Cinachyrella kuekenthali ( Uliczka 1929 )

Fernandez, Julio C. C., Rodriguez, Pablo R. D., Santos, George G., Pinheiro, Ulisses & Muricy, Guilherme, 2018, Taxonomy of deep-water tetillid sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae, Spirophorina) from Brazil, with description of three new species and new characters, Zootaxa 4429 (1), pp. 53-88: 56-61

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4429.1.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:588CFF51-01DF-4C1C-86D9-D13031F5045B

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4B37682E-6654-8213-4DCD-1CBCFAB7F9D7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cinachyrella kuekenthali ( Uliczka 1929 )
status

 

Cinachyrella kuekenthali ( Uliczka 1929) 

( Figs. 2–4View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4; Tab. 1)

Diagnosis. Microacanthoxeas-bearing Cinachyrella  with a subspherical habit, small porocalices (5 mm) and orange to brownish orange color; three categories of oxeas, the smallest one crenulate (= microacanthoxeas), and one category each of protriaenes, anatriaenes and sigmaspires, the latter larger than 16 µm (amended from Rützler & Smith 1992).

Material examined. MNHN.LBIM.D.NBE. 1027 (fragment deposited in UFRJPOR 3373), holotype of Trachygellius corticata Boury-Esnault 1973  , R.V. Calypso Expedition  sta. 23, Pernambuco State, Brazil (8º19’ S, 34º39’ W, off Recife City), 75 m depth; MNRJ 6517, 6518, Cinachyrella kuekenthali  , REVIZEE Programme, sta. Central 6-R3#1, Bahia State, Brazil (15°49'40.7994” S, 38°36'25.1994" W, off Belmonte City), 83 m depth. Coll. R.V. Astro Garoupa, 21 June 2002; MNRJ 21211, Cinachyrella kuekenthali  , REVIZEE Programme, sta. Central 5- R10, Bahia, Brazil (17º6’10.8” S, 36º44’27.6” W, Rodgers Seamount, off Prado City), 50 m depth. Coll. R.V. Astro Garoupa, 0 7 July 2001.

Comparative material. MNRJAbout MNRJ 8314, Cinachyrella kuekenthali  , Bahia State, Brazil (13º00’ S, 38º32’ W, Salvador City), 6 m depth. Coll. and det. Eduardo Hajdu, 0 3 June 2004 (material described by Hajdu et al. 2011).

Synonyms. Cinachyra kükenthali, Uliczka 1929: 44  .

Cinachyra schistospiculosa, Uliczka 1929: 45  ; de Laubenfels 1936: 174; van Soest & Sass 1981: 337; Rützler 1987: 200; Rützler & Smith 1992: 156; van Soest & Rützler 2002: 91.

Uliczka schistospiculosa, de Laubenfels 1936: 174  .

Cinachyra (Cinachyrella) kukenthali, Hechtel 1976: 242  .

Cinachyra kukenthali, Hechtel 1976: 253  .

Cinachyra kuekenthali, Collette & Rützler 1977: 309  ; Wiedenmayer 1977: 185; van Soest 1981: 4; van Soest & Sass 1981: 337; Rützler 1987: 200; van Soest & Stentoft 1988: 42; Schmahl 1990: 379; van Soest 1993: 212.

Cinachyrella kuekenthali, Rützler & Smith 1992: 154  ; Lehnert & van Soest 1998: 77; Alcolado 2002: 58; van Soest & Rützler 2002: 91; Ben Mustapha et al. 2003: 64; Muricy et al. 2006: 115 (in part, except records from Almirante Saldanha Seamount); Rodriguez 2007: 43; Hajdu & Lopes 2007: 354 (in part, except records from Almirante Saldanha Seamount); Muricy et al. 2008: 41; Cárdenas et al. 2009: 10; Rützler et al. 2009: 295; Rützler et al. 2014: 18; Muricy et al. 2011: 169 (in part, except records from Almirante Saldanha Seamount); Moura et al. 2016: 6; Pérez et al. 2017: 11.

