Nothogreniera fergusoni ( Tonnoir), 1925

A. Craig, Douglas, Currie, Douglas C. & Moulton, John K., 2018, Nothogreniera new genus, for two species of Australian " Paracnephia " (Diptera: Simuliidae), Zootaxa 4444 (4), pp. 351-380: 353-368

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4444.4.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:4A12965C-0189-4138-B6A9-0F7CB4C847E4

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4C42647F-FFA6-FF97-FF7D-B0AEB3731711

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Nothogreniera fergusoni ( Tonnoir), 1925
status

 

Nothogreniera fergusoni ( Tonnoir), 1925  . New combination

( FIgS. 1–49View FIGURES 1–6View FIGURES 7–11View FIGURES 12–17View FIGURES 18–20View FIGURES 24–29View FIGURES 30–33View FIGURES 34–38View FIGURES 39–43View FIGURES 44–49)

Simulium fergusoni Tonnoir 1925: 238  . Original description, female only.

Simulium fergusoni  . Smart 1945: 505. Overview of Simuliidae  . (As Sharp[sic] in Mackerras & Mackerras 1949: 386).

?Unidentified simuliid. Wharton 1949: 411. Larvae—probably fergusoni  .

Cnephia fergusoni (Tonnoir)  . Mackerras & Mackerras, 1949: 386. New combination; terebrans -species group.

Cnephia fergusoni (Tonnoir)  . Grenier, 1960: 739.

( Cnephia  of authors) fergusoni  . Crosskey, 1987: 443. Prosimuliini  , undetermined genus.

Paracnephia fergusoni (Tonnoir)  . Crosskey & Howard, 1997: 18, 117. New combination, unplaced to subgenus.

Paracnephia fergusoni  . Bugledich, 1999: 328. Compilation of data.

Cnephia  ” ‘S. x. (east)’. Moulton, 2000: 98. 2003: 47.

Paracnephia fergusoni  . Crosskey & Howard, 2004: 10. Unplaced to subgenus. Adler & Crosskey, 2008: 26. Unplaced to subgenus, transferred to Simuliini  : 16. Adler & Crosskey, 2018: 30.

Nothogreniera fergusoni (Tonnoir)  . New combination, this paper.

Description. Adult female ( BASED ON THREE PARATyPES AND TWO PHARATE SPECIMENS). Body: HEAD AND THORAX DARK, MARKEDly POllINOSE IN SOME lIgHTINg, PRODUCINg gREyISH-SIlVERy APPEARANCE ( FIgS. 1, 3 View Figure —IN AlCOHOl), WITH DARK BROWN AND yEllOWISH ABDOMEN; TOTAl lENgTH ca. 1.5 MM. Head ( FIg. 5 View Figure ): FRONS TAPERED ONly SlIgHTly TOWARDS ANTENNAE, NARROWEST JUST ABOVE ANTENNAE; WIDTH 0.71–0.79 MM; DEPTH 0.5 9–0.63 MM; POSTOCCIPUT BlACK, VESTITURE OF SPARSE, lONg BlACK HAIRS; FRONS, DARK BROWN-BlACK, VESTITURE OF MARKEDly SPARSE SIlVERy HAIRS; FRONS / HEAD RATIO 1.0:5.5–1.0:4.7. Eyes: INTEROCUlAR DISTANCE 0.16–0.17 MM; OMMATIDIA DIAMETER 0.016 MM; ca. 37 ROWS ACROSS AND 47 DOWN AT MID-EyE. Clypeus: BROAD, WIDTH 0.25–0.28 MM; SIlVERy, MODERATE VESTITURE OF FINE SIlVERy HAIRS. Antenna ( FIg. 6 View Figure ): TOTAl lENgTH 0.75–0.9 MM, EXTENDED MORE THAN HAlF lENgTH BEyOND HEAD MARgIN; SCAPE SMAll, PEDICEl BROADER DISTAlly, NINE FlAgEllOMERES, FIRST BROAD, REMAINDER BROADER THAN lONg, DISTAl FlAgEllOMERE SMAll, TAPERED, lONgER THAN BROAD; ANTENNA OVERAll SlIgHTly TAPERED. Mouthparts: ca. 0.5X lENgTH OF HEAD DEPTH; CIBARIUM ( FIg. 9 View Figure ) CORNUAE BROADly FlARED AND MODERATEly SClEROTIZED, MEDIAN DEPRESSION FlAT-BOTTOMED; MANDIBlE ( FIg. 8 View Figure ), POINTED APICAlly WITH ca. 16 OUTER AND 41 INNER TEETH; lACINIA WITH ca. 20 TEETH ON EITHER SIDE; MAXIllARy PAlP ( FIg. 7 View Figure ), TOTAl lENgTH 0.54 MM, PAlPOMERES I AND II SMAll, III DARKER BROWN THAN REMAINDER, ONly SlIgHTly EXTENDED BEyOND ARTICUlATION WITH IV, THAT RElATIVEly SHORT, V NOTAbout NOT REMARKABly ElONgATE; PROPORTIONAl lENgTHS OF III –V PAlPOMERES 1.0:0.7:1.1; SENSORy ORgAN ElONgATED, 0.5X lENgTH OF PAlPOMERE III, OPENINg 0.5X WIDTH OF VESIClE. Thorax: lENgTH 1.5 MM; WIDTH 0.9–1.2 MM; POSTPRONOTAl lOBE WEll DEVElOPED, WITH DENSE FINE HAIR lONgER THAN ON SCUTUM, THAT SHOWINg DENSE POllINOSITy IN SOME lIgHTINg ( FIg. 1 View Figure ), OVERAll WITH EVEN SPARSE FINE SMAll HAIRS; SCUTEllAR DEPRESSION SIMIlAR; SCUTEllUM SlIgHTly PAlER THAN SCUTUM, VESTITURE OF SPARSE FINE yEllOWISH HAIRS; POSTNOTUM CONCOlOUROUS WITH SCUTEllUM, VESTITURE SIMIlAR; ANTEPRONOTAl lOBE (AKA PROPlEURON) AND PROEPISTERNUM WITH lONg FINE yEllOWISH HAIRS; FORE COXA HAIRED; PlEURON AND ANEPISTERNAl MEMBRANE lACKINg HAIRS ( FIg. 10 View Figure ). Wing ( FIgS. 11 View Figure , 12 View Figure ): lENgTH 3.0–3.3 MM; WIDTH 1.5–1.7 MM; SMAll BASAl CEll PRESENT; A/B RATIO FROM 1.0:2.6 TO 1.0:2.7. COSTA lACKINg SPINE-lIKE SETAE; RS NOTAbout NOT BRANCHED, CUA MARKEDly SINUOUS, M1 APPEARS DOUBlE ( DISTINCT ARRANgEMENT OF MICROTRICHIA PlUS FOlD). Haltere: OVERAll lIgHT BROWN. Legs ( FIg. 13 View Figure ): EVENly MEDIUM BROWN; HIND BASITARSUS WITH VENTRAl ROW OF STOUT SPINES, ClUSTERED AT POSTEROVENTRAl TERMINUS OF BASITARSUS; CAlCIPAlA ABSENT; DISTINCT HIRSUTE INTERSEgMENTAl PlATE VENTRAlly BETWEEN BASITARSUS AND TARSOMERE II; PEDISUlCUS ABSENT; TARSOMERE II 4X lONgER THAN BASAl WIDTH; ClAWS SMAll ( FIg. 14 View Figure ), TAlON ONly SlIgHTly CURVED, NOTAbout NOT OBVIOUSly SERRATED, BASAl TOOTH POORly EXPRESSED, lATERAl OF TAlON AND VARIABlE EVEN ON SAME SPECIMEN, ROUNDED HEEl MODERATEly DEVElOPED. Abdomen ( FIg. 15 View Figure ): BASAl SCAlE DARK BROWN, VESTITURE OF lONg DENSE yEllOW HAIRS; REMAININg SEgMENTS DARK BROWN, TERgITES yEllOWISH BROWN, SlIgHTly SHINy; TERgITE II BROADly BOWl-SHAPED, DARK, TERgITES III –VI ROUNDly RECTANgUlAR, SUBEQUAl IN SIZE; VESTITURE OF MARKEDly SPARSE, SMAll SIlVERy HAIRS INCREASINg IN lENgTH AND DENSITy POSTERIORly, REMAININg TERgITES BROADER; PlEURITES MODERATEly DEVElOPED; STERNITES APPARENTly ABSENT. Genitalia: STERNITE VIII MORE-OR-lESS EVENly PIgMENTED ACROSS FUll WIDTH, VESTITURE OF ROWS OF MICROTRICHIA, lARgE STRONg HAIRS POSTEROlATERAlly; HyPOgyNIAl VAlVES ( FIg. 19 View Figure ), lIgHTly PIgMENTED, VESTITURE OF TRIADS OF MICROTRICHIA, MEDIAl EDgES OF VAlVES CONVEX, SlIgHTly STRENgTHENED; gENITAl FORK ( FIg. 18 View Figure ) ANTERIOR ARMAbout ARM NARROWED, DISTINCT, APEX SlIgHTly EXPANDED, MEMBRANOUS lATERAl AREAS, lATERAl ARMS WEll EXPRESSED, POORly SClEROTIZED, APODEME BAREly OBVIOUS AS RAISED RIDgE AT JUNCTION OF ARMAbout ARM AND POSTEROlATERAl EXPANSION, THAT ROUNDED lATERAlly, RECTANgUlAR MEDIAlly; CERCUS IN lATERAl VIEW BROADly ROUNDED APICAlly WITH SlIgHT INDENTATION, TENDINg TO FlAT AlONg DORSAl MARgIN, ANAl lOBE SUBSTANTIAl ( FIg. 20 View Figure ); SPERMATHECA OVOID, EXTERNAlly SMOOTH WITH INTERNAl FINE SPINES ( FIg. 16 View Figure ) NOTAbout NOT OBVIOUS IN FUlly MATURE EXAMPlES ( FIg. 17 View Figure ), SPINE lENgTH ca. 7.1 µM, WIDTH ca. 0.47µM, lENgTH TO WIDTH RATIO ca. 1:5, DENSITy 0.055/µM2, REgION SURROUNDINg JUNCTION WITH SPERMATHECAl DUCT SCUlPTED, NOTAbout NOT MARKEDly ClEAR.

