Philodoria auromagnifica Walsingham, 1907

Kobayashi, Shigeki, Johns, Chris A., Lopez-Vaamonde, Carlos, Camiel Doorenweerd,, Kawakita, Atsushi, Ohshima, Issei, Lees, David, 2018, Hawaiian Philodoria (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae, Ornixolinae) leaf mining moths on Myrsine (Primulaceae): two new species and biological data, ZooKeys 773, pp. 109-141: 109

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Philodoria auromagnifica Walsingham, 1907


Philodoria auromagnifica Walsingham, 1907  Figs 2E, F, 5 E–H, 6 E–H, 7G, 8B, 11, 14C

Philodoria auromagnifica  Walsingham, 1907: 718, pl. 25, fig. 20; Swezey 1913b: 223.

Philodoria (Philodoria) auromagnifica  Walsingham, 1907: Zimmerman 1978: 695, figs 461, 468, 474.

Type locality.

mountains, 2000 ft near Honolulu (Oahu).

Type material.

Holotype ♂, Mts. 2000 ft near Honolulu, Oahu, 25.x.1892, Perkins. 25857|BM slide no. 472|Walsingham Collection. 1910-427.|NHMUK010305330| in NHMUK. This species was described based on a single specimen from Oahu. The ‘type’ specimen, designated by Walsingham is here thus the holotype following article 73.1.2 ( ICZN 1999).

Additional material.

22 (8♂ 11♀ 3 unsexed)

Kauai Is: 1♂, Mt. Kahili, (stored), N. Tangalin leg., Nat Collection, host: M. wawraea  , CJ-148, SK689♂ in BPBM; 1♀, 4000 ft, Kokee State Park, Kahuamaa Flat, 21.viii.1973|K. & E. Sattler, BM1973-498|BMNH(E)1621087| Philodoria  sp. 5 (Kauai) Sattler coll. Colour slide 67, D.C. Lees Sep 2016 in NHMUK; 1♂, same data labels as last specimen but 28.viii.1973|67|BMNH(E)1621087; 2 unsexed, Kauai, 3600', Kokee State Park Kaumuohua Ridge (Milolii Ridge Rd) 1.vii.1982|K. & E. Sattler, BM1982-342| BMNH(E)1621081; same data, but BMNH(E)1621088; 1♂, Kauai, 3800', Kokee State Park Kumuwela Ridge Waininiua Trail 24,vi.1982|K. & E. Sattler, BM1982-342|BMNH(E)1621091.

Oahu Is: 1♂, Kahana, 1.i.1928, O.H. Swezey Collector, " Suttonia  "(= Myrsine  ), Z-XII-20-62-5♂, BPBM no. 34142 in BPBM; 2♀, Olympus, Coll. O.H.S, ex Myrsine  , 33, J.F.G.C. #3801♀ in USNM. 1♀, Wailupe, 11.i.1925, O.H. Swezey Collector, " Suttonia  "(= Myrsine  ), Z-XII-20-62-6♀, 34143 in BPBM.

Molokai Is, in BPBM: 1 unsexed, Kawela, 3700ft, 23.xii.1925, O.H. Swezey Collector, " Suttonia  "(= Myrsine  ), 34144;1♂, Kamakou Boardwalk, 24.i.2014 (stored), C.A. Johns leg., host: M. lessertiana  , 18.xii.2013, CJ-241, SK768♂ in BPBM.

Hawaii Is., Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park, host: M. lessertiana  in BPBM: 2♀, A. Kawakita leg., “Non-leaf-dropper”, 25.iv.2016 (larva), SK622♀, SK623♀; 3♂ 4♀, 17-24.v.2016 em., A.Y. Kawahara leg., 27&29.iv.2016 (Cocoon & larva), SKH-10, SK802♀, SKH-13, SK805♂, AYK0002, SK806♂, HILO053, SK800♂, HILO054, SK811♀, HILO059, SK810♀; 1♀, Lava tube, 15.v.2016 em., C.L.-Vaamonde & C. Doorenweerd leg., 22.iv.2016, HILO020/AYK0001, SK809♀.


