Hemiphileurus cornutus Ratcliffe, 2014

Ratcliffe, Brett C., 2014, A New Genus and Species of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from the Galápagos Islands, Ecuador, other New Species of Cyclocephalini, Pentodontini, and Phileurini from South America, and a Revised Key to the Genera of New World Pentodontini, The Coleopterists Bulletin 68 (4), pp. 663-680 : 663-680

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1649/0010-065X-68.4.663

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/4A5987B5-3158-1E2B-FAD4-CE65E6EF8647

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Hemiphileurus cornutus Ratcliffe
status

new species

Hemiphileurus cornutus Ratcliffe , new species ( Figs. 21–25 View Figs View Fig )

Type Material. Holotype male with handwritten label: “ La Esperranza / Cundinamarca / Dpt. 24) Parameres, lateral view.

Colombia / SA. 1250 m. Oct. ′35/RPRoba#EH” and with my red holotype label. Holotype deposited at the University of Nebraska State Museum (Lincoln, NE).

Holotype. Male. Length 20.3 mm; width 8.7 mm. Color black. Head: Surface smooth except for small, dense punctures just mesad of each eye and on each ocular canthus. Vertex with deep, smooth pit. Frons with long (2.2 mm), erect, slightly recurving horns; in frontal view, horns becoming slightly broader on apical half. Clypeus subtriangular, apex acute and strongly reflexed; carina extending from clypeal apex to base of each horn. Interocular width equals 4.6 transverse eye diameters. Antenna 10-segmented, club distinctly longer than antennomeres 2–7. Pronotum: Surface with large, deep, moderately dense punctures; punctures small and sparse immediately either side of median furrow. Median longitudinal furrow deep, broad, becoming wider at anterior end, extending from near base to apical declivity; surface of furrow with dense, large, often confluent punctures. Base with complete marginal bead. Elytra: Surface with 6 punctate striae between suture and humerus; punctures large, ocellate, separated by about 1 puncture diameter or less between large punctures or about 2 diameters between smaller punctures. Intervals distinctly convex, smooth, all subequal in height. Sides with 5 rows of similar punctures. Pygidium: Surface densely punctate; punctures moderately large, setigerous; setae tawny, moderately dense, most moderate in length. In lateral view, surface convex. Legs: Protibia quadridentate, teeth subequally spaced. Apex of metatibia with spine-like upper tooth and with 3 short, thick spinules in crenulations below. Venter: Prosternal process short, thick, triangularly columnar, apex bluntly rounded, posterior surface with distinct prominence at base. Last sternite with sparse, moderately large punctures along basal margin, elsewhere sparsely micropunctate. Parameres: Simple, suboval, constricted at about middle, apices rounded ( Figs. 23–24 View Figs ).

Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin cornutus , meaning “bearing horns or horned.” Hence, “the Hemiphileurus with horns” is in reference to the proportionately larger horns (for a Hemiphileurus species ) of the holotype.

Distribution. Hemiphileurus cornutus is known only from the type locality just to the west of Bogotá in the department of Cundinamarca in Colombia.

Locality Record. COLOMBIA (1): CUNDINA- MARCA: La Esperanza ( Fig. 25 View Fig ).

Temporal Distribution. October (1).

Diagnosis. Hemiphileurus cornutus is characterized by the surface of the head nearly smooth, with distinct horns in the major male holotype; pronotum with a long and deep median furrow; elytral intervals distinctly convex and all of equal height; prosternal process small, thick, and subtriangularly columnar; protibiae quadridentate; and form of the parameres. Compared to the other 13 Hemiphileurus species from Colombia, H. cornutus is the only one with quadridentate protibiae and so is readily distinguished... until an additional new species is discovered with similar protibiae.

Hemiphileurus cornutus will key as far as couplet 45/ 46 in Endrödi (1985), where the choices for H. microps (Burmeister) and H. illatus do not conform to the characters of H. cornutus . However, there are now 29 species that have been described since Endrödi’ s work that are not in his key.