Adult male ( REARED INDIVIDUAlS AND PHARATE SPECIMENS). Body: IN ETHANOl, OVERAll COlOUR BlACK; TOTAl lENgTH 3.8 MM. Head (FIg. 21)  : WIDTH 1.1 MM; DEPTH 0.8 MM. Eyes   : UPPER OMMATIDIA DARK REDDISH BlACK, DIAMETER 0.029 MM, ca. 30 ACROSS AND 27 DOWN  ; lOWER OMMATIDIA BlACK, MARKEDly SMAll, DIAMETER 0.007 MM, ca. 35 ACROSS AND 44 DOWN  ; lARgER OMMATIDIA OVERHANg SMAllER OMMATIDIA AT JUNCTION. Clypeus : BlACK  ; WIDTH 0.17 MM; VESTITURE OF SPARSE FINE BlACK HAIRS. Antenna (FIg. 22): TOTAl lENgTH 0.79 MM; OVERAll BlACK, PEDICEl SMAll  , SCAPE TWICE AS lONg AND ROUNDED, ANTENNOMERE I SlIgHTly NARROWER THAN SCAPE, REMAININg ANTENNOMERES TAPERED SlIgHTly TO SMAll APICAl ANTENNOMERE. Mouthparts: INSUBSTANTIAl; lENgTH 0.3X HEAD DEPTH  ; MAXIllARy PAlPUS (FIg. 23) 0.65 MM lONg, PAlPOMERES I AND II SMAll, PROPORTIONAl lENgTHS OF III–V PAlPOMERES 1.0:0.7:1.1, SENSORy VESIClE OF IRREgUlAR SPHERICAl SHAPE, OCCUPyINg 0.45X WIDTH OF PAlPOMERE III, OPENINg 0.3X VESIClE WIDTH. Thorax: lENgTH 1.4 MM; WIDTH 0.96 MM; POSTPRONOTAl lOBE, ANTEPRONOTAl lOBE AND PROEPISTERNUM HAIRED; SCUTUM EVENly VElVETy BlACK, VESTITURE OF SPARSE SHORT FINE PAlE HAIRS, DENSE AND lONg IN SCUTEllAR DEPRESSION; SCUTEllUM CONCOlOUROUS WITH SCUTUM, BARE MEDIAlly WITH SPARSE lONg PAlE HAIRS lATERAlly; POSTNOTUM CONCOlOUROUS WITH SCUTUM; PlEURAE DARK BROWN, ANEPISTERNAl MEMBRANE lACKINg HAIRS. Wing: lENgTH 3.4 MM, WIDTH 1.6 MM, OTHERWISE AS FORAbout FOR FEMAlE. Haltere   : BASE OF STEM BlACK, KNOB DARK TANAbout TAN. Legs   : FRONT lEg BlACK, FEMUR WITH MARKEDly lONg FINE HAIRS; MIDAbout MID lEg MAINly BlACK TO BlACKISH BROWN; HIND lEg WITH PROXIMAl SEgMENTS HIRSUTE, BlACKISH BROWN, BASITARSUS DARK BROWN AS ARE TARSOMERES; BASITARSUS WITH DENSE SHORT SPINE-lIKE HAIRS ON PROXIMAl 2/3, VENTRAl ROW OF STOUT SPINES PRESENT, CAlCIPAlA ABSENT, HOWEVER THE SMAll, HAIRy, VENTRAl, INTERSEgMENTAl SClERITE MAy APPEAR AS A POORly DEVElOPED CAlCIPAlA; PEDISUlCUS ABSENT  ; TARSAl ClAW gRAPPlINg PAD OF ca. 25 TEETH. Abdomen ( FIg. 24 View Figure ): OVERAll BlACK, BASAl SCAlE HAIRS BlACK, EXTENDED TO POSTERIOR OF SEgMENT IV, TERgITES VElVETy BlACK, 3 TO 4X AS WIDE AS lONg, TERgITES II  –IV WITH lONg HAIRS lATERAlly, REMAINDER WITH MORE EVENly ARRAyED VESTITURE; PlEURITES POORly DEVElOPED; STERNITES PRESENT, BUT SMAll. Genitalia ( FIgS. 25–29 View Figure ): HEAVIly PIgMENTED; gONOCOXA BROADER BASAlly THAN lONg, VESTITURE OF SPARSE HAIRS, MICROTRICHIA IN ROWS, HAIRS ACCENTUATED ANTEROlATERAlly, AND MEDIAlly; gONOSTylUS APPROXIMATEly 2.0X lONgER THAN BASAl WIDTH, FlATTENED IN lATERAl VIEW, VESTITURE OF SHORT HAIRS EXCEPT POSTEROlATERAl lONgER gROUPINg, TWO SUBSTANTIAl SHORT, BlUNT, APICAl SPINES ( FIg. 26 View Figure ); VENTRAl PlATE ( FIgS. 27–29 View Figure ) COMPlEX, 1.6X WIDER THAN lENgTH, POSTERIOR EDgE RAISED AND ROUNDED, BROADly ROUNDED lATERAlly, BROADly CONCAVE ANTEROMEDIAlly; VESTITURE OF COARSE HAIRS; MARKED CENTRAl CARINA, BROADly CROSS-SHAPED APICAlly IN VENTRAl VIEW ( FIg. 25 View Figure ); BASAl ARMS NOT MARKEDly DEVElOPED, BUT SUBSTANTIAl, TAPERED SMOOTHly TO JOIN WITH WEll DEVElOPED PARAMERE CONNECTORS; MEDIAN SClERITE WEll DEVElOPED, DISTINCT DISTAl BIFURCATION EXPANDED AND FlARED VENTRAlly ( FIgS. 27, 28 View Figure )—NOT VISIBlE IN VENTRAl VIEW; PARAMERES BlADE-lIKE, WITH MARKED ARTICUlATIONS WITH THE VENTRAl PlATE PARAMERE CONNECTORS AND gONOCOXAl APODEME, MEDIAl EDgE WEll DElIMITED, WITH BODy OF PARAMERE TAPERED SMOOTHly TO THIN POSTEROlATERAl EXTREMITy, POSTEROMEDIAlly EXTENDED TO INTERSECT WITH END OF MEDIAN SClERITE BIFURCATIONS AND AggREgATION OF SMAll COARSE SPINES (NOT PART OF THE PARAMERE) MEDIAlly ON THE AEDEAgAl MEMBRANE ( FIg. 29 View Figure ); MEMBRANE WITH ARRAyS OF MICROTRICHIA; DORSAl SClERITE ABSENT.

