31), F4w 1.367-2.119 (1.778 ± 0.12), P4 2.314-3.262 (2.688 ± 0.17), T4 6.244-7.306 (6.722 ± 0.2), M4 7.223-8.964 (8.075 ± 0.28), A4 4.037-4.64 (4.326 ± 0.11), L4 length 26.632-32.291 (29.471 ± 0.93), PTl 4.305-4.746 (4.485 ± 0.08), PTw 1.367-1.754 (1.53 ± 0.07), SC3 ratio 0.604-0.728 (0.647 ± 0.02), SC4 ratio 0.308-0.416 (0.355 ± 0.02), Coxa I setae = thin/very thin tapered, F3 condition = swollen.

Description of female paratype

(APH_0319; Figs 126-127). Specimen preparation and condition: Specimen collected live from burrow, preserved in 80% ethanol; original coloration faded due to preservation. Left legs I, III, IV, and pedipalp removed for photographs and measurements; stored in vial with specimen. Right legs III & IV removed for DNA and stored at AUMNH (Auburn, AL). Genital plate with spermathecae removed and cleared, stored in vial with specimen. General coloration: Faded black/brown. Cephalothorax: Carapace 7.85 mm long, 6.56 mm wide; Hirsute, densely clothed with short faded black/brown pubescence closely appressed to surface; fringe densely covered in slightly longer setae; foveal groove medium deep and procurved; pars cephalica region gently rises from thoracic furrow, arching anteriorly toward ocular area; AER very slightly procurved, PER slightly recurved; chelicerae robust, clypeus mostly straight; LBl 1.256, LBw 1.224; sternum hirsute, clothed with short faded setae. Abdomen: Densely clothed dorsally in short faded black setae with longer, lighter setae (generally red or orange in situ) focused near the urticating patch; dense dorsal patch of black Type I urticating bristles ( Cooke et al. 1972) - smaller and distinct from large species. Spermathecae: Paired and separate, with bulbs widening towards the bases; not fused. Legs: Hirsute; densely clothed in short faded black/brown pubescence; F1 6.135; F1w 1.931; P1 2.555; T1 5.051; M1 3.732; A1 3.092; F3 5.587; F3w 1.843; P3 2.489; T3 3.996; M3 4.414; A3 3.447; F4 6.967; F4w 1.937; P4 2.702; T4 5.796; M4 5.845; A4 4.04. All tarsi fully scopulate. Extent of metatarsal scopulation: leg III (SC3) = 64.1%; leg IV (SC4) = 27.3%. Two ventral spinose setae and one retrolateral spinose seta on metatarsus III; five ventral spinose setae on metatarsus IV. Coxa I: Prolateral surface covered by very thin tapered and fine, hair-like setae. Pedipalps: Densely clothed in the same setal color as the other legs; one spinose seta on the apical, prolateral femur, five prolateral (three at the apical, prolateral border with the tarsus) spinose setae on the tibia.

Variation (6).Cl 7.186-8.426 (7.795 ± 0.18), Cw 6.143-6.991 (6.582 ± 0.14), LBl 1.115-1.415 (1.225 ± 0.04), LBw 1.216-1.564 (1.308 ± 0.05), F1 5.971-6.94 (6.296 ± 0.15), F1w 1.803-2.093 (1.955 ± 0.04), P1 2.51-3.35 (2.884 ± 0.13), T1 4.764-5.732 (5.26 ± 0.16), M1 3.692-4.337 (3.936 ± 0.11), A1 3.018-3.856 (3.353 ± 0.12), L1 length 20.434-23.665 (21.728 ± 0.57), F3 4.845-5.662 (5.262 ± 0.16), F3w 1.706-2.31 (1.868 ± 0.09), P3 2.211-2.595 (2.458 ± 0.05), T3 3.47-4.381 (3.878 ± 0.13), M3 3.385-4.414 (4.008 ± 0.17), A3 3.246-3.751 (3.44 ± 0.07), L3 length 17.427-20.562 (19.047 ± 0.52), F4 6.25-7.168 (6.744 ± 0.17), F4w 1.736-1.993 (1.878 ± 0.04), P 4 2.474-3.124 (2.852 ± 0.1), T4 5.215-6.022 (5.586 ± 0.15), M4 4.96-5.997 (5.531 ± 0.16), A4 3.519-4.473 (3.874 ± 0.14), L4 length 22.644-26.604 (24.587 ± 0.58), SC3 ratio 0.641-0.711 (0.671 ± 0.01), SC4 ratio 0.273-0.384 (0.332 ± 0.02), Coxa I setae = thin tapered. Spermathecae variation can be seen in Figure 127.