This species is very similar to P. succedanea  , but recognizable by the dark brownish orange patches and brownish orange basal patch in the forewing; a fuscous patch with dark orangish scales in the apical portion (Table 4; Figs 2E, F, 5 E–H); in the male genitalia by the rather long valva narrowing in the middle, vinculum large, inflexed on the ventral side, broad and straight saccus (Fig. 6 E–G); in the female genitalia by signa with rather blunt spines (Fig. 7G). See also diagnosis of P. succedanea  .


Adult (Fig. 2E, F). Wingspan 8 mm in holotype, 7-9 mm in other specimens; forewing length 3.5 mm in holotype, 3.2-3.9 mm in others. Head and frons dark steely fuscous; maxillary palpus reduced; labial palpus ochreous to brown. Antenna dark fuscous. Thorax: dark brownish orange, becoming fuscous posteriorly. Forewing shiny, metallic bronze with dark brownish orange patches: a large one at base bordered with black ground color (Figs 2E, F, 5E, F, H), sometimes missing orange color (Fig. 8B); an oblique transverse fascia before the middle of wing, bordered with black ground color, sometimes missing orange color (Fig. 11A); a large transverse patch after the middle to costal 3/4, narrowing greatly in the dorsum, extending to dorsal 2/3, containing a white costal spot; one white color band on the middle of the first bronze color band, others on both extremities of second and third bands; a fuscous patch mixed with dark brownish orange scales extending toward the termen and apex with a black apical spot; cilia shiny, dark bronze grey. Hindwing dark tawny fuscous. Abdomen and legs fuscous above, white beneath.

Male genitalia (Fig. 6 E–L) (n = 5). Capsule 940-980 µm. Tegumen 540-580 µm long. Similar to P. succedanea  except tegumen 1.2 × length of valva; valva 460-480 µm long, broad and slightly narrowing in the middle (Fig. 6E, I); vinculum large, inflexed on the ventral side (Fig. 6G, K); saccus 300 µm long, broad and straight (Fig. 6F).

Female genitalia (Fig. 7G) (n = 7). Similar to P. succedanea  , but different in having rather slender tapering antrum and rather blunt spines on the signa.


Kauai: new record, Oahu (Walsingham 1907), Molokai ( Swezey and Bryan 1929), and Hawaii (Big Island) ( Zimmerman 1978).

Host plants.

Primulaceae  : Myrsine  sp. ( Swezey 1913a), M. lessertiana  A. DC. and M. sandwicensis  A. DC. ( Johns et al 2016), M. wawraea  (Mez) Hosaka: new record.


(Figs 8B, 11, 14C). The larvae mine the adaxial side of leaves of Myrsine  species, forming a long serpentine mine (Fig. 11B) and gradually expanding as they feed (Figs 11C, 14C2, C3). Old mines are ocherous to brown in coloration (Fig. 14C1). There were usually one to two mines per leaf (Fig. 11B). The pupal cocoon is prepared outside the mine, on either surface of the leaf, and one was found on the bark of the host.

DNA barcoding.

BIN BOLD:ADD6965. The two specimens sequenced for COI are from Hawaii and diverge by 0.31%, whereas the p-distance to the nearest neighbor, P. kauaulaensis  , is 5.58%.


Euderus metallicus  (Ashmead, 1901), Eulophidae  ( Zimmerman 1978).


We collected Philodoria  leaf mines from Myrsine  plants on Kauai Island (See also remarks for P. succedanea  ), only one male adult identified as P. auromagnifica  emerged from a larva that fed on M. wawraea  (Fig. 14C3). The Kauai specimens have a black second transverse fascia (Fig. 11A), but male genital variation that we observed appears to be intraspecific (Fig. 6 I–L). Some specimens have a oblong valva which narrows in the middle (Fig. 6I), while others have a long tegumen about same length of valva, and slender vinculum and saccus in ventral view (Fig. 6J, K). We notice some wing pattern variation between islands, particularly in the extent of the orange forewing markings, and detailed DNA barcoding in future may prove revealing as regard the integrity of this species as we recognize it here. Two barcoded specimens collected from Hawaii (Big) Island ( RMNH.5013750, CLV6240) belong to the same BIN (BOLD:ADD6965).