Castro-Gerardino, Diana Jimena & Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge, 2017, Comparative exploration of antennae in Pseudopontia, and antennal clubs of the tribes Leptideini and Dismorphiini (Lepidoptera: Pieridae), Zootaxa 4347 (3), pp. 401-445: 410-414
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Pseudopontiinae is a monotypic subfamily of Ethiopian distribution with five described species ( Mitter et al. 2011, Sáfián 2015), two of which are used in this paper (appendix), P. paradoxa and P. gola
ANTENNAE: The antenna is very short compared to the costal margin of the forewing, length ca. 2.3 mm (2267 µm), and thin. Its 26 antennomeres are mostly scaleless; but the three basal-most have a few scales, which are usually long and apically bidentate. There is no differentiated antennal club as in Dismorphiinae ; the antenna is almost filiform, although the nine or ten distal-most antennomeres are slightly wider ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5).
ANTENNOMERES: Scales completely cover the first two and partially the third antennomeres; the three basal antennomeres have some chaetic sensilla. The distal antennomeres are fused by an incomplete suture. All are longer than wide, the basal being the shortest, and the relationship between its width and length is different from that of other antennomeres. From the second most basal, the antennomeres are more than twice as long, and up to nearly three times as long, as wide. From the seventh, the antennomeres are expanded, about 1.6 times longer than wide; in the mesial part, this relation occurs until the 16th or 17th ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 and 9AView FIGURE 9). The ten most distal widen a little more, so that they are only about 1.2 times longer than wide, except for the distal two (fused), where their length is almost double that of the preceding antennomeres ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 and 6AView FIGURE 6). The first ten or eleven antennomeres are cylindrical and have a straight outline, the mesial and distal ones widen a little more towards the middle (barrelshaped, doliform, and elongated). The distal one is dome-shaped (cupuliform) in its extreme margin ( Figs. 6AView FIGURE 6 and 11AView FIGURE 11). The first three to six antennomeres lack sulci.
SULCI: Pseudopontia lacks the typical trisulcate configuration (two lateral and one central); in its place there is a single large and almost always elliptical sulcus, occupying 60–70% of its length and 30–60% of its width ( Figs. 5View FIGURE 5 and 9AView FIGURE 9). This sulcus sometimes is reminiscent of that in the fourth antennomere; from the sixth or seventh the sulci are conspicuous and defined, progressively occupying much of the antennomere. The sulci number is at least 23; its shape is vertical-elliptical (although in the first antennomeres they are teardrop-shaped); they have a continuous and well-defined outline. The basal are longer than the distal ones ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5), as in the antennomeres. In the basal antennomere, the sulcus is in the anterior half and is distinct from the distal margin of the antennomere. In the mesial and distal antennomeres, the sulci are closer to this margin that limits it but never reaches it.
MICROTRICHIA: Pseudopontia show two types of microtrichia - type 1 (m1) and type 2 (m2). Type m1 are shorter than m2; they are separate and give rise to very short cuticular protuberances; they have a smooth and rounded apex; and they are close to the bases of the microtrichia ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13). Some of these protuberances lie within the cuticular ring of the trichoid sensilla, near its base; they also are found outside the sulci, although they are not visible because of the arrangement of the m2. The m2 microtrichia are long and fit over each other like roof tiles. The ratio between the number of microtrichia and trichoid sensilla (st: m1) is 1: 5 in the sulci of the basal antennomeres; this correlation changes progressively and in the most distal is 1:3.
TRICHOID SENSILLA: Frequently these are shorter than the chaetic sensilla, averaging 14 µm in length. They are surrounded by a circular and wide cuticular ring; they are independent of the m1 around them ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13). There are tiny pores in the wall of the stalk.
BASICONIC SENSILLA: The microtrichia type 2 (m2) surrounds them and partially cover the socket. They are slightly shorter (10 µm on average) and straighter than trichoid sensilla, and they have many and conspicuous pores.
CHAETIC SENSILLA: These are the longest of all sensilla in the antennal club, averaging 30 µm in length. In the basal antennomeres the sensilla are longer (50–65 µm), thin, and have a rather acute apex ( Fig. 15AView FIGURE 15). On the ventral surface, there are seven to ten surrounding the sulci and two others in the basal area of the antennomere; in addition, there are eight or twelve chaetic sensilla on the lateral and lateral-dorsal surface. In the first antennomeres the number of chaetic sensilla is fewer, but it increases to ten or twelve on the ventral surface of the antennomere; they are distributed randomly. The total number of chaetic sensilla per antennomere is at least 20, but their placement and whether the dorsal surface has an equal or smaller number of sensilla are unknown. The chaetic sensilla are abundant on the apical margin of the distal antennomere; there are about nine or ten sensilla very close to each other.
OTHER SENSILLA: We observed only the three types of sensilla described above: trichoid, basiconic, and chaetic sensilla.
PORES: Within the sulci and in the middle of microtrichia m1 we observed a few large pores with diameters of ca. 1 µm; a high and thick cuticular wall surrounds them ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13). These types of pores are also found in some species of Dismorphiinae , although they are much smaller in the latter (e.g., Enantia jethys , E. c. citrinella , E. lina marion , Pseudopieris nehemia aequatorialis , P. v. viridula , Patia cordillera sspp., and P. orise ).
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