Material examined.

United States: Arizona: La Paz: 0.4 miles NNW Alamo Rd on Low Mtn Rd, 33.92798 -113.54573 2, 2321ft., [APH_1113, 2/11/2009, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.6 miles NE Alamo Rd on Low Mountain Rd, 33.91962 -113.53957 2, 2262ft., [APH_1112, 3/11/2009, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 0.7 miles E Alamo Rd on 77th St, 7 miles N Wenden, 33.928133 -113.530933 2, 2319ft., [APH_1586, 10/4/2011, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 16 miles N US-60 on Alamo Rd (Mile Marker #16), 34.04226 -113.566527 1, 1948ft., [APH_0495, 17/5/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; 5.5 miles S La Posa Rd on Plomosa Rd (S of Bouse), 33.85678 -114.02833 2, 1160ft., [APH_0798-0799, 2/11/2009, 2♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_1100, 17/10/2009, 1♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 6.9 miles N US-60 on Alamo Rd, 33.9214 -113.5416 2, 2280ft., [APH_0797, 1/11/2009, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; 6.9 miles N US-60 on Alamo Rd (near Base of Harcuvar Mtns N of Wenden), 33.92479 -113.54419 1, 2285ft., [APH_0338-0339, 9/5/2008, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; Harcuvar Mtns, 1.6 miles W Low Mtn Rd along powerline road, 33.938266 -113.530166 1, 2462ft., [APH_1563, 26/10/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, June Olberding, Doug Olberding, AUMNH]; [APH_1565-1567, 23/10/2012, 3♀, June Olberding, AUMNH]; Harcuvar Mtns, Low Mountain Rd, 33.91962 -113.53957 2, 2261ft., [APH_1252, 18/11/2010, 1♂, June Olberding, AUMNH]; Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, 33.4672 -113.80513 2, 1686ft., [APH_1659-1661, 23/11/2012, 1♀, 2 juv, June Olberding, AUMNH]; Maricopa: 3.7 miles S US-60 (Aguila) on Eagle Eye Rd, 33.891289 -113.184713 1, 2323ft., [APH_0496-0497, 17/5/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Mohave: 12 miles NW Chicken Springs Rd, 34.593079 -113.813486 5, 3020ft., [AUMS_2552, 18/10/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; 21 miles NW Chicken Springs Rd on Alamo Rd, 34.80901 -114.04903 1, 2350ft., [APH_0350, 11/5/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 4.7 miles SE US-93/AZ-66 on Hualapai Mountain Rd, 35.162771 -113.961704 1, 4285ft., [APH_0521, 24/5/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, AUMNH]; 5.6 miles NE Alamo Rd on Chicken Springs Rd, 34.66005 -113.74667 1, 3860ft., [APH_0348-0349, 11/5/2008, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 7.4 miles NE Hwy-93 on CR-25 in Dolan Springs, 35.60418 -114.253563 1, 3638ft., [APH_1310-1312, 28/7/2011, 3♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Alamo Crossing Rd. 12 miles north of Chicken Springs Rd. jct, 34.716434 -113.941424 5, 3001ft., [AUMS_2549, 24/10/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Alamo Rd., 34.547893 -113.754441 6, 2852ft., [APH_3115, unknown, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2544, 25/10/1994, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2545, 27/10/1994, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2548, 29/9/1994, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2561, 25/10/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2562, 29/9/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2568, unknown, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2569, 25/10/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Alamo Rd., 0.5 miles NW of Alamo Rd., 34.614423 -113.794758 4, 3220ft., [AUMS_2555, 13/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Alamo Rd., 0.5 miles S of campsite, 34.580474 -113.785733 6, 3083ft., [AUMS_2559, 