Pupa (BASED ON NUMBERS OF EXUVIAE AND PHARATE ADUlTS). Body: lENgTH, FEMAlE 3.6–4.0 MM ( FIg. 30 View Figure ), MAlE 3.5–3.6 MM ( FIg. 31 View Figure ), DARK BROWN, SHINy. Head: FRONS OF FEMAlE BlUNTly SHAPED WITH RATIO OF FRONS WIDTH TO VERTEX WIDTH 1.0:1.2 ( FIg. 34 View Figure ), THAT OF MAlE MORE ROUNDED; RATIO 1.0:1.9 ( FIg. 35 View Figure ); BOTH lACKINg CEPHAlIC DEPRESSION; APPARENTly SMOOTH, BUT COVERED WITH BAREly VISIBlE MINUTE TUBERClES; MUSClE SCARS POSITIVE; FRONTAl SETAE ABSENT, FACIAl SETAE PRESENT, EPICRANIAl SETAE PRESENT, BUT NOT OBVIOUS (OBSCURED By ANTENNAl SHEATHS), IN MAlE WEll lATERAl; POSTORBITAl SPINE ABSENT, BUT ClEAR AREA ON OCUlAR SHIElD IN THAT POSITION; ANTENNAl SHEATH OF FEMAlE EXTENDED TO EDgE OF OCUlAR SHIElD, THAT OF MAlE NOT SO (cf. FIgS. 33 View Figure , 34 View Figure ). Thorax: ANTERIOR DORSAl SHIElD WITH MINUTE DENSEly PACKED TUBERClES, MORE DISTINCT AND lARgER POSTEROVENTRAl OF gIll BASE ( FIg. 37 View Figure ). Gill ( FIg. 33 View Figure ): 15 OR 16 lONg THIN FIlAMENTS ARISINg FROM 5 OR 6 SHORT BASAl TRUNKS, SOME BIFURCATINg NEAR BASE, OTHERS MORE DISTAlly; TOTAl lENgTH 2.5–2.7 MM; SHORTER THAN PUPA. SURFACE FINEly ANNUlATED, UNREMARKABlE ( FIg. 33 View Figure ; INSERT). Abdomen ( FIg. 36 View Figure ): OVERAll, CUTIClE COVERED WITH MINUTE TUBERClES; ARMATURE MINIMAl; TERgITE II lACKINg STIFF SHARP HAIRS; TERgITE III SIMIlAR; TERgITE IV WITH FOUR POSTERIOR STIFF SHARP HAIRS DIRECTED ANTERIORly, TWO FINE HAIRS lATERAlly, TERgITE EXTENDED lATERAlly TO INCORPORATE MUCH OF THE PlEURAl REgION AND ONE FINE HAIR; TERgITE V WITH FOUR HAIRS WITH SPINE COMB SPARSE; TERgITE VI SIMIlAR, BUT WITH THREE HAIRS PER SIDE; TERgITE VII WITH A POSTERIOR PAIR OF FINE HAIRS ON EACH SIDE AND POORly DEVElOPED SPINE COMB ANTERIORly; TERgITE VIII WITH SMAll COMB OF FINE SPINES ANTERIORly AND TWO FINE HAIRS POSTERIORly ON EACH SIDE; TWO TERMINAl SPINES ON TERgITE IX NOT MARKEDly DEVElOPED, BUT SUBSTANTIAl AND SHARPly TAPERED, NOT MARKEDly CURVED, gRAPNEl HOOKS DIFFICUlT TO SEE, A SINglE HAIR AND MINUTE SPICUlES ON EITHER SIDE ( FIg. 38 View Figure ); STERNITES III & IV lACKINg HOOK, REPlACED By HOMOlOg HAIR, OTHER HAIR AND SPICUlES AS BEFORE: PlEURITES V  VII AS SMAll PlATES WITH FINE HAIRS; STERNITE V CONTINUOUS MEDIAlly WITH HOOK, HAIR AND SPINUlES AS BEFORE; STERNITES VI AND VII SEPARATED MEDIAlly  , EACH PlATE WITH A POSTERIOR SINglE HOOK DIRECTED ANTERIORly, ARRAy OF MINUTE SPICUlES ANTERIORly AND SINglE SMAll HAIR ANTEROlATERAlly; STERNITE VIII AS A SINglE PlATE WITH MEDIAN JUNCTION, WITH ARRAy OF MINUTE SPICUlES ANTERIORly AND A SINglE HAIR ON EACH SIDE; STERNITE IX BElOW THE TERMINAl SPINES FORMED OF TWO lOBES  , UPPER ONE WITH TWO SINglE HAIRS AND THE gRAPNEl HOOKS ON EITHER SIDE, THE OTHER lOBE ESSENTIAlly DEVOID OF ARMATURE. Cocoon ( FIgS. 30, 31 View Figure ). POORly WOVEN SHAPElESS BAg COVERINg POSTERIOR OF ABDOMEN, OCCASIONAlly REACHINg THORAX; SIlK FIBERS THICK; EXTRANEOUS MATERIAl FROM SUBSTRATE OFTEN INCORPORATED ( FIg. 32 View Figure ).

