Phakellia atypica Lévi, 1961

Alvarez, Belinda, De Voogd, Nicole J. & Soest, Van, 2016, Sponges of the family Axinellidae (Porifera: Demospongiae) in Indonesia, Zootaxa 4137 (4), pp. 451-477: 461-464

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4137.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:55CA5F98-BBD2-41DC-974B-B904DE47B5BC

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4B1187F3-FFEC-F72E-FF70-C3A1BF72C737

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Phakellia atypica Lévi, 1961
status

 

Phakellia atypica Lévi, 1961 

( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2, 7View FIGURE 7)

Phakellia atypica Lévi, 1961: 516  .

Material examined. RMNHAbout RMNH PORAbout POR. 2900, Indonesia, Bali, SE-end Tulamben beach, 8.2778 °S., 115.5958 °E, 40 m depth, 13 April 2001, #Bal 22 /NV/ 130401 / 181, coll. N.J. de Voogd. RMNHAbout RMNH PORAbout POR. 3053, Indonesia, Bali, N side of Nusa Penida, Tanjung Biasmuntig, 8.6730 °S., 115.4869 °E, 36 m depth, 20 April 2001, #Bal 31 /NV/ 200402 / 248, coll. N.J. de Voogd. RMNHAbout RMNH PORAbout POR. 6561, Indonesia, North Sulawesi, Lembeh Strait, Tanjung Kusukusu, 1.4538 °N., 125.2369 °E, 16 m depth, 16 February 2012, #LEM 31 / 160212 / 237, coll. N.J.de Voogd. RMNHAbout RMNH PORAbout POR. 6628, Indonesia, North Sulawesi, Lembeh Strait, Pulau Abadi, 1.4336 °N., 125.2062 °E, 18 m depth, 10 February 2012, #LEM 22 / 100212 /096, coll. N.J.de Voogd. ZMAAbout ZMA Por. 0 9005, Indonesia, NE coast of Sumba, E of Melolo, Nusa Tenggara, 9.9033 °S, 120.725 °E, 50 m depth, 15 September 1984, coll. R.W.M. van Soest on Snellius II Expedition, Sta. 061/ V/06, dredge. ZMAAbout ZMA Por. 0 9039, Indonesia, Nusa Tenggara, NE coast of Sumba, 9.95 °S, 120.6 °E, 50 m depth, 16 September 1984, coll. R.W.M. van Soest on Snellius II Expedition, Sta. 068/ V/04, 1.2 m Agassiz trawl. ZMAAbout ZMA Por. 10822, Indonesia, Masidan, Kepulauan Aru, Maluku Province, 5.47 °S, 134.8983 °E, 57 m depth, 26 December 1899, coll. Siboga Expedition, Sta.  274. ZMAAbout ZMA Por. 12287, Indonesia, Sapeh Strait, Lesser Sunda Islands, 8.3916 °S, 119.073 °E, 69 m depth, 14 April 1899, coll. Siboga Expedition, Sta.  049a. ZMAAbout ZMA Por. 12332, Indonesia, Sapeh Strait, Lesser Sunda Islands, 8.3916 °S, 119.073 °E, 69 m depth, 14 April 1899, coll. Siboga Expedition, Sta.  049a.

Description. Shape ( Figs 7View FIGURE 7 A–C). Fan to cup-shaped, with irregular margins, on narrow peduncle, 3 cm long by 2 cm diameter. Specimens are up to 10 cm long by 11 cm in maximum diameter with walls 2–10 mm thick, but becoming thicker towards the peduncle.

Colour. Orange live. Beige in alcohol.

Consistency. Rough to touch, spiculose, flexible and compressible.

Oscula. External face with minute pores less than 1 mm; inner face with larger pores up to 3 mm diameter regularly distributed.

Surface. External face covered irregularly with conulose and hispid-thin projections up to 1 cm long, single or joined laterally, forming meandroid valleys up to 1 cm high and giving surface a clathrous appearance; membranous transparent skin pierced by minute pores. Inner face, irregularly conulose and with fewer or without long projections. Both inner and outer surface marked by choanosomal longitudinal fibres, especially near the margins. Surface at peduncle area is free of projections; micro-hispid.

Skeleton ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 D). Ectosomal skeleton not specialised. Choanosomal skeleton vaguely plumose to halichondroid; compressed in cross section in some regions of the specimen; without spongin fibres but thick multispicular tracts, up to 1 mm in diameter, loosely packed with interwoven spicules and ‘plumo-echinated’ with single spicules, ascending toward surface, dividing, anastomosing and forming an irregular reticulation. Secondary tracts vague or ill-defined, diverging from main axes, multispicular and slightly plumose.