New synonyms. Trachygellius corticata Boury-Esnault 1973: 273  .

Craniella corticata, Muricy et al. 2011: 169  .

Cinachyrella aff. kuekenthali, Muricy et al. 2006: 115  ; Hajdu & Lopes 2007: 354; Muricy et al. 2011: 187 (in part, except records from Almirante Saldanha Seamount).

Re-description of the holotype of Trachygellius corticata  . One specimen roughly spherical (originally 7 cm in diameter), now cut in two halves, contracted at the borders and with a mound-shaped elevation at the center ( Fig. 2A–B View Figure ); size of the two halves re-measured 4.3 cm high by 5.0 cm in diameter and 4.8 cm high by 5.9 cm in diameter. Surface, hispid, rough, with shallow hemispherical brownish porocalices and less numerous small blackish oscules; both openings up to 1 mm in diameter. Large calcareous fragments adhere to the base. Color, in vivo not recorded, and dark brown with blackish patches in ethanol. Consistency, relatively firm, but slightly compressible.

Skeleton. Ectosome with a thin layer of sediment and underlined by a lighter zone of approximately 1 mm thick, but without a true cortex with special spicules ( Fig. 2C View Figure ). Skeleton, fully radial ( Fig. 2D View Figure ), with thick main bundles of oxeas I and II (200–2000 µm thick) from the center to the surface; bundles piercing the surface up to 1500 µm high. Protriaenes and anatriaenes within the bundles of oxeas and often with cladomes piercing the surface. Microacanthoxeas and sigmaspires in ectosomal and choanosomal regions and between the bundles of oxeas ( Fig. 2E View Figure ).

Spicules. Megascleres ( Tab. 1):

Oxeas I ( Fig. 2F View Figure ), abundant, stout, fusiform, straight and smooth. Extremities, equal and with hastate (more common), telescopic, mucronate or blunt tips: 2100–2860–4784/25–36–50 µm.

Oxeas II ( Fig. 2G View Figure ), less abundant and thinner than oxeas I, straight and smooth. Extremities, equal and with hastate tips: 1105–1810 –2203/ 6–15–23 µm.

Protriaenes ( Fig. 2H View Figure ), relatively common. Rhabdome, slender (often broken): 1560–2702 –5080/ 3–8–16. Cladome, usually with three equal, sharp, straight clads (anisoclad protriaenes and prodiaenes occur): 20–55–105/ 2–6–12 µm.

Anatriaenes ( Fig. 2I View Figure ), less common. Rhabdome, straight (always broken):> 220/6.3–7.2–8.6 µm. Cladome with short, curved, sharply pointed clads: 35–47–64/5.1–6.9–9.7 µm (n=3).

Microscleres ( Tab. 1):

Microacanthoxeas ( Figs. 3A–B View Figure ), abundant, thin, sharply pointed, slightly curved and entirely microspined (many small spines); stylote and strongylote modifications occur: 78–105–170/1.5–3–4 µm.

Sigmaspires ( Figs. 3A, C View Figure ), abundant, ‘c’ or "s" shaped and entirely microspined (with many small spines): 12– 15.5–25 µm.

Description of specimens of Cinachyrella kuekenthali  . Roughly spherical or pear-shaped sponge ( Fig. 4A View Figure ); 2.3–5.5 cm high by 1.8–5.0 cm in diameter. Surface, hispid, rough, with shallow circular porocalices, 1.2–4.0 mm in diameter, and small oscules, up to 1 mm in diameter. Calcareous fragments often adhere to the base. Color, in vivo not recorded, and cream to light brown in ethanol. Consistency, relatively firm, but slightly compressible.

