Seseli gummiferum ilgazense A.Duran, Oe.Cetin & M. Oeztuerk
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|Seseli gummiferum ilgazense A.Duran, Oe.Cetin & M. Oeztuerk|
Affinis Seseli gummiferum Pall. ex Sm. subsp. gummiferum sed umbellis centralibus radiis 13-21 (nec 25-30), bracteis 2-7 (nec plerumque 8-15), umbellis lateralibus radiis 7-13 (nec 15-20), ovariis glabris (nec cum pilis), fructibus glabris (nec cum pilis) differt.
TURKEY. A4 Kastamonu: Ilgaz Mountain Natural Park, Kastamonu road, from Çatören village to Büyük Hacet Hill, 6 km, in open Pinus sylvestris L. and Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spach. mixed forest, serpentine stony slopes, 41°06'344"N, 33°48'628"E, 1465 m, 22 August 2008, A.Duran 8135, Ö.Çetin & M. Öztürk (holotype KNYA! isotypes ANK!, GAZI!, HUB!).
Plants monocarpic, 15-30 cm tall; rootstock thickened, cylindrical, oblong, ± vertical, 8-15 mm diameter; stems 3 to 5, terete, finely ridged, mostly glabrous, sparsely puberulent above, with a developed fibrous collar 2.5-7 cm; stems mostly branching from the base, below and rarely at the middle part, green to purplish green. Basal leaves ovate to oblong-ovate, 2-pinnate, 6-20 × 3-10 cm, glabrous; ultimate segments lanceolate, linear-oblong, 5-15 × 0.5-1.5 mm, acute to acuminate; sheaths developed, distinctly widened at base, upper sheath surface sulcate, margin membranous; cauline leaves similar to basal leaves, partly reduced, amplexicaule, middle and upper portions of the stem leafless. Flowers hermaphroditic; the central umbel stout, 7-11 cm diam., equal to or longer than lateral umbels, rarely shorter, with 13 to 21 rays, 1.8-5.5 cm long, puberulent above, unequal, each central umbel with by 2 to 7 bracts; bracts lanceolate, rarely widened at base, 10-17 mm long, margin ± membranous, sometimes bifid to trifid, glabrous or puberulent; umbellules 9-15 mm diam, each comprising 55 to 70 flowers; bracteoles 15-20, connate at base, 5-8 mm long, linear- lanceolate, acuminate, entire or bifid to trifid, green to partly purple, margin distinctly membranous, especially ciliate at apex, out side glabrous to puberulent; lateral umbels 3.5-6 cm diam. with 7 to 13 rays, 1-3.5 cm long, with bracts or without. Flowers subsesile, glabrous, sepals ± purplish, broadly lanceolate, glabrous, persistent, ca. 1 mm; petals white, glabrous with deflexed apex; filament white, anther clearly purple; ovary glabrous. Fruit oblong-elliptic, 3.5-4 × 1.5-2 mm, glabrous, with 5 ribs prominent, obtuse; stylopodium short-conical; styles deflexed in fruit, distinctly purple.
Distribution and IUCN red list category.
The new subspecies is known only from the type locality, with specimens collected only from Ilgaz Mountain National Park (Kastamonu province) in Turkey, where the species seems to be very rare. This area is ca. 1.5 km2, and mature individuals of the type population number approximately 125. The location is very close to the road side and near forest management. The population is going to be negatively affected from cars, trucks and people in the future. The habitat of this subspecies is clearly under threat of destruction, and therefore, the taxon should be considered Critically Endangered (CR), according to IUCN Red List Criteria ( IUCN 2001).
Habitat and ecology.
This new subspecies grows at 1450-1470 m with Lapsana communis L., Abies nordmanniana (Stev.) Spaach, Centaurea drabifolia Sm., Erysimum thyrsoideum Boiss., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, Sorbus umbellata (Desf.) Fritsch, Valeriana alliariifolia Adams, Eryngium giganteum M.Bieb., Bupleurum falcatum L. subsp. persicum (Boiss.) Koso-Pol., Salvia verticillata L., Teucrium chamaedrys L., Dactylis glomerata L., Asyneuma rigidum (Willd.) Grossh. subsp. rigidum .
Discussion and conclusion.
Turkey is the most complex country in the Middle East with regard to geographic structure and landforms. It’s comprised of comparatively narrow and long, variously oriented mountain chains, separated by deep valleys and also high- and medium-elevational plateaus. The geological composition and physical direction, exposure and altitude of these mountains are here largely influential not only upon the diversity of vegetation, but also on the richness of the flora ( Zohary 1973). Ilgaz Mountain, which is situated in a transitional zone in central and North of Anatolia and is generally composed of serpentine, schist and volcanic rocks. The mountain is orogenically interesting, with the quite active north Anatolian fault found along the southern slopes of Ilgaz Mountain ( Kuter 2008). One of the more important reasons for protecting the Ilgaz Mountain is the richness and endemism of its flora. Approximately 100 endemic plants occur within the boundaries of the National Park and the type localities of 19 endemic taxa are found on Ilgaz Mountain. Delphinium ilgazense P.H.Davis, Arabis abietina Bornmüller, Draba anatolica A.Duran & Dinç, Astragalus nabelekii Czeczott, Heracleum paphlagonicum Czeczott, Hieracium macrogonum (Zahn) P.D.Sell & C.West and Hieracium tuberculatum Freyn, Festuca ilgazensis Markgr.-Dann. are all noteworthy endemic taxa confined to the national park ( Davis 1965-1985, Davis et al. 1988, Duman 2000, Duran et al. 2008).
Seseli gummiferum subsp. ilgazense is closely related to two other subspecies found in Turkey. Seseli gummiferum subsp. gummiferum is distributed in Crimea, Central Anatolia ( Shishkin 1950, Ball 1968, Duman 2000). The new subspecies differs from Seseli gummiferum subsp. gummiferum , based on its glabrous fruits (not with indument), fewer central umbels, with 13 to 21 rays (not 25 to 30), fewer lateral umbels, with seven to 13 rays (not 15 to 20), as well as the bracteoles 15 to 20 (not 11 to 16) ( Hedge and Lamond 1972, Duman 2000).
Seseli gummiferum subsp. ilgazense also differs from Seseli gummiferum subsp. crithmifolium (DC.) P.H.Davis, which is distributed in west and east Crete, Folegandros, Sikinos, Amargos, Karpathos, Saria and neigbouring islands in Aegean Sea. The new taxon is not so broadly distributed, endemic and found only in northern Anatolia (Ilgaz Mountain). Seseli gummiferum subsp. crithmifolium principally differs from subsp. ilgazense by its puberulent fruits, the central umbels with 20-45 rays, and the oblong leaf segments (6-) 10-30 × 2-5 mm ( Ball 1968, Hedge and Lamond 1972).
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