Craniella curviclada

Fernandez, Julio C. C., Rodriguez, Pablo R. D., Santos, George G., Pinheiro, Ulisses & Muricy, Guilherme, 2018, Taxonomy of deep-water tetillid sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spirophorina) from Brazil, with description of three new species and new characters, Zootaxa 4429 (1), pp. 53-88: 73-79

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4429.1.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:588CFF51-01DF-4C1C-86D9-D13031F5045B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4B37682E-6643-8201-4DCD-1DC6FCA5FB2B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Craniella curviclada
status

sp. nov.

Craniella curviclada  sp. nov.

( Figs. 13–14View FIGURE 13View FIGURE 14; Tab. 4)

Diagnosis. Craniella  globular, without a root, with a double-layered cortex; three categories of smooth oxeas, two categories of protriaenes (largest category, slightly anisoclad with bent tips of clads, and smallest category, isoclad and very slender) and one category each of anatriaenes and sigmaspires.

Synonyms. Cinachyra  sp. n., Muricy et al. 2006: 115.

Material examined. Holotype. MNRJ 20961View Materials, REVIZEE Programme sta. Central 2- F20, Espírito Santo State, Southeastern Brazil (19°17’14” S, 37°57’13” W, slope, Espírito Santo Basin, circa 265 km E off Vitória City), dredging, 500 m depth, coll. N.Oc. Astro-Garoupa team, 22 November 1997GoogleMaps  .

Description. The single specimen has been sectioned for study and only half is preserved. Globular sponge without a root ( Figs. 13A–D View Figure ); 17 mm in diameter. In cross section, dense concentration of spicules at the center of the body and near the surface ( Fig. 13A View Figure ). Surface, even, but rough and slightly hispid. Oscules or pores not visible. Color, in vivo not recorded, and light beige in ethanol. Consistency, firm, but compressible.

Skeleton. Radial, with main bundles of oxeas I from the center to the surface, protruding up to 350 µm above the surface ( Fig. 13E View Figure ), up to 250 µm wide and up to 500 µm of distance to each other ( Fig. 13F View Figure ). Oxeas II only in the center of body, as a disorganized mass ( Fig. 13F View Figure ). Cortex with two layers; outer layer with 930 µm thick and sub-dermal cavities up to 500 µm in diameter, and inner layer with an irregular palisade of cortical oxeas III up to 700 µm high ( Figs. 13E, G View Figure ). Protriaenes and anatriaenes in the main spicule bundles; cladomes of protriaenes usually pierce the surface together with the oxeas I ( Fig. 13H View Figure ). Sigmaspires scattered in the ectosome and choanosome, and around canals ( Figs. 13I –J View Figure ). Choanosome, dense with few canals; approximately 500 µm in diameter.

Spicules. Megascleres ( Tab. 4):

Oxeas I ( Fig. 14A–B View Figure ) abundant, anisoactinal (anisoxeas), fusiform, straight to curved, smooth. Extremities, very distinct (one with a typically hastate tip and the opposite end filiform): 1600–3841–5000/28–38–53 µm.

Oxeas II ( Fig. 14C–D View Figure ), less abundant than the oxeas I, slightly fusiform, isoactinal, straight or curved, and smooth. Extremities, equal, with hastate to acerate tips: 915–1200–1450/18–26–30 µm.

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Oxeas III ( Fig. 14E–F View Figure ), abundant, exclusively cortical (size widely variable), stout, smooth, fusiform and often slightly curved. Extremities equal, with tips acerate: 450–658–900/29–36–49 µm.

Protriaenes I ( Figs. 14G–H View Figure ), abundant. Rhabdome, thicker near the cladome, thin after 950 µm in opposite direction to the cladoma, then becoming slightly thicker again and very slender and flexuous up to the opposite extremity: 1360– 1193–2725 /14–20–24 µm. Clads, straight to slightly sinuous, with curved extremities and making an angle of 150º–160º with the rhabdome: 122–165–223/ 12–17–22 µm.

Protriaenes II ( Fig. 14I –K View Figure ), less common than the protriaenes I. Rhabdome, straight and becoming thin near the cladome: 301–556–1075/ 7–10–14 µm. Cladome, small, with straight and pointed clads, making an angle of about 135º with the rhabdome: 19–55–115/ 5–7–10 µm.

Anatriaenes ( Fig. 14L–M View Figure ), less common than the protriaenes I and II, exclusively choanosomal. Rhabdome, larger than that of both protriaenes, with variable thickness: 2750–3890–6500/22–32–41 µm. Cladome, with clads making an angle of approximately 60º with the rhabdome: 68–135–140/14–22–29 µm.

Microscleres ( Tab. 4):

Sigmaspires ( Fig. 14N View Figure ), very abundant, ‘c’ or ‘s’ shaped and entirely microspined (with a few large spines): 14–15–17/0.5–2.0 µm.

Ecology and bathymetric distribution. No macrosymbionts were observed on this sponge. The only specimen was collected from soft seabed with a mix of mud and carbonate sand, at 500 m depth ( Lavrado & Ignacio 2006; Muricy et al. 2006).