Larva (BASED ON NUMEROUS lAST INSTAR lARVAE). Body ( FIg. 39 View Figure ): TOTAl lENgTH 6.4–6.6 MM, EVENly yEllOWISH gREy. Head ( FIg. 40 View Figure ): EVENly MEDIUM BROWN WITH DARKER REgIONS; ANTERIOR APOTOME PAlER AND AlONg ECDySIAl lINE TO POSTERIOR OF HEAD; lENgTH 1.18–1.23 MM, WIDTH 0.86–0.88 MM; DISTANCE BETWEEN ANTENNAl BASES 0.55–0.57 MM; ANTERIOR MARgINS OF HEAD PARAllEl, CONVEX POSTERIOR OF STEMMATA; HEAD SPOT PATTERN MARKEDly POSITIVE; ECDySIAl lINES WEll VISIBlE, DIVERgENT AND STRAIgHT (OR SlIgHTly CONCAVE) UNTIl NEAR POSTERIOR OF HEAD, THEN MARKEDly BENT; CERVICAl SClERITES NOT FUSED TO POSTOCCIPUT; gENAE ANTERIOR OF STEMMATA MARKEDly DARK BROWN. Antenna ( FIg. 41 View Figure ): NOT EXTENDED BEyOND lABRAl FAN STEM; TOTAl lENgTH 0.48 MM; BASAl AND MEDIAl ANTENNOMERE DARK BROWN, APICAl ANTENNOMERE PAlER (DIAMETER 0.007 MM); BASAl (DIAMETER 0.04 MM) AND MEDIAl (DIAMETER 0.023 MM) ANTENNOMERES SUBEQUAl IN lENgTH, TOgETHER SUBEQUAl TO APICAl ANTENNOMERE; PROPORTIONAl lENgTHS OF THE THREE ANTENNOMERES 1.0:0.8:1.7; PROXIMAl HAlF OF BASAl ANTENNOMERE WITH THICKENED WAll, DISTAl ANTENNOMERE WITH ClOSEly PACKED BANDS ( FIg. 41 View Figure ; INSERT). Labral fan: STAlK lIgHT BROWN, ca. 66 RAyS, 7 POSTERIOR RAyS FINER THAN REMAINDER, lENgTH 0.65 MM, MID-RAy WIDTH 0.014 MM; DISTINCT PATTERN OF MICROTRICHIA, lONgER MICROTRICHIA INTERSPERSED WITH 9 OR 10 MARKEDly SMAllER MICROTRICHIA. Mandible ( FIg. 42, 43 View Figure ): OVERAll DARKly PIgMENTED; OUTER TEETH SHORT, BROAD, POORly DEVElOPED; APICAl TOOTH ElONgATE AND SUBSTANTIAl; PREAPICAl TEETH, 2 SMAll AND EQUAl IN lENgTH, PROXIMAl TOOTH WEll DEVElOPED; ca. 8 SPINOUS TEETH, SOMETIMES APPARENTly WORN; SENSIllUM AND SERRATION SIMPlE, WEll DEVElOPED ON RAISED BASE; BlADE REgION WITH 6 OR 7 IRREgUlAR SMAll SERRATIONS SOMETIMES APPARENTly WORN. Maxilla ( FIg. 44 View Figure ): PAlPUS 2.7X AS lONg AS WIDE, VERy DARK, lONgER THAN MAXIllARy lOBE; DISTINCT gAP BETWEEN lOBE AND PAlP; DENSE TUFT OF HAIR AT BASE OF PAlP. Postgenal cleft ( FIg. 45 View Figure ): POORly DEVElOPED, SHAllOW V-SHAPED, WEll SClEROTIZED WITH MARKEDly IRREgUlAR EDgES; POSTERIOR TENTORIAl PITS SMAll; POSTgENAl BRIDgE EVENly DARK BROWN, CONCOlOUROUS WITH gENAE; ElONgATED POSTEROVENTRAl MUSClES SPOTS SMAll. RATIO OF HyPOSTOMA  , POSTgENA AND ClEFT 1.0:1.5:0.5. Hypostoma  : DARKly PIgMENTED; TEETH IN THREE DISTINCT UNITS, VARIABlE, (SERRA ROAD, FIg. 45 View Figure ; INSERT)—TOOTH 0 (MEDIAN) OFTEN WORN AND ROUNDED APICAlly, TOOTH 1 (FIRST SUBlATERAl) MARKEDly SMAllER AND ON BASE OF TOOTH 0, TOOTH 2 MINUTE AND OFTEN NOT EXPRESSED ON ONE SIDE, TOOTH 3 WEll EXPRESSED AND ON BASE OF TOOTH 4 (lATERAl), THAT MARKEDly EXTENDED BEyOND TOOTH 0, TOOTH 5 (PARAlATERAl) BAREly EXPRESSED ON SIDE OF TOOTH 4, TOOTH 6 SMAll BUT DISTINCT ON BASE OF TOOTH 4, TOOTH 7 EXPRESSED MEREly AS lATERAl BUMP, TOOTH 8 ABSENT, All WEll RAISED FROM CURVED BASE OF HyPOSTOMA  ; IRREgUlAR lATERAl SERRATIONS; (ZUMSTEIN TRACK, FIg. 46 View Figure )—TOOTH 0 (MEDIAN) WEll EXTENDED TO HAlF lENgTH OF TOOTH 4 (lATERAl), TOOTH 1 (FIRST SUBlATERAl) WEll EXPRESSED AND FlANgE-lIKE ON BASE OF TOOTH 0, WITH TOOTH 2 MINUTE AND VARIABlE, OFTEN NOT EXPRESSED ON ONE SIDE, TOOTH 3 lARgER AND INSERTED ON BASE OF TOOTH 4, TOOTH 5 POORly EXPRESSED ON BASE OF TOOTH 4, TOOTH 6 DISTINCT, TOOTH 7 POORly EXPRESSED AS MERE BUlgE, TOOTH 8 ABSENT, All AS STEEP-SIDED UNIT ABOVE REMAINDER OF HyPOSTOMA  ; lATERAl SERRATIONS NUMEROUS BUT SMAll, EXTENDED WEll AlONg SIDE OF CONVEX HyPOSTOMA  ; 2 OR 3 HyPOSTOMAl SETAE ON EACH SIDE; 3 OR 4 OTHER SMAll SETAE RANDOMly ARRAyED MORE BASAlly. Thorax ( FIg. 47 View Figure ): PROTHORAX DARK BROWN, REMAINDER OF THORAX lIgHTER; THE MATURE PUPAl gIll HISTOBlAST POORly L-SHAPED, FIlAMENTS DIRECTED VENTRAlly THEN BROADly POSTERIORly TO RECURVED DORSAlly THEN PARTIAlly ANTERIORly AND THEN DORSAlly, RECURVED TERMINAlly AT gIll BASE; 3 OR 4 BASAl THICKER FIlAMENTS SHOWINg AND SOME BIFURCATIONS. Anterior proleg ( FIg. 48 View Figure ): WITH DISTINCT D-SHAPED lATERAl PlATES. Abdomen: EVENly MOTTlED MEDIUM yEllOWISH BROWN. Ventral tubercles: ABSENT OR POORly EXPRESSED. Rectal papillae: THREE SIMPlE lOBES. Anal sclerite ( FIg. 49 View Figure ): SIMPlE X-SHAPE, ARMS SUBEQUAl IN lENgTH; ANTERIOR ARMS NOT MARKEDly FlARED APICAlly, MEDIAl REgION WEll DEVElOPED, INTERARM STRUTS ABSENT, POSTEROVENTRAl ARMS SUBSTANTIAl, BUT TAPERED RAPIDly. Posterior circlet: ca. 63 ROWS OF HOOKS WITH 12 OR 13 HOOKS PER ROW (TOTAl ca. 780).