Natural History. Nothing is known of the immature stages or life history of this species. The specimen was collected at an elevation of 1,250 m.

KEY TO THE GENERA OF NEW WORLD PENTODONTINI

1. Antenna with 9 segments....................2

1′. Antenna with 10 segments..................6

2(1). Metafemora greatly thickened. Meso- and metatibiae short, greatly expanded apically. Color testaceous. Peru, Bolivia; 1 species ....... Pentodina Endrödi, 1968

2′. Metafemora not greatly thickened. Meso- and metatibia normal in length, not short; mesotibia at apex normal, metatibiae at apex expanded or not. Color reddish brown or black...................................3

3(2′). Head in both sexes with short horn. Apical region of pronotum declivous. Argentina; 3 species .............................. .............. Eremobothynus Ohaus, 1910

3′. Head lacking horns, instead with small tubercle or transverse carina. Apical region of pronotum not declivous........ 4

4(3′). Clypeal apex narrowly bidentate. Propygidium setose and with 2 longitudinal stridulatory bands. Parameres generally subrectangular in caudal view, not long and slender. Ecuador (Galápagos Islands); 5 species.............. ......... Neoryctes Arrow, 1908 (in part)

4′. Clypeal apex narrowly rounded or narrowly subtruncate. Propygidium glabrous and lacking stridulatory bands. Parameres long, slender, and with apices tapering in caudal view.........................5

5(4′). Interocular distance equals about 5 transverse eye diameters. Hind wings short, nearly vestigial. Pygidium rugose across base, disc with small, sparse punctures. Ecuador (Galápagos Islands); 1 species ......... Adelaeus Ratcliffe , new genus

5′. Interocular distance equals about 8 transverse eye diameters. Hind wings normal, capable of flight. Pygidium minutely alutaceous. Southwestern USA and northern Mexico; 1 species .............. Anoplognatho Rivers, 1889

6(1′). Small species, generally less than 15 mm in length. Head lacking carina, tubercles, or horn; Euetheola humilis (Burmeister) and Denhezia caucacola Endrödi usually with weak frontoclypeal carina. Pronotum lacking tubercle or fovea..........................................7

6′. Larger species, generally greater than 15 mm in length. Head usually with transverse carina (on subapex of clypeus or frontoclypeal region), tubercles, or horn (may be obsolete in some Coscinocephalus specimens). Pronotum either steeply declivous on anterior half or with tubercles or short horn behind anterior margin (rarely obsolete in Aceratus females, Aphonus , Indieraligus , Collagenus , some Tomarus , occasionally Philoscaptus ) and usually with subapical fovea or sulcus...............10

7(6). Color black..........................................8

7′. Color testaceous or reddish brown, pronotum usually slightly darker.......9

8(7). Protibiae tridentate, lacking small accessory teeth. Propygidium without stridulatory striae. Southern USA through South America; 7 species...................... ......................... Euetheola Bates, 1888

8′. Protibiae tridentate, with small accessory teeth. Propygidium with stridulatory striae. African genus with H. arator (F.) introduced into southern Brazil........ ........... Heteronychus Burmeister, 1847

9(7′). Pronotum usually with minute, double tubercle at apex. Honduras to Brazil and Peru; 2 species................................ ......... Parapucaya Prell, 1934 (in part)

9′. Pronotum lacking double tubercle at apex. Colombia; 1 species .................... ................ Denhezia Dechambre, 2006 (incertae sedis)

10(6′). Size large (30–35 mm). Color reddish brown (not piceous or tomentose grey). Mandibles lacking teeth on external margin. Head of male with central horn, female with tubercle. Pronotum of male with strong, bifurcate tubercle or short horn, female with pronotum simply convex. Protibiae with a small, basal, fourth tooth ........................................ 11

10′. Not with above combination of characters ............................................................. 12

11(10). Elytra with deeply punctate striae and punctate intervals. Metatarsomere 1 greatly expanded, subtriangular. Argentina, Brazil, Colombia; 1 species .................... ................. Thronistes Burmeister, 1847