29/9/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Alamo Rd., off I-40 and Yucca, 0.4 miles SE of campsite, 34.604435 -113.751233 4, 3300ft., [AUMS_2557, 13/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Alamo Road, 12 miles W of Chicken Springs jct, 34.593874 -113.787242 5, 3120ft., [AUMS_2563, 30/3/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; along Hualapai Mountain Rd, 35.162658 -113.961419 1, 4315ft., [APH_0775-0778, 7/10/2009, 4 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; campsite, Alamo rd. crossing, 34.597711 -113.796962 5, 3100ft., [AUMS_2564, 29/3/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Chicken Springs Rd., 34.607061 -113.767613 6, 3250ft., [AUMS_2566, 23/6/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Chicken Springs Rd., 1.4 miles W of Alamo rd. crossing, 34.582903 -113.813953 4, 3060ft., [AUMS_2558, 20/9/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Chicken Springs Rd., 1.5 miles E of jct, 34.6148 -113.769604 5, 3300ft., [AUMS_2560, 23/6/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Chicken Springs Rd., 1.7 miles N of Alamo Rd. jct., 34.607695 -113.771849 4, 3250ft., [AUMS_2556, 23/6/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Chicken Springs Rd., 2 miles N of Alamo rd. crossing, 34.609856 -113.77401 5, 3250ft., [AUMS_2553-2554, 20/9/1992, 2♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH & AMNH]; East Mojave, Alamo Rd, 34.605396 -113.811652 6, 3028ft., [AUMS_2550, unknown, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; just N I-40 on Silver Springs Rd, 35.161716 -113.564676 1, 3927ft., [APH_1306-1308, 28/7/2011, 1♀, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Mt Wilson Wilderness, W of Hwy-143, 35.8885 -114.53848 2, 2074ft., [APH_1635-1638, 24/11/2012, 4 juv, Matt Graham, AUMNH]; Secret Pass Wash, along CR-10, 35.060369 -114.231182 1, 2238ft., [APH_0518-0520, 24/5/2009, 1♀, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Rick C. West, Bernadette DeRussy, AUMNH]; Summit Springs, 0.9 miles S. of UT/AZ line, 36.99089 -113.940466 4, 2433ft., [AUMS_2350, unknown, 1♀, unknown, AUMNH]; SW of Kingman in Black Mtns along Rt. 66, 35.06994 -114.21444 1, 2287ft., [APH_0314, 11/10/2007, 1♀, Rick C. West, AUMNH]; Wikieup, S of Kingman on Chicken Springs Rd, 34.70215 -113.622317 5, 2123ft., [APH_0942, 2007, 1♀, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; [APH_0978-0979, 2007, 2 juv, Josh Richards, AUMNH]; Yavapai: 12.1 miles SE AZ-97 on US-93, 34.29077 -113.11067 1, 2625ft., [APH_0139-0140, 11/6/2007, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 6.4 miles NW AZ-97 on US-93, 34.47677 -113.32877 1, 3348ft., [APH_0141, 11/6/2007, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Yuma: Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, 33.2939 -113.9764 2, 1858ft., [APH_1656-1658, 27/11/2012, 3 juv, June Olberding, AUMNH]; Little Horn Mtns near Hovatter Ranch, 33.352408 -113.691248 6, 1624ft., [APH_2500, 8/5/1980, 1♀, V. Roth, AMNH]; California: Inyo: Death Valley National Park, 0.45 miles NE Hwy-178 on Skidoo Rd, 36.387424 -117.144511 1, 4924ft., [APH_0487-0490, 14/5/2009, 4 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, Jason Bond, AUMNH]; Death Valley National Park, Harrisburg Flats jct with Skidoo Rd, Panamint Mtns, 36.354921 -117.130963 5, 5000ft., [AUMS_2678, 18/10/1963, 1♂, R. Hardy, AUMNH]; Panamint Mtns, Butte Valley Rd, 35.98438 -117.01727 2, 3959ft., [APH_1640, 18/11/2012, 1 juv, Matt Graham, AUMNH]; San Bernardino: 0.25 miles W NV State Line on Nipton Rd, 35.475186 -115.229851 1, 3557ft., [APH_0752, 3/10/2009, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; 