Etymology. NOTAbout NOT SPECIFIED By TONNOIR (1925), BUTAbout BUT NAMED FORAbout FOR EUSTACE WIllIAM FERgUSON, WEll KNOWN AUSTRAlIAN ENTOMOlOgIST AND PRESIDENT OF THE LINNEAN AND THE ROyAl ZOOlOgICAl SOCIETIES OF NEWAbout NEW SOUTH WAlES, AND WHO COllECTED THE TyPE MATERIAl. FERgUSON WAS NOTED FORAbout FOR HIS EXPERTISE IN MEDICAl ENTOMOlOgy AND STARTlINg ABIlITIES AS A COllECTOR IN THE FIElD ( VAllEE 2012).

Types. Holotype. MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1949: 286) COMMENTED THAT WHEREABOUTS OF THE TyPE OF fergusoni  WAS NOT KNOWN, BUT THAT PARATyPES WERE IN THE SCHOOl OF PUBlIC HEAlTH AND TROPICAl MEDICINE, SyDNEy. THE PARATyPES ARE NOW IN ANIC, CSIRO, CANBERRA. BUglEDICH (1999) TOO NOTED THE HOlOTyPE WAS MISSINg. IT IS, HOWEVER, lISTED IN DANIElS (1978: 416) AS IN THE AUSTRAlIAN NATIONAl MUSEUM, SyDNEy. DETAIlS AND IMAgES (e.g. FIgS. 1, 2 View Figure ) ARE AVAIlABlE ON THE "ATlAS OF LIVINg AUSTRAlIA" <HTTPS://BIE.AlA.ORg.AU/SPECIES/ URN:lSID:BIODIVERSITy.ORg.AU:AFD.TAXON:ED160F9B-A369-4D87-9EDD-F5B1B298C009> (ACCESSED 4 MAy 2018). LABEl DATA ( FIg. 2 View Figure ):- [BUMBERRy NSW./ BITINg MAN/ 1/10/16] [S./ FERgUSONI/ TONN./ DET. A. TONNOIR 1923] [TYPE] [K48711], IN TONNOIR’S HANDWRITINg. THE SPECIMEN IS IN gOOD CONDITION, AlBEIT IT APPEARS THAT THE lEFT MIDDlE lEg IS ABSENT, OTHERWISE THE REMAINDER OF THE BODy IS WEll PRESERVED. NOT EXAMINED BEyOND SUPPlIED IMAgES.