Skeleton. Ectosome covered with a layer of sediment, 500–1000 µm high; true cortex and special ectosomal spicules absent ( Fig. 4B–C View Figure ). Skeleton, fully radial, with thick main bundles of oxeas I and II (200–1500 µm thick) from the center to the surface; bundles piercing the surface up to 1000 µm high. Protriaenes and anatriaenes, uncommon, within the bundles of oxeas, and usually with cladomes piercing the surface. Microacanthoxeas and sigmaspires, abundant between and within the radial bundles of oxeas in choanosomal and ectosomal regions.

Spicules. Megascleres ( Tab. 1):

Oxeas I ( Fig. 4D View Figure ), abundant, stout, fusiform, straight and smooth. Extremities, equal and with hastate (more common), acerate, telescopic, mucronate, or blunt tips: 1775–2505 –3200/ 12–27–52 µm.

Oxeas II ( Fig. 4E View Figure ), less abundant and thinner than oxeas I, straight and smooth. Extremities, equal and with hastate tips: 800– 1243–1650 / 2–6–10 µm.

Protriaenes ( Fig. 4F View Figure ), relatively common. Rhabdome, slender (often broken): 2800–3337–4025/7.5–10–12.5 µm. Cladome with three equal or unequal, sharp or blunt, irregular clads (modifications to prodiaenes occur): 7– 26–49 / 2–6–10 µm.

Anatriaenes ( Fig. 4G View Figure ), uncommon. Rhabdome, straight and filiform (often broken): 1425–2239 –2700/5–7.5– 10 µm. Cladome with short, curved, sharply pointed clads: 7–17–25 /4–6–9 µm.

Microscleres ( Tab. 1):

Microacanthoxeas ( Figs. 4H–I View Figure ), abundant, thin, sharply pointed, slightly curved and entirely microspined (with many small spines): 65–109–147/1–3–6 µm.

Sigmaspires ( Fig. 4J View Figure ), abundant, ‘c’ or "s" shaped and entirely microspined (with many small spines): 10– 15.5–20/0.5–0.8–1.2 µm.

Ecology and bathymetric distribution. No macrosymbionts were observed on the material examined. Cinachyrella kuekenthali  is recorded from intertidal zone, 0.2 m depth (Moraes 2011), to 100 m depth (Boury- Esnault 1973; Rützler & Smith 1992; Muricy et al. 2006; Hajdu & Lopes 2007; Hajdu et al. 2011) on rocks, reefs, gravel and muddy bottoms.

Distribution. Tropical Eastern Atlantic (?): Cape Verde; Warm Temperate and Tropical Western Atlantic: East coast of USA (Florida, North Carolina), Caribbean Sea ( Bahamas, Cuba, U.S. Virgin Islands, Jamaica, Barbados, Curaçao, Belize, Panama, Colombia), Brazil: off Amazon River mouth, Rio Grande do Norte (Potiguar Basin), Atol das Rocas, Pernambuco, Bahia, Espítito Santo and Rio de Janeiro states ( Rützler & Smith 1992; Muricy et al. 2006, 2011; Hajdu & Lopes 2007; Moraes 2011; Hajdu et al. 2011; and present study).

Remarks. Boury-Esnault (1973) did not designate type specimens for Trachygellius corticata  , but reported a single specimen in the original description. One of us (GM) found two shrunken fragments of a sponge labeled as Trachygellius corticata  in the Calypso  collection at the MNHNAbout MNHN (i.e., MNHNAbout MNHN. LBIM.D.NBE 1027) and, because they did not fit together, interpreted them as separate specimens and designated them erroneously as syntypes ( Muricy et al. 2011). Here we recognize that they are in fact two parts of a single specimen cut in half, which is now correctly designated as the holotype.

Although van Soest & Rützler (2002) have considered Trachygellius  a synonym of Tetilla Schmidt 1870  due to absence of porocalices, cortical specialization and auxiliary megascleres, Muricy et al. (2011) have assigned Trachygellius corticata  to Craniella Schmidt 1870  . The assignment of Muricy et al. (2011) was based in the presence of a cortical structure in the skeleton and absence of porocalices on the surface. Porocalices are not mentioned as absent by Boury-Esnault (1973) but the author does not report them. Therefore, the combination of presence of a distinct cortex strengthened by special cortical oxeas and absence of porocalices fits in the diagnosis of Craniella  by van Soest & Rützler (2002).