Specimen Locality Strongyles Styles Toxiform oxeas RMNHAbout RMNH PORAbout POR. Bali 1065.7–2001.8 µm 783.3–1255.4 µm

2900 (1586.6 ± 254.6) (1068.2 ± 114.5)

x 7.1–14.4 µm (10.8 ± 2) x 7.1–16.8 µm (10.8 ± 2.5)

RMNHAbout RMNH PORAbout POR. Bali 472.2–1348.8 µm 596–1046.8 µm 226.1–284.6 µm 3053 (1095.1 ± 194.5) (837.3 ± 111.9) (249.8 ± 30.8) [3]

x 8 –16.8µm (13 ± 2.5) x 8.9–23.5 µm (14.5 ± 3.5) x 5.4–6.5 µm (5.8 ± 0.6) [3]

ZMAAbout ZMA Por. Maluku, 837.4–1810.6 µm 619.6–1233.5 µm 211.9–377.1 µm 10822 Indonesia (1326.8 ± 291.6) (943.7 ± 135.5) (306.6 ± 46.5) [17]

x 8 –24.9µm (15.6 ± 4.1) x 7.6–23.2 µm (15 ± 4.4) x 2.6–6 µm (4.5 ± 1) [17]

ZMAAbout ZMA Por. Sunda Islands 965–1839 µm (1444.9 ± 255.5) 946.3–1272.4 µm

12332 (1116.5 ± 98.1)

x 8.9–20.9 µm (16.4 ± 2.9) x 9.1–23.3 µm (17.1 ± 3.2)

RMNHAbout RMNH PORAbout POR. North Sulawesi 1072.3–1807.3 µm (1504.1) 844–1198.7 µm (991.4) 224.8–371.3 µm (272.4) 6561 x 6.3–25.4 (14.6)[10] x 4 –20.4µm (12.3)[18] x 3.5 –7.0 (5)[6] RMNHAbout RMNH North Sulawesi 1053.2–1169.1 (1110.6) 802–1097 µm (978.3) 284.8–362 µm (322.8) PORAbout POR. 6628 x 3.6–7.3 µm (6) [3] x 8.3–25.3 µm (16.8) x 2.9–7 µm (5.5)[4]

Philippines * 1700–2000 µm 1200–1550 µm x 16–30 µm 200–600 µm x 4–15 µm

(holotype)

*Data from Lévi (1961) Spicules ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 E, Table 6). Strongyles, sinuous, or irregularly bent; often in horseshoe shape, 1065.7– 2001.8 µmx 7.1–14.4 µm. Styles, thin, long, slightly curved, 596–1272 µm x 7.1–23.5 µm. Toxiform oxeas, rare, or absent(not found in all specimens), 211.9–377.1 µm.

Remarks. We assigned the material examined to Phakellia atypica Lévi, 1961  , from Philippines, based on the similarities of general shape, skeletal organisation, size of strongyles and styles and the presence of toxiform oxeas with highly pointed tips described for that species. The material examined, however, is variable in terms of external morphology ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A–C) and spicule composition and dimensions. As admitted by Lévi (1961), the skeleton is not typical of Phakellia  and shows affinities to Acanthella  or other genera with dictyonellid-like skeleton but lack the characteristic cartilaginous consistency of Acanthella  spp.

The material was compared also to Phakellia stelliderma Lévi & Lévi, 1989  from Eastern Philippines, but differs in general shape, which is described as a thin fan, 2 mm thick, with surface marked by a regular choanosomal reticulation. The choanosomal tracts are formed with interwoven strongyles and echinated by very large styles (up to 2 mm in length), and smaller styles (400–700 µm) and projecting through the surface in regular bouquets.

The material was also compared to the type of Phakellia columnata ( Burton, 1928)  [fragment of type BMNH 1926.10. 1.23, Andaman Sea, examined] from which it differs in external shape, skeletal characteristics, composition and size of spicules.

The species is also very similar in external shape and skeletal architecture to Phakellia labellum ( Lamarck, 1814)  from Madagascar [fragment of type, MNHNAbout MNHN LBIM DT 3385, examined]. In P. l ab e l l um the skeleton is formed only by styles and the strongyles are absent or reduced to thinly styles-transitional to strongyles. The styles are found in two size categories 167.4–253.1 µm x 12.6–18.9 µm and 326.8–1092.7 µm x 6.3–14.3 µm respectively, with the smallest forming a thick palisade at the subectosomal level.

Other valid species of Phakellia  from the Western Indo-Pacific Realm according to the WPD (i.e. P. crassistylifera Dendy, 1905: 192  and P. symmetrica Dendy, 1905  ) do not match the diagnosis of Phakellia  and probably belong to Stylissa  .

Distribution. Philippines, Zamboanga (type locality), Indonesia (Bali, Maluku, Sunda Islands; Lesser Sunda MEOW ecoregion, Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). It is also recorded from Taiwan (De Voogd unpublished data). It is found between 36 and 69 m.

RMNH

National Museum of Natural History, Naturalis

POR

Universit� degli Studi di Napoli Federico II

ZMA

Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Halichondrida

Family

Axinellidae

Genus

Phakellia

Loc

Phakellia atypica Lévi, 1961

Alvarez, Belinda, De Voogd, Nicole J. & Soest, Van 2016

2016
Loc

Phakellia atypica Lévi, 1961 : 516

Levi 1961: 516