Paratypes. OF THE ElEVEN PINNED FEMAlE PARATyPES DESIgNATED By TONNOIR (1925: 239), BUglEDICH (1999: 328) FOUND 10 IN ANIC. AS OF 2014, (DAC PERS. OBS.) SEVEN WERE AVAIlABlE AND THREE OF THOSE WERE EXAMINED IN DETAIl. LABEl DATA AS FOR HOlOTyPE, BUT WITH:- [ANIC DATABASE NO./ 29 029396]—NOW MOUNTED ON SlIDE. AS ABOVE, BUT WITH:- [ANIC DATABASE NO./ 29 029394] [AUST. NAT./ INS. COll]—NOW ClEARED AND PARTS IN gENITAlIC VIAl ON THE PIN. AS ABOVE, BUT WITH [ANIC DATABASE NO./ 29 029398]—PINNED.

BASED ON lABEl DATA (cf. FIg. 2 & 4 View Figure ) AND SIMIlARITy OF HANDWRITINg ON PARATyPES AND HOlOTyPE lABElS, All ARE THOSE DESCRIBED By TONNOIR (1925: 258).

Additional material. APART FROM THE PARATyPES NOTED ABOVE, lARgE NUMBERS OF FINAl INSTAR lARVAE, PUPAE, PUPAl EXUVIAE, REARED AND NETTED FEMAlES, AND REARED MAlES, FROM GRAMPIANS NATIONAl PARK, NAMEly SERRA ROAD, PlUS ZUMSTEIN TRACK AND PICNIC AREA AT MACKENZIE FAllS WERE AVAIlABlE FOR STUDy. REARINg AllOWED FIRM ASSOCIATION OF THE EARlIER PINNED FEMAlES OF TONNOIR TO THE NEWER ADUlTS AND IMMATURE STAgES. THERE ARE SEVEN PINNED FEMAlES FROM COlO VAlE IN ANIC; WE EXAMINED TWO. LABEl DATA [COlO VAlE/ 3. 3. 56 / STATION NO 2. MAN/ E. O’SUllIVAN] [ PARACNEPHIA  / FERgUSONI/ (TONNOIR)] [COlO VAlE/ 6. 3. 56 / STATION 4. TO MAN/ 1715-1745 J. CITOWISCH] [ PARACNEPHIA  / FERgUSONI/ (TONNOIR)].

REPRESENTATIVE MATERIAl IN ETOH FROM THE GRAMPIANS NATIONAl PARK IS DEPOSITED IN THE ANIC, (ANIC DATABASE NO. 29 026650). SIMIlAR ETOH SAMPlES (UASM# 353360–353362) AND SlIDE MOUNTS (UASM# 353363, 353364, 353146–353150, 353211–353225, 353463–353470), ARE DEPOSITED IN THE STRICKlAND MUSEUM, UNIVERSITy OF AlBERTA <WWW.BIOlOgy.MUSEUMS.UAlBERTA.CA/EN/EHSTRICKlANDENTOMOlOgICAlMUSEUM.ASPX>.

Distribution ( FIg. 84 View Figure ). New South Wales: BUMBERRy, S33.1630° E148.5240°, ElEV. 600M., 1-X-1916 ( TONNOIR 1925); ENgINEERS CASCADE, MOUNT VICTORIA, S33.5985° E150.2512°, ElEV. 1043M., JANUARy (WHARTON 1948); COlO VAlE, S34.3779° E150.4462°, ElEV. 700M., MARCH (LEE et al. 1957).

Victoria: COHUNA, S35.8100° E144.2200°, ElEV. 88M.GoogleMaps  , SEPTEMBER ( MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS 1955); GRAMPIANS NATIONAl PARK, SERRA ROAD, S37.2966° E142.4371°, ElEV. 270M., 8-IX-2011, DAC; ZUMSTEIN PICNIC AREA, S37.0929° E142.3851°, ElEV. 250M., 28-IX-1996, JKM; ZUMSTEIN TRACK, S37.0946° E142.3821°, ElEV. 250M., 12-IX-2014, DAC, JKM, DCC; MACKENZIE FAllS PICNIC AREA, S37.1096° E142.4124°, ElEV. 435M., 13-IX-2014, JKM. THERE IS A PROBABlE ERROR WITH THE lOCAlITy OF “TURRET FAllS, MARySVIllE, NSW” IN MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1955: 105). THERE IS NO SUCH NAMED WATERFAll IN THE AREA, BUT RATHER A STEAVENSON FAllS (S37.5327° E145.7737°, ElEV. 630M). A TURRET FAllS (S37.1584° E142.4979°, ElEV. 540M.) IS NEAR HAllS GAP, GRAMPIANS NATIONAl PARK, VICTORIA. THIS IS A MUCH MORE lIKEly lOCAlITy SINCE THERE ARE THIN FIlMS OF WATER AND FlOW IS INTERMITTENT (DAC PERS. OBS., 2014). WE ARE OF THE OPINION THAT THE lOCATION AT MARySVIllE IS IN ERROR.

South Australia: LUCINDAlE, S36.9700° E140.3700°, ElEV. 30M. ( MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS 1949: 386).GoogleMaps 

Bionomics. TONNOIR (1925: 239) NOTED THAT TyPE MATERIAl OF FEMAlES (e.g. FIg. 1 View Figure ) HAD BEEN COllECTED WHIlE FlyINg AROUND AND BITINg PEOPlE ( FIgS. 2, 4 View Figure ), IN ASSOCIATION WITH Austrosimulium furiosum  (SKUSE). LABEl DATA ON MATERIAl FROM LUCINDAlE, SOUTH AUSTRAlIA, INDICATES THAT N. ferguson I SERIOUSly INJURED HORSES AND CATTlE, INDEED, MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1949: 386) NOTED THAT THIS WAS PROBABly THE BASIS OF THE EARly REPORT By LEA (1917) REgARDINg INJURIOUS SIMUlIIDS.

BITINg BEHAVIOUR WOUlD BE IN KEEPINg WITH THE WEll-DEVElOPED MANDIBlES AND THE ENlARgED SENSORy VESIClE ON THE MAXIllARy PAlPOMERE III, gENERAlly ASSUMED TO BE A CARBON DIOXIDE RECEPTOR ( MCIVER & CHARlTON 1970). SMAllER ABDOMINAl TERgITES ( FIg. 15 View Figure ) POINT, AS WEll, TO BlOOD-FEEDINg BEHAVIOR (e.g., ADlER et al. 2004; CRAIg et al. 2012). NUMBERS OF FEMAlE ADUlTS WERE COllECTED FlyINg AROUND THE AUTHORS AT THE PICNIC AREA AT MACKENZIE FAllS, GRAMPIANS NATIONAl PARK, SEPTEMBER, 2014; NONE lANDED OR ATTEMPTED TO FEED.