11′. Elytra smooth, lacking deep striae. Metatarsomere 1 cylindrical. Peru; 1 species .................... Heteroglobus Dupuis and Dechambre, 2006

12(10′). Clypeal apex acute, unidentate.........13

12′. Clypeal apex bidentate, truncate, or rounded..............................................14

13(12). Mandibles large, tridentate. Southwestern USA, northern Mexico; 2 species ........ ...................... Oxygrylius Casey, 1915

13′. Mandibles smaller, nearly hidden by clypeus, lacking lateral teeth. South America; 11 species............................... ...................... Oxyligyrus Arrow, 1908

14(12′). Transverse carina present immediately behind apex of clypeus.....................15

14′. Transverse carina absent immediately behind apex of clypeus.....................16

15 (14). Transverse carina (usually tridentate) just behind apex of clypeus. Pronotum without tubercles. Size generally less than 17 mm. USA east of the Rocky Mountains; 6 species ............................. ..................... Aphonus LeConte, 1856

15′. Transverse carina just behind apex of clypeus entire or bidentate. Pronotum tuberculate or not. Size generally greater than 17 mm. Central and southwestern USA to Costa Rica; 28 species .............. ..................... Orizabus Fairmaire, 1878

16(14′). Mandibles only slightly visible from above or hidden under clypeus; outer edge arcuate, not toothed or convexly rounded ............................................ 17

16′. Mandibles distinctly visible from above; outer edge toothed or convexly rounded or lobed.................................................21

17(16). Clypeus strongly narrowed toward apex, apex narrowly bidentate. Color castaneous to black. Canada to Chile; 28 species....... ........... Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (in part)

17′. Clypeus not strongly narrowed toward apex, apex broadly truncate. Color fulvous to rufocastaneous to black........18

18(17′). Apex of metatibiae with 7–8 nonarticulated, small teeth. Southwestern USA, northern Mexico; 2 species ........ .............. Coscinocephalus Prell, 1936

18′. Apex of metatibiae subtruncate, lacking 7–8 non-articulated, small teeth (small, articulated spurs may be present)......19

19(18′). Frontoclypeal suture present, deeply impressed, strongly arcuate either side of middle. Head lacking horns or tubercles. Length 14 mm or less. Honduras to Brazil and Peru; 2 species................... ........... Parapucaya Prell, 1934 (in part)

19′. Frontoclypeal suture absent. Head with horns, tubercles, or low boss. Length 18 mm or greater...............................20

20(19′). Head with small horn (males) or tubercle (females) present next to each eye. Apex of pronotum declivous with subapex weakly to strongly bituberculate. Panama, Colombia, Ecuador; 3 species................. .............................. Pucaya Ohaus, 1910

20′. Paired horns or tubercles absent. Center of head with strong, elevated, transverse carina, carina complete from side to side. Apex of pronotum evenly convex. Venezuela; 1 species........... Collagenus Ratcliffe and Hardy, 2005

21(16′). Mandibles entire or weakly sinuate on lateral edge.........................................22

21′. Mandibles distinctly trilobed or tridentate (1 apical tooth, 2 lateral teeth) ........... 30

22(21). Protibiae tridentate.............................23

22′. Protibiae quadridentate......................24

23(22). Males with long, recurving head horn and pronotum with bifurcate horn. Color black to grey-tomentose (males) to piceous (females), opaque. Brazil, Argentina; 1 species....... Diloboderus Reiche, 1859

23′. Males lacking horns. Color reddish brown, shiny. Cuba; 1 species .............. ...................... Gorditus Ratcliffe, 2010

24(22′). Clypeus strongly contracted to apex, apex narrowly bidentate. Ecuador (Galápagos Islands); 4 species .............. .......... Neoryctes Arrow, 1908 (in part)

24′. Clypeus normally subtriangular, apex truncate, acute, narrowly rounded, or weakly emarginate.............................25