0.35 miles W Morning Star Mine Rd on Morning Star Mine Cutoff (dirt road), 35.36247 -115.42249 1, 3200ft., [APH_0356, 11/5/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 0.4 miles S of Kelso Dunes Rd on Kelbaker Rd, 34.89574 -115.65016 1, 2825ft., [APH_0319-0321, 6/5/2008, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 100 yards S Havasu Lake Road, 2 miles SE of jct with Hwy 95, 34.529018 -114.627926 1, 1640ft., [APH_3204, 16/11/2013, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; 2.5 miles north of Essex Rd. junction on Black Canyon Rd., 34.937357 -115.424716 4, 3202ft., [APH_2438, 11/10/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; 2.9 miles west on Powerline Rd. from Cima Rd. junction, 35.233597 -115.558759 4, 4636ft., [APH_2452, 11/10/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; 7.6-7.9 miles N of Kelso, 35.116271 -115.652408 4, 2984ft., [AUMS_2528, 22/10/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2538, 22/10/1994, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2542-2543, 22/10/1994, 2♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; [AUMS_2546-2547, 22/10/1994, 2♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Black Canyon Road- 2.8 miles north of Essex Road Junction, 34.917059 -115.42027 4, 3005ft., [APH_2442, 25/10/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Cima - 2 miles north of Cedar Canyon Rd., 35.18127 -115.348115 5, 5125ft., [APH_2441, 31/10/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Cima-Kelso Rd., 10 miles north of Kelso, 35.121413 -115.540532 5, 3232ft., [APH_2447, 1/11/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; East of Nipton - Nevada border, 35.468365 -115.219492 5, 3665ft., [APH_2426, 1/11/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Halloran Summit Road, 0.3 miles N I-15, 35.407038 -115.795374 1, 4079ft., [APH_0516, 21/5/2009, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; Halloran Summit, I-15, 35.387482 -115.792505 5, 4170ft., [APH_2430, 24/9/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Highway 164-1.2 miles north of Nipton, 35.46981 -115.260352 4, 2999ft., [APH_2444, 1/11/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; just S of Havasu Lake Rd, 1 mile SE of jct with Hwy 95, 34.543104 -114.638538 1, 1680ft., [APH_3203, 16/11/2013, 1♀, W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; Kelbaker Rd. 9.4 miles south of Kelso, 34.874762 -115.64445 4, 3123ft., [APH_2449, 31/10/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Kingston Range, Excelsior Mine Rd, 35.71268 -115.79702 2, 3601ft., [APH_1641, 26/11/2012, 1 juv, Matt Graham, AUMNH]; Mojave National Preserve, 35.173875 -115.609553 1, 4130ft., [APH_0415, 25/10/2008, 1♂, Anette Pillau, AMNH]; Mojave National Preserve, Kelbaker Rd, 35.1728 -115.7756 2, 3231ft., [APH_1564, 21/10/2012, 1♂, June Olberding, Anette Pillau, AUMNH]; Morning Star Mine Rd., 3.1 miles south of Ivanpah Rd., 35.375084 -115.405867 4, 3018ft., [APH_2423, 1/11/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Powerline Rd. west of Cima, 35.235418 -115.551832 5, 4606ft., [APH_2448, 11/10/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Powerline Road- 4.6 miles west of Cima, CA, 35.225338 -115.574018 4, 4570ft., [APH_2443, 10/10/1992, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Nevada: Clark: 0.3 miles N Hwy-161 along dirt road, between Jean and Goodsprings, 35.81268 -115.38099 1, 3370ft., [APH_0357, 12/5/2008, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 0.5 to 3 miles west of Searchlight, Highway 164, 35.474673 -114.953305 4, 3530ft., [APH_2425, 