LARVAE, PUPAE AND REARED ADUlTS ARE FROM THREE lOCAlITIES IN THE GRAMPIANS NATIONAl PARK. JKM COllECTED MATERIAl FROM NEAR ZUMSTEIN PICNIC AREA (S37.0929° E142.3852°, ElEV. 250M.) IN SEPTEMBER, 1996. ON 8TH SEPTEMBER, 2011, DAC COllECTED FROM THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF A CUlVERT ON SERRA ROAD (S37.2966° E142.4371°, ElEV. 270M.) ( FIg. 50 View Figure ). LARgE NUMBERS OF lARVAE AND PUPAE WERE ON THE lIP OF THE CUlVERT PIPE AND ON HARD SURFACES A FEW METRES DOWNSTREAM. LARVAE FORMED TyPICAl SPACED ARRAyS ( FIg. 51 View Figure ). AT 13:00 HRSAbout HRS, AIR TEMPERATURE WAS 14.1 °C, WATER 11.0°C, CONDUCTIVITy 120µS/CM, PH 7.7, VElOCITy ca. 0.62 M/S AND THE WATER SlIgHTly TURBID  . LARVAE WERE MAINly IN SHAllOW EVEN FlOW AND NOT FOUND ON STONES OR VEgETATION WHERE FlOW WAS MARKEDly TURBUlENT. THIS SITE WAS DRy IN SEPTEMBER, 2014, AND ClEARly HAD NOT HAD RUNNINg WATER SINCE 2011, A yEAR WITH SERIOUS FlOODINg IN THE GRAMPIANS.

A THIRD SITE WAS A SMAll STREAM ON ZUMSTEIN SHORTCUT (S37.0946° E142.3821°, ElEV. 250M.) ( FIg. 52 View Figure ). ON 12 SEPTEMBER 2014, TEMPERATURES WERE—AIR 17.5°C, WATER 16.6°C, VElOCITy 0.7 M/S IN THE SMAll RIFFlES. LARVAE WERE ON TOP AND UNDER STONES WITH PUPAE UNDER STONES ( FIg. 32 View Figure ). FEMAlE ADUlTS WERE NETTED AND BOTH SEXES REARED FROM PUPAE. OF NOTE IS THAT THE AREA HAD BEEN INTENSEly BURNED SOME MONTHS BEFORE THE COllECTION AND CONSIDERABlE ASH WAS DRIFTINg IN THE WATER. THIS STREAM WAS REVISITED IN NOVEMBER, 2014 AND WHIlE EXPECTED TO BE DRy, THERE WAS A SMAll BASE FlOW. THERE WAS NO EVIDENCE THAT N. fergusoni  HAD EVER BEEN PRESENT. THE ONly SIMUlIID PRESENT WAS Simulium ornatipes  SKUSE, WITH lARgE NUMBERS OF lARVAE AND PUPAE.

OF NOTE FOR THE SEPTEMBER COllECTION OF N. fergusoni  PUPAE FROM ZUMSTEIN SHORTCUT WAS THAT THE COCOONS WERE HEAVIly COVERED WITH SMAll STONE PARTIClES FROM THE SUBSTRATE ( FIg. 32 View Figure ). SUCH WAS NOT SEEN AT THE SERRA ROAD CUlVERT SITE. WITH SUCH SUBSTRATE lACKINg, COCOONS THERE HAD ONly AlgAl STRANDS INCORPORATED INTO THE RUDIMENTARy COCOON.

OUR DATES OF COllECTINg ARE IN gOOD AgREEMENT WITH TONNOIR'S ORIgINAl SAMPlE OF N. fergusoni  FEMAlES TAKEN 1st OCTOBER, 1916. MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1952: 105) COMMENTED THAT THEy HAD SEARCHED EXTENSIVEly FOR IMMATURES OF N. fergusoni  AT BUMBERRy, NSW, BUT WERE UNSUCCESSFUl.

THE THREE GRAMPIAN lOCAlITIES gIVE ClEAR EVIDENCE THAT N. fergusoni  IS A UNIVOlTINE AUSTRAl SPRINg SPECIES THAT INHABITS INTERMITTENT STREAMS. THE WIDE RANgINg FEMAlES, AS NETTED AT THE MCKENZIE FAllS PICNIC AREA, ARE PROBABly lOOKINg FORAbout FOR A BlOOD MEAl AND /OR SUITABlE SITES TO lAy EggS. THERE IS, THOUgH, NO INFORMATION ON OVIPOSITION.

THE COlO VAlE SPECIMENS WERE TAKEN DURINg A PRElIMINARy INVESTIgATION INTO CONTROl OF RABBITS WITH THE MyXOMA VIRUS (LEE et al. 1957). THE ADUlTS WERE COllECTED IN MARCH—AT CONSIDERABlE VARIANCE TO THE COllECTION DATES FROM THE GRAMPIANS. HOWEVER, ElEVATION AT THE COlO VAlE lOCAlITy IS SOME 700M., SO COlD WATER WOUlD OCCUR lATER INTO THE yEAR.

THE lOW NUMBER (ca. 780) OF HOOKS ( FIg. 49 View Figure ) COMPRISINg THE CIRClET OF HOOKS IS IN gOOD AgREEMENT WITH THE VElOCITIES RECORDED (~0.62 M/SEC.). PAlMER & CRAIg (2000), CRAIg et al. (2012), KONURBAEV (1973) AND OTHERS, HAVE SHOWN ClOSE CORRElATION BETWEEN NUMBER OF SUCHAbout SUCH HOOKS AND gENERAl VElOCITy OF FlOW IN THE HABITAT.

BUglEDICH (1999) INDICATED THAT HUNTER & MOOREHOUSE (1976) DEAlT WITH BIOlOgy OF N. fergusoni  , BUT THIS IS IN ERROR.

Remarks. IN THE SyNONyMy gIVEN By MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1949: 386) FORAbout FOR Simulium fergusoni  , SHARP [sic] (1945: 505) IS IN ERROR AND IT SHOUlD BE 'SMART'.