Distribution. Known only from the type locality, the continental slope off Espírito Santo State, SE Brazil, SW Atlantic ( Fig. 1 View Figure ).

Etymology. The name ‘curviclada’ refers to the curved tips of clads of the larger protriaenes (protriaenes I of this study).

Remarks. Unlike Craniella crustocorticata  , Craniella curviclada  sp. nov. fits well in the diagnosis of Craniella  proposed by Carella et al. (2016), due to its globular shape, absence of porocalices, and presence of a distinct two-layered cortex.

Now forty-three species of Craniella  are known worldwide; including Craniella curviclada  sp. nov., of which 16 occur in the Atlantic Ocean: eight in the western Atlantic, seven in the eastern Atlantic and one occurring in the North, East and West Atlantic ( Tab. 4). The new species is set apart from all species of Craniella  from the Atlantic due to either features of habit, surface, spiculation or a combination of these. These differences are described below.

Craniella australis Samaai & Gibbons 2005  , Craniella azorica  , Craniella carteri  , Craniella metaclada ( Lendenfeld 1907)  , Craniella monodi ( Burton 1929)  and Craniella zetlandica ( Carter 1872)  lack sigmaspires and Craniella disigma Topsent 1904  has two categories of sigmaspires. Since one category of sigmaspires is present in Craniella curviclada  sp. nov., six previous species are set apart from the new species ( Tab. 4). Remarkably, protriaenes of Craniella australis  have clads with slightly bent tips (Saamai & Gibbons, 2005: 10; Fig.7 View Figure ), which are similar to those of Craniella curviclada  sp. nov., but these protriaenes are longer and bear smaller clads and cladome than those of the new species ( Figs. 14G–H View Figure ); viz. Craniella australis  (rhabd. 819–4000/9–65; ca. 30 µm of distance between clads) and Craniella curviclada  sp. nov. rhabd. 1360–2725 /14–24; ca. 200 µm of distance between clads).

Craniella cranium ( Müller 1776)  , Craniella cranium  f. microspira Lévi 1967 and Craniella schmidtii Sollas 1886  have two categories of oxeas instead of three as in the new species. Further, Craniella schmidtii  has smaller choanosomal oxeas, up to 1600 µm (vs. up to 5000 µm in Craniella curviclada  sp. nov.).

Craniella gravida sensu Pollock 1998  , Craniella insidiosa Schmidt 1870  , Craniella lens Schmidt 1870  , Craniella tethyoides Schmidt 1870  and Craniella zetlandica  are poorly described and their re-description is beyond the scope of this study. However, Craniella insidiosa  has a papillose habit (vs. globular habit in Craniella curviclada  sp. nov.) and Craniella tethyoides  has anatriaenes bearing smaller clads, 70–90 µm in length (vs. 68 – 140 µm in length in Craniella curviclada  sp. nov.).

Craniella crustocorticata  has a root at the base, a strongly conulose surface, oxeas with nearly equal extremities, a single-layered cortex, and sigmaspires with relatively many large spines in comparison to Craniella curviclada  sp. nov.. The new species differs from Craniella crustocorticata  by the absence of a root at the base, absence of conules on the surface, presence of two-layered cortex in the skeleton, stout anisoactinal oxeas, and sigmaspires with fewer spines (viz., see results of this study).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Tetractinellida

Family

Tetillidae

Genus

Craniella

Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez, Julio C. C., Rodriguez, Pablo R. D., Santos, George G., Pinheiro, Ulisses & Muricy, Guilherme 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez & Rodriguez & Santos & Pinheiro & Muricy 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez & Rodriguez & Santos & Pinheiro & Muricy 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez & Rodriguez & Santos & Pinheiro & Muricy 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez & Rodriguez & Santos & Pinheiro & Muricy 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez & Rodriguez & Santos & Pinheiro & Muricy 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez & Rodriguez & Santos & Pinheiro & Muricy 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella curviclada

Fernandez & Rodriguez & Santos & Pinheiro & Muricy 2018

2018
Loc

Craniella crustocorticata

van Soest 2017

2017
Loc

Craniella crustocorticata

van Soest 2017

2017
Loc

Craniella australis

Samaai & Gibbons 2005

2005
Loc

Craniella australis

Samaai & Gibbons 2005

2005
Loc

Craniella australis

Samaai & Gibbons 2005

2005
Loc

Craniella gravida

sensu Pollock 1998

1998
Loc

Craniella monodi (

Burton 1929

1929
Loc

Craniella metaclada (

Lendenfeld 1907

1907
Loc

Craniella disigma

Topsent 1904

1904
Loc

Craniella carteri

Sollas Sollas 1886

1886
Loc

Craniella schmidtii

Sollas 1886

1886
Loc

Craniella schmidtii

Sollas 1886

1886
Loc

Craniella zetlandica (

Carter 1872

1872
Loc

Craniella insidiosa

Schmidt 1870

1870
Loc

Craniella lens

Schmidt 1870

1870
Loc

Craniella tethyoides

Schmidt 1870

1870
Loc

Craniella insidiosa

Schmidt 1870

1870
Loc

Craniella tethyoides

Schmidt 1870

1870
Loc

Craniella cranium ( Müller 1776 )

Muller 1776

1776