23/10/1976, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; [APH_2437, 23/10/1976, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; 0.75 miles S Blue Diamond Rd near Bonnie Springs, 36.020622 -115.356856 4, 3300ft., [APH_0304, 20/10/2007, 1♂, Deric Murcer, AUMNH]; 1.5 miles W Searchlight (US-95) on NV-164, 35.472017 -114.944686 1, 3480ft., [APH_0511-0514, 21/5/2009, 4♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, AUMNH]; 2.1 miles W Searchlight (US-95) on Hwy-164 (Nipton Rd), 35.4753 -114.95528 1, 3500ft., [APH_0354-0355, 11/5/2008, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 2.9 miles SW Hwy-95 on Cold Creek Rd, 36.500528 -115.592032 1, 3790ft., [APH_1216-1218, 1/8/2010, 3♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 3.1 miles E Hwy-160 on Trout Canyon Rd, 36.12435 -115.796265 1, 3646ft., [APH_1211-1212, 1/8/2010, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 4.6 miles W US-95 (Searchlight) on Hwy-164, 35.488073 -114.996602 1, 3690ft., [APH_1219, 2/8/2010, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; 5.7 miles E US-95 on Hwy-163, 35.1708 -114.75875 1, 2850ft., [APH_0351-0353, 11/5/2008, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Zach Valois, AUMNH]; 8.2 miles W of SL (Searchlight), 4.1 miles N of Hwy 164, 35.562049 -115.084771 4, 4436ft., [AUMS_3270, 7/10/1989, 1♂, T.R. Prentice and W. Icenogle, AUMNH]; 8.2 miles west of Searchlight, on Hwy 164 - road to Highland Spring and Highland Range, 35.510402 -115.055526 4, 4157ft., [APH_2422, 7/10/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Desert National Wildlife Refuge, near Mormon Well Rd, 36.47675 -115.22656 2, 4963ft., [APH_1579-1581, 4/11/2012, 2♀, 1 juv, Matt Graham, AUMNH]; Searchlight - 8.2 miles west of Searchlight Highway 164, 0.2 miles north of 164, 35.509718 -115.056348 4, 4163ft., [APH_2434, 12/10/1990, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Searchlight - 8.2 miles west of Searchlight Highway 164, 2.1 miles north toward Highland Range, 35.548501 -115.049262 4, 4551ft., [APH_2432, 12/10/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Searchlight - 8.2 miles west off highway 164, 35.507713 -115.057128 4, 4163ft., [APH_2424, 12/10/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; [APH_2436, 12/10/1991, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Searchlight, 8.2 miles west of Searchlight, 1.1 mile north of highway 164, 35.523072 -115.055713 4, 4196ft., [APH_2428, 7/10/1989, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Searchlight, 35.465268 -114.9197 5, 3551ft., [AUMS_2536, unknown, 1♂, unknown, AUMNH]; Esmeralda: 7.7 miles NW Nye County line on US-95, 37.551762 -117.197071 1, 4960ft., [APH_0482-0483, 13/5/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, Jason Bond, AUMNH]; Highway 95, 8 miles south of Goldfield Summit, 37.565959 -117.200255 5, 5075ft., [APH_2431, 28/10/1978, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; Lincoln: 0.6 miles N Clark County Line on Carp Rd, 36.852419 -114.374019 1, 3072ft., [APH_1318, 29/7/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; 8.3 miles S Alamo Canyon Rd on Hwy-93, 37.224912 -115.082582 1, 3160ft., [APH_0783-0786, 9/10/2009, 1♂, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; along Carp Rd, just south of jct. with Snow Valley Rd, 37.138416 -114.379434 1, 3361ft., [APH_1316-1317, 29/7/2011, 2♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; along Snow Valley Rd, 37.180151 -114.117812 1, 3562ft., [APH_1315, 29/7/2011, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH]; Nye: 0.8 miles S Hwy-95 along Rd-552, 36.582173 -115.944696 1, 3735ft., [APH_1545-1546, 