25(24′). Pronotum lacking distinct apical fovea, sulcus, or tubercle..............................26

25′. Pronotum with distinct apical fovea, sulcus, or tubercle (may be indistinct in small specimens of Barutus ).........28

26(25). Base of pronotum lacking marginal bead. Meso- and metatibiae in males with extremely long, dense setae; thoracic sternites with long, sparse setae. Puerto Rico; 1 species........................... ........... Indieraligus Dechambre, 1979

26′. Base of pronotum with marginal bead. Meso- and metatibiae without long, dense setae; thoracic sternites obscured by long, dense setae .......................... 27

27(27′). Club of antennae subequal in length to antennomeres 2–7. Paraguay, Peru; 2 species.... Hiekeianus Endrödi, 1978

27′. Club of antenna large, bulbous, as long as antennomeres 1–7. Peru; 1 species .... ....................... Piscoperus Ratcliffe and Giraldo, 2014

28(25′). Frontoclypeal suture strongly elevated into a transverse, bilobed ridge. Pronotum with shallow, suboval fovea behind subapical tubercle (male) or with subapical, rounded swelling (female). Mexico; 1 species....... Gillaspytes Howden, 1980

28′. Frontoclypeal suture with transverse tubercle only. Pronotum lacking shallow, suboval fovea behind apical margin, instead with a median, longitudinal sulcus, or a shallow fovea either side of middle, or with or without faint depression behind anterior margin. ............... 29

29(28′). Apex of clypeus narrowly rounded, almost parabolic. Pronotum with basal bead present. Pygidium in males lacking distinctive patch of long, dense, reddish brown setae either side of midline. Prosternal process long, thick, columnar. Panama, Costa Rica; 1 species ......................... Barutus Ratcliffe, 1981

29′. Apex of clypeus narrowly truncate. Pronotum with basal bead absent. Pygidium in males with distinctive patch of long, dense, reddish brown setae either side of midline. Prosternal process small, narrowly subtriangular. Dominican Republic, Haiti; 2 species..... ......... Endroedianibe Chalumeau, 1981

30(21′). Apical segment of maxillary palpus expanded, subtriangular. South America; 6 species...... Hylobothynus Ohaus, 1910

30′. Apical segment of maxillary palpus normal, cylindrical ............................ 31

31(30′). Elytra with sparse, minute punctures, appearing smooth .............................. 32

31′. Elytra distinctly punctate or punctatestriate..................................................33

32(31). Clypeus at base near antennal insertion distinctly constricted. Prosternal process long, columnar, apex anvil-shaped with strong spine on posterior edge. Southern Brazil; 2 species..... Aceratus Prell, 1936

32′. Clypeus at base near antenna normal, not constricted. Prosternal process also long, columnar, but apex bluntly rounded and lacking spine on posterior edge. Mexico through South America; 27 species ............................................ ........... Bothynus Hope, 1837 (in part)

33(31′). Clypeal apex rounded or subtruncate, usually weakly emarginate. Frontoclypeal carina, if present, short, less than 1/3 width of base of clypeus. Body form suboval, stout, strongly convex on dorsum. Pronotum coarsely punctate. Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil; 2 species...... Philoscaptus Bréthes, 1919

33′. Clypeal apex bidentate or quadridentate, if subtruncate then frontoclypeal carina long or represented by 2 tubercles. Body form usually elongate, less stout, not strongly convex on dorsum. Pronotum variably punctate ................................. 34

34(33′). Propygidium often extended so that pygidium is foreshortened; surface with distinct, transverse, stridulatory bands. Mexico through South America; 27 species................................................ ........... Bothynus Hope, 1837 (in part)

34′. Propygidium normal in length so that pygidium not foreshortened; surface granulate or not but lacking transverse stridulatory bands. Canada to Chile; 28 species .............................................. ....... Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (in part)

SA

Museum national d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratiore de Paleontologie

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Dynastidae

Genus

Hemiphileurus