AS TONNOIR (1925) NOTED, N. fergusoni  ADUlT FEMAlES COUlD AT THAT TIME BE SEPARATED FROM OTHER AUSTRAlIAN SIMUlIIDS By COMPlETE lACK OF CAlCIPAlA AND PEDISUlCUS, A SHORT PAlPOMERE IV AND SMAll APICAl ANTENNOMERE. THIS gENERAlly AlSO APPlIES TO N. occidentalis  (SEE BElOW). ABSENCE OF A CAlCIPAlA WAS THEN UNIQUE AMONg AUSTRAlIAN SIMUlIIDS, BUT EXAMPlES OF A SMAll OR ABSENT CAlCIPAlA ARE NOW KNOWN (CRAIg et al. 2018) FOR WESTERN AUSTRAlIA Bunyipellum gladiator  (MOUlTON & ADlER) AND UNDESCRIBED SPECIES RElATED TO EASTERN AUSTRAlIA " Paracnephia umbratora  " (TONNOIR).

THE FUNCTION OF THE CAlCIPAlA IN SIMUlIID ADUlTS REMAINS UNClEAR, AlTHOUgH IT IS BElIEVED TO PlAy A ROlE IN gROOMINg THE WINg OR THE BODy (CROSSKEy 1990: 345; ADlER et al. 2004: 41). THE ROW OF STOUT SPINES AlONg THE VENTRAl SURFACE OF THE HIND BASITARSUS IS DISTINCT IN N. fergusoni  AND, IN PARTICUlAR, THERE IS A CONCENTRATION, OR ClUMP, OF SPINES WHERE THE BASE OF A CAlCIPAlA WOUlD OCCUR ( FIg. 13 View Figure ). THIS WAS IllUSTRATED By TONNOIR (1925: 221; HIS FIg. 2 F, G, H View Figure ), INClUDINg THE ElONgATED TARSOMERE II—UNUSUAlly lONg FOR AUSTRAlIAN SIMUlIIDS. SUCH AN AggREgATION OF SPINES AlSO OCCURS IN N. occidentalis  ON A VERy SMAll CAlCIPAlA. THAT CONDITION IN N. occidentalis  IS NOT UNIQUE WITHIN AUSTRAlIAN SIMUlIIDS, BEINg PRESENT IN Bunyipellum gladiator  (MOUlTON & ADlER) (CRAIg et al. 2018) AND AS yET UNDESCRIBED AUSTRAlIAN SPECIES RElATED TO Paracnephia umbratora  . AggREgATION OF SPINES SUggESTS THAT THEy PERHAPS PERFORM THE FUNCTION OF THE CAlCIPAlA WHEN THE lATTER IS SMAll OR ABSENT.

THE PUPAE OF BOTH SPECIES ARE SIMIlAR, WITH gIllS OF N. occidentalis  lONgER THAN THOSE OF N. fergusoni  . LARVAE OF N. fergusoni  ARE DARKER IN COlOUR THAN N. occidentalis  AND THE lATTER HAS lARgER lABRAl FANS. EXPRESSION OF lARVAl HyPOSTOMAl TEETH IN Nothogreniera  IS UNIQUE FOR AUSTRAlIAN SIMUlIIDS. THE MARKEDly TRIlOBED ARRANgEMENT OF TEETH (e.g., FIg. 46 View Figure ) IS SIMIlAR TO THOSE IN Greniera  AND Tlalocomyia  (ADlER et al. 2004: e.g. 564). WHIlE TRIlOBED ARRANgEMENTS ARE KNOWN FOR lARVAE OF " Paracnephia  " fuscoflava " (MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS) AND " P. " tonnoiri (DRUMMOND), THE lOBES ARE NOT AS STRONgly DEVElOPED.

THERE ARE DISCREPANCIES BETWEEN THE TyPE ( FIg. 1 View Figure ) AND NEWER MATERIAl FROM THE GRAMPIANS ( FIg. 3 View Figure ); NAMEly, THE DARKER COlOURATION OF THE TyPE AND DENSITy OF THE VESTITURE ON THE SCUTUM. THESE AND OTHER DIFFERENCES SUggEST THAT N. fergusoni  IS A SPECIES COMPlEX. UNFORTUNATEly, EFFORTS By MACKERRAS & MACKERRAS (1952: 105) TO COllECT IMMATURE STAgES FROM THE TyPE lOCAlITy (BUMBERRy, VICTORIA) PROVED UNSUCCESSFUl. INDICATION OF A SPECIES COMPlEX IS FURTHER SUggESTED By DIFFERENCES IN THE HyPOSTOMAl TEETH OF lAST INSTAR lARVAE BETWEEN TWO POPUlATIONS FROM THE GRAMPIANS; NAMEly SERRA ROAD AND ZUMSTEIN TRACK (cf. FIgS. 45, 46 View Figure ). THE lATTER HAS A HyPOSTOMA  THAT IS MARKEDly SIMIlAR IN APPEARANCE TO THOSE OF Greniera  (ADlER et al. 2004: 563). GIVEN THAT THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO SITES IS A MERE 24 KM, PERHAPS THE FEMAlE ADUlTS ARE NOT AS VAgIlE AS WE SUggEST ABOVE. OR, COUlD SUCH DIFFERENCES BE ENVIRONMENTAlly DICTATED?

THE UNIDENTIFIED lARVAE REPORTED AND IllUSTRATED By WHARTON (1949: 411, HIS FIgS 17 View Figure -21) FROM ENgINEERS CASCADE, MOUNT VICTORIA, NSWAbout NSW, ARE REFERABlE TO N. fergusoni  , AS HERE DEFINED, DESPITE MINOR DISCREPANCIES (e.g., PUPAl gIll) FROM THE MATERIAl REPORTED HERE  . FURTHER STUDIES INClUDINg CyTOlOgICAl AND MOlECUlAR DATA ARE NEEDED TO ASCERTAIN THE STATUS OF THESE WIDEly DISPERSED POPUlATIONS.

NOT

Nottingham City Natural History Museum

ARM

County Museum

FOR

Forssa Museum of Natural History

TAN

Parc de Tsimbazaza

MID

Middlebury College

BUT

Butler University

NEW

University of Newcastle

HRS

Southwestern Adventist University

SUCH

Sukhumi Botanical Garden of Georgian Academy of Sciences

NSW

Royal Botanic Gardens, National Herbarium of New South Wales

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Simuliidae

Genus

Nothogreniera

Loc

Nothogreniera fergusoni ( Tonnoir), 1925

A. Craig, Douglas, Currie, Douglas C. & Moulton, John K. 2018

2018
Loc

Simulium fergusoni Tonnoir 1925 : 238

: 238

Loc

Simulium fergusoni

: 505 : 386

Loc

Cnephia fergusoni

: 386

Loc

Cnephia

: 443

Loc

Paracnephia fergusoni

: 18

Loc

Paracnephia fergusoni

: 328

Loc

Cnephia

: 98

Loc

Paracnephia fergusoni

: 10 : 26 : 30