23/10/2012, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; 22 miles SW jct. Hwy-267 on US-95, 37.073519 -116.783474 1, 3994ft., [APH_0478-0480, 13/5/2009, 3 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Bernadette DeRussy, Sloan Click, Jason Bond, AUMNH]; 6.6 miles SE Esmeralda County Line along Hwy-95, 37.351878 -117.119118 1, 4336ft., [APH_1554, 24/10/2012, 1♀, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; along dirt road just E of Hwy-160, 36.409822 -116.066403 1, 3237ft., [APH_1213-1214, 1/8/2010, 1♀, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, AUMNH]; Highway 95, 10 miles south of Scotty’s Junction, 37.186208 -116.93858 5, 4039ft., [APH_2429, 28/10/1978, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; [APH_2433, 28/10/1978, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; Highway 95, 5.5 miles south Lida Junction (Highway 266 turnoff), 37.424395 -117.158462 4, 4629ft., [APH_2453, 28/10/1978, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; just NE Death Valley National Park boundary along Hwy-374, 36.832413 -116.8774 1, 3531ft., [APH_1552, 24/10/2012, 1 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, AUMNH]; Searchlight, 0.5 to 3 miles west on highway 164, 35.474673 -114.953305 4, 3530ft., [APH_2421, 23/10/1976, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; [APH_2435, 23/10/1976, 1♂, W. Icenogle, AMNH]; Utah: Washington: 3.5 miles north of Utah-Arizona state line - road to Beaver Dam and Summit Springs, 37.04535 -113.593792 4, 2526ft., [APH_2420, 20/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Beaver Dam Mtns, 2.1 miles W Old Hwy-91 on Lytle Ranch Rd, 37.070155 -113.924059 1, 3570ft., [APH_0780-0781, 8/10/2009, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Thomas Martin, AUMNH]; Beaver Dam Mtns, Summit Springs, 37.089996 -113.872526 5, 4380ft., [AUMS_2539, 27/8/1992, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Beaver Dam Mtns, Summit Springs campsite, 37.152929 -113.886935 5, 6332ft., [APH_2446, 12/10/1993, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Beaver Dam Mtns, Summit Springs campsite- 1.5 miles west of highway, 37.152929 -113.886935 4, 6332ft., [APH_2445, 12/10/1993, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Beaver Dam Mtns, Summit Springs, .25 miles below Summit Springs tank, 37.07197 -113.874595 4, 3960ft., [AUMS_3279, 12/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; Beaver Dam Slope, 37.119205 -113.847796 6, 5335ft., [APH_2740, 23/11/1939, 2♂, A.M. Woodbury, AMNH]; Road to Summit Spring - campsite of Summit Spring, Beaver Dam Mtns, 37.115133 -113.864841 5, 5299ft., [APH_2440, 6/10/1993, 1♀, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Road to Summit Springs - Beaver Dam Mtns, 3 miles north of Utah-Arizona line, 37.044575 -113.835773 5, 5013ft., [APH_2450, 19/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Road to Summit Springs, 2.7 miles north of UT/AZ line, 37.042419 -113.830789 4, 5276ft., [APH_2451, 19/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; Summit Springs off old Hwy 91, 1.86 miles W of Hwy, 37.045214 -113.918874 5, 3181ft., [AUMS_2529, 19/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AUMNH]; vicinity of St. George, 37.095278 -113.578059 6, 2654ft., [APH_2741, 19/10/1939, 1♂, Harold Higgins, AMNH]; Welcome Spring Rd. - 2.35 miles west of Welcome Spring Rd. turnoff, 37.071925 -113.961751 4, 3284ft., [APH_2427, 19/10/1993, 1♂, T.R. Prentice, AMNH]; western portion of Beaver Dam Mtns, 37.120212 -113.954005 1, 3803ft., [APH_1313-1314, 29/7/2011, 2 juv, Brent E. Hendrixson, Brendon Barnes, Nate Davis, Jake Storms, AUMNH].

