Pseudomyrmex veneficus (Wheeler 1942)

Ward, Philip S., 1993, Systematic studies on Pseudomyrmex acacia-ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Pseudomyrmecinae), Journal of Hymenoptera Research 2, pp. 117-168: 152-153

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.10150

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:80669360-1DB2-4B74-9F4B-99DD3E7EBBFA

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3513222

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/4E27C946-C7F9-C3BD-04C3-3C36CAFA32A9

treatment provided by

Donat

scientific name

Pseudomyrmex veneficus (Wheeler 1942)
status

 

Pseudomyrmex veneficus (Wheeler 1942) 

(Figs. 17, 28, 62, 69)

Pseudomyrma belti subsp. venefica Wheeler 1942:162  . Syntype workers, males, queens, Escuinapa , Sinaloa, Mexico (J. H. Batty) ( AMNH,  MCZC) [Examined],  One MCZC syntype worker here designed LECTOTYPE  .

Pseudomyrma belti subsp. venifica Enzmann 1945:81  . Syntype workers, queens, Manzanillo , Colima, Mexico (C. H. T. Townsend) ( MCZC) [Examined] [Synonymy by Brown 1949:42]  .

Pseudomyrmex venefica  [sic] (Wheeler); Janzen 1969:241.

Pseudomyrmex belti veneficus (Wheeler)  ; Kempf 1972:216.

Pseudomyrmex veneficus (Wheeler)  ; Ward 1989:439.

Worker measurements (n= 12). - HL0.95-1.04, HW 0.85-0.95, MFC 0.045-0.073, Cl 0.88-0.95, REL 0.44-0.47, REL2 0.47-0.52, OOI 1.26-2.30, VI 0.66-0.75, FCI 0.051-0.081, SI 0.43-0.46, SI2 0.85-0.94, NI 0.58-0.65, PLI 0.60-0.67, PWI 0.58- 0.67, PPWI 1.35-1.73.

Worker diagnosis. - Similar to P. ferrugineus  (q.v.) except as follows. Smaller ( LHT 0.69-0.80), with broad head (Cl> 0.87); frontal carinae separated by basal scape width or less ( FCI 2 0.40-0.60); petiole short ( PL 0.43-0.54) and relatively narrow (see PWI values) with somewhat rounded posterolateral angles (Fig. 28). Head densely punctulate, subopaque to sublucid, with weak silvery reflectance. Overlying rugulo-punctate sculpture on propodeum weak and ill-defined. Standing pilosity variable in abundance, becoming rather short (≤ 0.10 mm) and sparse in southern populations. Pubescence thick and conspicuous, suberect on some surfaces especially the propodeum and petiole; suberect pubescence on petiolar dorsum contrasting with the appressed pubescence on the postpetiole (Fig. 28). Very dark greyish-brown to black, parts of the mesosoma and petiole sometimes with lighter yellowish brown (more consistently so in the queen).

Comments. - The small size (worker HW <0.96; queen HW 0.84-0.96, n=12), conspicuous suberect pubescence on the propodeum and petiole, and black coloration of the head and gaster distinguish workers and queens of P. veneficus  . The related species, P. flavicornis  , is larger (worker HW > 0.98, queen HW 1.12-1.19) with a broader and more robust petiole (Figs. 25, 28). Workers and queens of P. flavicornis  also lack the sublucid head and conspicuous suberect pubescence characteristic of P. veneficus  . P. mixtecus  is somewhat intermediate between these two - it has the head sculpture and pubescence typical of P. flavicornis  but approaches P. veneficus  in size (worker and queen head widths overlapping, although only slighter in the queens where HW 0.96-1.01 (n=8) in P. mixtecus  ) and petiolar dimensions (Figs. 44-47).

Distribution and biology. - P. veneficus  has a limited distribution in western Mexico (Sinaloa to Michoacan) (Fig. 69) where colonies occupy Acacia hindsii View Cited Treatment   and, at one locality, A. collinsii View Cited Treatment   . Janzen (1973) gives a detailed description of the ecology and behavior of this highly polygynous, effectively unicolonial, species whose colonies are among the largest of all social insects (containing millions of workers and several hundred thousand queens).

Material examined ( AMNH, CASC, EBCC, INHS, LACM, MCSN, MCZC, MZSP, PSWC, UCDC, UCRC, USNM). -

MEXICO Col.: 9.4mi NW Manzanillo (D.H.Janzen)  ; Manzanillo (C.H.T.Townsend  ; W.M.Wheeler)  ; Paso del Rio , 200ft. (I.J.Cantrall)  ; Jal.: 2km E Chamela , 20m (P.S.Ward)  ; 5km E Chamela , 50m (P.S.Ward)  ; 6mi NE El Rincon , 1600ft. (R.J.Hamton)  ; Barra de Navidad (N.L.H.Krauss)  ; Chamela (R.J.McGinley  ; J.F. Watkins)  ; Mich.: 1.1 mi N Gabriel Zamora , 820m (D.H.Janzen)  ; 1.5miNLaMira (D.H.Janzen)  ; 15km WNW Playa Azul , 50m (P.S.Ward)  ; Nay.: 12mi NE San Bias (W.J.Gertsch & W.Ivie)  ; 16mi NW Tepic (W.E.LaBerge)  ; 31miNTepic (D.H.Janzen)  ; 37mi N Tepic (D.H.Janzen)  ; 4mi E San Bias (M.E.Irwin)  ; Rio Palillo, 14mi E San Bias (D.H.Janzen)  ; Sin.: 14.6mi S Mazatlan (D.H.Janzen)  ; 20mi E Villa Union (E.I.Schlinger)  ; 20mi E Villa Union , 235m (M.E.Irwin  ; E.Schlinger et al.)  ; 20mi S Villa Union (E.I.Schlinger)  ; 5mi E Concordia (W.J.Gertsch & J.A.Woods)  ; Escuinapa (J.H.Batty)  ; Palmito (L.de Mauzo)  ; Piedra Blanca (R.M.Bohart)  ; state unknown: “Mexico” (c.u.)  .

AMNH

USA, New York, New York, American Museum of Natural History

MCZC

USA, Massachusetts, Cambridge, Harvard University, Museum of Comparative Zoology

CASC

USA, California, San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences

EBCC

Mexico, Jalisco, San Patricio, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Estacion de Biologia "Chamela"

INHS

USA, Illinois, Champaign, Illinois Natural History Survey

LACM

USA, California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History

MCSN

Italy, Genova, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "Giacomo Doria"

MZSP

Brazil, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

PSWC

PSWC

UCDC

USA, California, Davis, University of California, R.M. Bohart Museum of Entomology

UCRC

USA, California, Riverside, University of California

USNM

USA, Washington D.C., National Museum of Natural History, [formerly, United States National Museum]

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Pseudomyrmex

Loc

Pseudomyrmex veneficus (Wheeler 1942)

Ward, Philip S. 1993
1993
Loc

Pseudomyrmex venefica

Hoelldobler & Engel (1979), Hoelldobler & Engel-Siegel 1985
1985
Loc

Pseudomyrma belti subsp. venifica

Enzmann 1945: 81
1945
Loc

Pseudomyrma belti subsp. venefica

Wheeler 1942: 162
1942