Trachygellius corticata  has been originally described as a spherical mass, with a dark color, a hispid and granular surface, a lighter ectosomal crust formed by the condensation of small rugose oxeas (= microacanthoxeas), and a radial skeleton formed by large smooth oxeas and sigmaspires ( Boury-Esnault 1973: 273). However, our revision of the holotype of this species revealed the presence of small hemispherical porocalices and the absence of a true cortical structure strengthened by special cortical oxeas, thus fitting in the definition of Cinachyrella  by van Soest & Rützler (2002) and Carella et al. (2016); as seen above on the definition and diagnosis of the genus. Although a lighter zone is indeed present below the ectosomal region of the holotype ( Fig. 2C View Figure ), neither a collagen reinforcement nor special oxeas are present. Only microacanthoxeas are scattered in the ectosomal region as well as in the choanosomal region ( Figs. 2D–E View Figure ).

van Soest (2017: 112) has already pointed out the similarity between the microacanthoxeas of Trachygellius corticata  and those of Cinachyrella kuekenthali  . We have confirmed such similarity by our analyzes in SEM ( Figs. 3A–B View Figure and Figs. 4H–I View Figure ). Furthermore, spiculation of Trachygellius corticata  is similar to those of specimens of Cinachyrella kuekenthali  from the Caribbean and Brazilian regions ( Tab. 1). Additionally, habit, surface and spiculation of the holotype of Trachygellius corticata  are very similar to those of specimens of Cinachyrella kuekenthali  from the Caribbean ( Rützler & Smith 1992), Potiguar Basin, NE Brazil ( Muricy et al. 2008) and Bahia coast, NE Brazil (REVIZEE Programme, analyzed by us; Hajdu et al. 2011). We therefore conclude that Trachygellius corticata  is a junior synonym of Cinachyrella kuekenthali  .

Cinachyrella kuekenthali  and Cinachyrella aff. kuekenthali  were recorded by Programme REVIZEE from several localities from off Bahia State (13.1o S, 38.4o W) to Almirante Saldanha Seamount, off Rio de Janeiro State (22.4o S, 37.6o W) ( Muricy et al. 2006, 2011; Hajdu & Lopes 2007). Our revision indicates that the specimens from most sites belong indeed to Cinachyrella kuekenthali  , but those from the Almirante Saldanha Seamount differ in the possession of strongyles. We described these specimens below as a new strongyle-bearing Cinachyrella  .

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Porifera

Class

Demospongiae

Order

Tetractinellida

Family

Tetillidae

Genus

Cinachyrella

Loc

Cinachyrella kuekenthali ( Uliczka 1929 )

Fernandez, Julio C. C., Rodriguez, Pablo R. D., Santos, George G., Pinheiro, Ulisses & Muricy, Guilherme 2018

2018
Loc

Cinachyra schistospiculosa

: 45 : 174 : 337 : 200 : 156 : 91

Loc

schistospiculosa

: 174

Loc

Cinachyra (Cinachyrella) kukenthali, Hechtel 1976 : 242

: 242

Loc

Cinachyra kukenthali, Hechtel 1976 : 253

: 253

Loc

Cinachyra kuekenthali, Collette & Rützler 1977 : 309

: 309 : 185 : 337 : 200 : 42 : 379 : 212

Loc

Cinachyrella kuekenthali, Rützler & Smith 1992 : 154

: 154 : 77 : 58 : 91 : 64 : 115 : 41 : 10 : 295 : 18 : 169 : 6 : 11

Loc

Craniella corticata

: 169

Loc

Cinachyrella aff. kuekenthali

: 115 : 187