Distribution and natural history.

Aphonopelma prenticei  has a large range throughout the eastern Mojave (southeastern California, southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, northwestern Arizona) and northwestern Sonoran (western Arizona) deserts at elevations between 350 and 1525 meters. Much of the distribution is east of the Death Valley drainage system with the exception of a few populations along the Panamint Range (Fig. 128). Aphonopelma prenticei  can be found inhabiting the following Level III Ecoregions: Mojave Basin and Range, Eastern Mojave Basins, Eastern Mojave Low Ranges and Arid Footslopes, Arizona/New Mexico Mountains, and Sonoran Basin and Range. The species distribution model suggests that the habitat is largely unsuitable for these spiders in the surrounding Great Basin Desert, Las Vegas metropolitan area, Amargosa Desert, and Lower Colorado River Valley (Fig. 128B). Additional fieldwork in northwestern Arizona, particularly along the extreme western end of Grand Canyon National Park, is needed to fully assess the distribution of this species. Aphonopelma prenticei  is syntopic with Aphonopelma iodius  (California, Nevada, and Utah) and Aphonopelma chalcodes  (Arizona); its distribution may overlap with Aphonopelma atomicum  in southern Nye County, Nevada and southeastern Inyo County, California. Burrow entrances are generally surrounded by a distinct mound or turret made of excavated soil and silk (Fig. 2 D–E). Mating occurs during daylight hours in autumn (September-November).

Conservation status.

Aphonopelma prenticei  is the most abundant and widespread turret-building tarantula species in the United States and has recently expanded its range into the more northern portions of its distribution ( Graham et al. 2015). The species does exhibit high levels of phylogeographic structuring ( Hendrixson et al. 2013, Graham et al. 2015) and should be evaluated for the presence of evolutionary significant units, but the conservation status of Aphonopelma prenticei  is doubtlessly secure.

Remarks.

Other important ratios that distinguish females: Aphonopelma prenticei  possess a larger Cl/M4 (≥1.31; 1.31-1.52) than Aphonopelma mojave  (≤1.31; 1.20-1.31) and Aphonopelma joshua  (≤1.25; 1.20-1.25). Certain morphometrics have potential to be useful, though due to the amounts of variation, small number of specimens, and the small differences between species, no other are claimed to be significant at this time (see Suppl. material 2). During evaluation of traditional two-dimensional PCA morphospace and three-dimensional PCA morphospace (PC1~PC2~PC3), males of Aphonopelma prenticei  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , Aphonopelma iodius  , Aphonopelma joshua  , and Aphonopelma xwalxwal  along PC1~2, but do not separate from Aphonopelma atomicum  , Aphonopelma mojave  , or Aphonopelma icenoglei  . Female Aphonopelma prenticei  separate from Aphonopelma chalcodes  , but do not separate from Aphonopelma iodius  or any other miniature species ( Aphonopelma atomicum  , Aphonopelma mojave  , and Aphonopelma icenoglei  ) in two-dimensional morphological space. Females do separate from Aphonopelma iodius  in three-dimensional morphospace. There are no known female Aphonopelma xwalxwal  at this time to compare. PC1, PC2, and PC3 explain ≥97% of the variation in all analyses.